Indicator D6. What are the admission systems for tertiary education?

Highlights
  • More than half of countries and economies with available data have open admissions systems (meaning all applicants with the minimum qualification level required are admitted) to at least some public and/or private institutions. Access to certain fields of education and/or institutions can still be subject to some selection criteria in these countries.

  • National/central examinations, taken towards the end of upper secondary education, and entrance examinations administered by tertiary institutions, are the most widely used examinations/tests for entry into first-degree tertiary programmes.

  • Factors other than the results of national/central examinations are also taken into account by selective institutions in most countries, although used to differing extents. The criteria most used for admission to public tertiary institutions are grade point averages, candidate interviews and work experience.

Figure D6.1. Use of limits on number of students entering fields of education and institutions within countries with open and selective systems (2017)
Figure D6.1. Use of limits on number of students entering fields of education and institutions within countries with open and selective systems (2017)

How to read this figure: First-degree tertiary programmes within countries with open admissions systems can still be subject to limitations on the number of places available, either by field of education or institution. These limits may affect all fields of education or types of institutions, only some, or none at all. Similarly, for countries with selective systems, limits may be set with reference to field of study and/or institutions. As such, a country with a selective system may still report no limits (none) for one of these dimensions.

Note: Of the 38 countries that participated in the survey, this figure does not include those for which the information is missing or not applicable.

Source: OECD (2017), Tables D6.1a, D6.1b and D6.1c. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980412

Context

Increasing numbers of students are enrolling in tertiary education across OECD countries. This expansion in enrolment reflects a variety of factors. First, more students are achieving the minimum educational attainment required to enter tertiary institutions, which in turn increases the potential demand for tertiary education (see Indicator B3). At the same time, the positive relationship between educational attainment levels and opportunities in the labour market may further increase demand, especially in countries with high unemployment rates or when there is an economic crisis: the strong personal financial incentives to invest in education could encourage individuals with a secondary qualification to continue their studies (see Indicators A4 and A5).

Tertiary enrolment is also affected by the number of places available within tertiary institutions. Given the rising demand for tertiary education, educational institutions and policy makers face new challenges in ensuring there are enough student places. In the meantime, increased demand could result in increased competition between students wishing to enter tertiary education. Decisions about the number of places available in the different fields of tertiary education are more strongly linked to the needs of the labour market in some countries than in others. This matching of skills of tertiary-educated people to meet labour-market demand may have an impact on enrolment and the selectivity of admissions to different fields of tertiary education.

Admission systems to tertiary education may be designed to combine different objectives. On the one hand, admission criteria may be used to ensure that applicants have the skills to successfully complete the educational programme they apply to (see Indicator B5). On the other hand, fewer admission criteria may help to provide a larger access to tertiary studies and meet equity concerns.

Analysis of the national criteria and admission systems for students to apply and enter first-degree tertiary programmes highlights differences across countries between open and selective admission systems and the proportions of applicants who successfully meet admission criteria and processes. However, this does not cover the selectivity that may occur during studies (for example students dropping out of a programme as they fail in intermediate tests or do not progress at the desired pace).

Other findings

  • In about half of countries and economies with available information, the government sets minimum academic performance requirements for entry into tertiary education (for first degrees) by field of education and/or by tertiary institution, on top of the usual qualification requirements. These performance requirements are most often based on secondary school certificates or report cards, including students’ grades or the results of upper secondary national/central examinations.

  • In more than two-thirds of the countries and economies with available data, national/central examinations, other standardised tests at upper secondary level and/or entrance examinations to tertiary institutions are compulsory requirements to enter at least some fields of study in public tertiary institutions.

  • Students are required to apply directly to public tertiary institutions in nearly half the countries and economies, while a similar number of countries use a centralised system or a combination of both approaches for admission to public institutions. Applications to private tertiary institutions are less frequently processed through a centralised application system.

  • Application and admission systems to first-degree tertiary programmes (in public and private institutions) are similar for national and non-national or international students in about half the countries and economies with available data.

Analysis

Organisation of the system: Open versus selective admissions

Admission systems to first-degree tertiary programmes reflect the way tertiary education is structured and organised within countries. Public institutions are a common feature of tertiary education systems in nearly all the countries and economies with available data and most tertiary students are enrolled in public institutions on average across OECD countries (see Figure B1.3). Private tertiary institutions are almost as widespread, with only Denmark and Greece not having any government-dependent or independent private institutions for first-degree tertiary programmes. In around half the countries and economies with available data, government-dependent private institutions are also part of the tertiary education landscape (Table D6.1a, and Tables D6.1b and D6.1c available on line).

The use of open admissions, or unselective enrolment – the admission of all applicants with the required attainment level into first-degree tertiary programmes –, is fairly common among both public and private tertiary institutions. Half of the countries and economies with available information on public institutions have at least some institutions with open admission systems. The prevalence of open admissions systems in private tertiary institutions is similar: nearly half of all countries and economies with government-dependent private institutions and nearly half of those with independent private institutions report the use of open admission systems in at least some of these tertiary institutions. However, open admission systems may still include some limits on the number of places available in first-degree tertiary programmes (Figure D6.1). Enrolment can be limited for specific fields of education and/or for specific tertiary institutions, with entry decided on the basis of some selection criteria (Table D6.1a, and Tables D6.1b and D6.1c, available on line).

Limitations on the number of places in specific fields of study

For public tertiary institutions, half of countries and economies with available data (18 out of 36 countries and economies) have an open admission system, and most of these countries have some limitations in the admission system for at least some fields of study. For example, in Germany, enrolment into some fields of study is limited, using quotas if the total number of applicants exceeds the number of places available across all higher education institutions. For these fields a selection procedure applies, which takes into account the grade obtained in the Abitur (the upper secondary school-leaving examination in Germany, also used as the higher education entrance qualification). In New Zealand, there is a fixed number of places for certain subjects, such as dentistry, aviation, veterinary science and medical degrees. Limits on the number of students entering into health/medical programmes are a feature of admission to public tertiary institutions in several other countries (Table D6.1a). Similar use of numerical limits can be observed among government-dependent private and independent private institutions (Tables D6.1b and D6.1c, available on line).

Half of the countries with available information operate selective admission systems for first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions. Compared with countries with an open system, a smaller proportion of these countries have limitations on the number of places by field of study. However, when limitations are set, they are usually for all fields rather than for some of them. Among government-dependent private and independent private institutions, numerical limitations are also set for all fields of study in selective systems, and for some fields only in open systems (Figure D6.1). These limitations on the number of places may affect the selectiveness of the different fields (Box D6.1).

Limitations on the number of places in specific institutions

Countries with selective systems are more likely to have limits on enrolment into particular tertiary institutions than on fields of studies. These limitations are then set for all institutions within public, government-dependent and independent private institutions.

In public institutions, among the 18 countries with selective systems, 13 countries set limits on enrolment in first-degree tertiary programmes for all institutions. For example, in Turkey these limits on enrolment are decided by central authorities for all public institutions. However, countries with open admission systems may also have limits on enrolment in tertiary institutions. For example in the United States, limits on enrolment are set by the institutions themselves. In general, tertiary institutions within the United States encompass a broad range of selectivity since admission decisions are made at the institution level. While many institutions are open admission, others are moderately or highly selective (Figure D6.1).

There are similar patterns in admission systems for government-dependent private and independent private institutions. However, the central level is less often the only responsible authority to set enrolment limits in these types of institutions. The central level is the only responsible authority to set these limits on enrolment in Israel (for all government-dependent private institutions) and in Turkey (for all independent private institutions) (Tables D6.1b and D6.1c, available on line).

Box D6.1. Attractiveness and selectivity of different fields of study

In 2017, to complement the data collection on admission systems to first-degree tertiary programmes, the OECD carried out a survey on the number of applicants and applications to first-degree tertiary programmes. Among the 30 countries and economies that responded to the survey, about half provided some breakdown of the data on applications and/or applicants by field of studies.

Only 11 countries provided the necessary data to compute the number of applications per applicant in the different fields of study. These ratios vary widely across countries and across fields in these countries. However, their interpretation is difficult as their values are related to the characteristics of the admission system. For example, in countries with central admission systems, students make only one application with different preferences (that are not necessarily counted as several applications), whereas in countries without central admission systems, similar preferences would result in multiple applications. Moreover, the amount of fees and their differentiation between fields may also have an impact on applications.

Another way to estimate the attractiveness and selectivity of a field is to look at the results of applicants’ applications, although this does not allow selectivity to be distinguished from attractiveness. As an applicant can make several applications, the best result of these applications is taken into account for the analysis. Either the applicant is accepted and studying; or the applicant is accepted but not studying; or the applicant is rejected when all applications have failed. Only 14 out of 30 countries that submitted the questionnaire provided a breakdown of the number of applicants in each field of education by the best results of their applications, so that applicants are counted only once (Figure D6.a). The fact that this breakdown of the data is not available in some countries may result from the existence of open admission systems allowing students to enter the field of their choice without a specific application process. This is the case in the French and Flemish communities of Belgium.

Among countries with available data, the distribution of applicants by the best result of their applications varies widely between countries, and also between the different fields of education within countries. For example, in Australia, the proportions of applicants accepted and studying varies by less than 10 percentage points across fields of education, from 83% (agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary) to 91% (information and communication technologies), whereas in Denmark, it varies by 40 percentage points, from 32% (health and welfare) to 73% (natural sciences, mathematics and statistics). Among these 14 countries, the fields with the lowest or highest proportions of applicants accepted and studying also vary between countries. Health and welfare is the broad fields with the lowest proportion of applicants accepted and studying in five countries, whereas engineering, manufacturing and construction is the fields with the highest proportions in five countries. Low proportions of applicants accepted and studying may result from fields being highly attractive and/or highly selective (Figure D6.a).

Figure D6.a. Applicants to first-degree tertiary education by applicant status, by fields of study (2016)
Fields of studies with the minimum and maximum proportions of applicants accepted and studying.
Figure D6.a. Applicants to first-degree tertiary education by applicant status, by fields of study (2016)

1. Applicants accepted, not studying also includes applicants rejected.

2. Year of reference 2017.

Countries are ranked in decreasing order of the difference in the proportion of applicants accepted and studying between the two fields of studies selected.

Source: 2017 OECD-INES NESLI survey on applicants and applications to tertiary education.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980450

The proportions of rejected applicants and applicants who have been accepted but are not studying (deferred), also vary widely between countries and fields of education. However, the proportion of applicants accepted but not studying is usually much smaller in all countries and in all fields.

These differences in the proportions of applicants accepted and studying, accepted and not studying, and rejected according to fields of education provide some insight into the selectivity of these different fields and/or their attractiveness. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution, because these results come in the context of more general patterns in countries’ application systems. For example, these comparisons can be affected by international students: large proportions of international students applying to tertiary education can bias the comparison, especially if these students do not apply to similar fields as other students.

Qualification and performance requirements to enter first-degree tertiary programmes

In all countries, access to first-degree tertiary programmes (in public or private institutions) requires a minimum qualification level, which is usually an upper secondary qualification. Governments may also require some minimum academic performance from upper secondary graduates to access first-degree tertiary programmes (Table D6.3).

In half of the countries and economies with available information (19 out of 38), the government also sets minimum academic performance requirements for students to enter at least some first-degree tertiary programmes or institutions. These minimum requirements are more often set for specific fields of study rather than specific tertiary institutions. In 14 countries, minimum performance criteria are defined for some or all fields of studies, whereas only 8 have minimum performance criteria for some or all tertiary institutions. In Colombia, Greece and Portugal, these performance requirements relate to both fields of studies and tertiary institutions (Table D6.3).

Countries may use a range of different tools to assess students’ minimum performance, but the most frequently used are secondary school certificates or report cards (including students’ grades) and the results of upper secondary national/central examinations (Table D6.3).

Examinations and tests used by public tertiary institutions to determine access to first-degree programmes

On top of entrance examinations administered to applicants to tertiary institutions, several types of examinations or tests administered to upper secondary students can also be used in the admission system (national/central examinations, non-national/central standardised examinations and non-national/central non-standardised examinations). There is wide variation among countries in the combination of different types of examinations available and on the way these are used as criteria for access to tertiary education. Among all countries with available information, only Latvia has all these types of examinations/tests (although they are not all used to determine access to tertiary education). In contrast, in countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Denmark, Hungary, Italy, Portugal and Spain, only national/central examinations exist (and are used in some of these countries to determine access to tertiary education).

The completion of national/central examinations towards the end of upper secondary education and/or entrance examinations to tertiary education (not administered by upper secondary schools) can be compulsory requirements to access first-degree programmes. In more than half of countries, the completion of national/central examinations (standardised tests that have a formal consequence for students) is compulsory to enter most or all public tertiary institutions. Entrance examinations are compulsory to enter public tertiary institutions for at least some fields of study in one-third of countries. In some countries, such as Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, the Russian Federation, Slovenia and Switzerland, students must take both types of tests to enter some fields of study. Other examinations (non-national/central examinations either standardised or non-standardised) are compulsory in very few countries (Table D6.2a).

These examinations and tests can be used in the admission process even when they are not compulsory. National/central examinations at the end of upper secondary level are used for entry into fields of study in public institutions in most countries with available data (23 countries). Entrance examinations to public institutions are also administered and used for admission in at least some fields of study in about half of the countries with available data (17 countries) (Table D6.5a).

For public institutions, these two types of tests are of particular relevance for students wishing to access tertiary institutions or specific fields or specialisations that are selective and/or in high demand. Public institutions in six countries also use these results for making decisions about scholarships and other financial assistance (Figure D6.2).

Figure D6.2. Purposes and uses of national/central examinations as admission criteria to tertiary institutions (2017)
National/central examinations refer to examinations for students at the end of upper secondary level
Figure D6.2. Purposes and uses of national/central examinations as admission criteria to tertiary institutions (2017)

Source: OECD (2017), Tables D6.5a, D6.5b and D6.5c. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980431

Additional factors used for admission to first-degree tertiary programmes

Admission criteria for first-degree tertiary programmes extend beyond the results of examinations and tests of students. For entry into public tertiary institutions, grade point averages from secondary school are used in one-third of countries (with either open or selective admission systems) with a further one-quarter of countries reporting that institutions have autonomy over their use. However, this factor was considered to be of moderate or high importance in determining the success of a student’s application in over half of these countries. More than two-thirds of countries indicate that candidate interviews are used, either across all public tertiary institutions (one-quarter of countries) or at the discretion of public tertiary institutions (more than one-third of countries) (Table D6.2a).

In a significant number of countries, public institutions also use other factors to determine access to first-degree programmes (e.g. past work experience, family income, recommendations). Most often, they are used in combination. An exception is Hungary, which uses only one criterion (grade point average from secondary schools) in addition to the successful completion of national examinations (Table D6.2a).

Grade point averages from secondary school, interviews and past work experience are also the most frequently used criteria in the admission process to first-degree programmes in private tertiary institutions (government-dependent and independent private institutions). However, in contrast to admission systems to public tertiary institutions, the use of these criteria is largely at the discretion of institutions (Tables D6.2b and D6.2c available on line).

More generally, the number of factors used in the admission systems combined with the difficulty to meet these criteria may increase the selectivity of these admission systems. Another proxy for the degree of selectivity may relate to the proportion of applicants who are not successful in the applications. The most selective systems may be those with the highest proportions of applicants whose applications were rejected (Box D6.2).

Box D6.2. Variation in the proportion of applicants rejected

Among the 19 countries with data on the number of applicants, only 13 can report the distribution of applicants by result of their applications, based on the best result of their applications (Figure D6.b). In this figure, the proportion of rejected applicants reflects the share of applicants who did not receive a positive answer to any of the applications that they may have made.

The proportion of rejected applicants varies from less than 5% in Australia to more than 60% in Finland and Sweden. In both these countries, admissions are restricted for all programmes and fields of study, and the number of admissions results from a negotiation between tertiary institutions and the central government. In Australia, France, Portugal and the Slovak Republic, less than 15% of applicants are rejected, but these countries’ admission systems differ widely. France has an open admission system with selection limited to some fields or institutions (among public institutions that enrolled most of the students). In Australia, Portugal and the Slovak Republic, there are different limitations in the number of places offered to students. In Australia, there are no limitations in the number of available positions in different institutions or fields of study (with the exception of medicine); in the Slovak Republic, there are limitations only on some public institutions; and in Portugal, there are limitations on all fields and all institutions.

Figure D6.b. Applicants to first-degree tertiary education by applicant status (2016)
Figure D6.b. Applicants to first-degree tertiary education by applicant status (2016)

1. Including applicants to short-cycle tertiary programmes.

2. Year of reference 2017.

Countries are ranked in descending order of the proportion of applicants accepted and studying.

Source: 2017 OECD-INES NESLI survey on applicants and applications to tertiary education.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980469

These differences between countries show that limitations exist, but do not necessarily show the degree of selectivity of the whole system. More details on the total number of positions available would be necessary to assess how selective the tertiary education system is. Moreover, when the main selection of students to academic tracks is done at secondary level, there might not need to be strong selection as such to enter tertiary education, but the admission process could still be selective.

Not all applicants who were successful in the admission process enrol in these programmes. In the 13 countries with available data, the proportion of applicants accepted but not studying exceeds 10% in Denmark, Israel, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia and 25% in Norway. The possibility to defer enrolment may explain the differences between the number of successful applicants and new entrants.

Student application and admission processes to tertiary institutions

Application and admission processes to first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions vary significantly between countries. Students are required to apply directly to public tertiary institutions in close to half of the countries with available information, while in around one-quarter of countries students apply through a centralised system. The remaining countries combine a centralised application system with direct applications to public tertiary institutions.

When a centralised system is used (either as the only application system or in combination with direct applications), the number of preferences that students can specify may be limited, as can the number of offers they receive following their applications. The number of preferences an applicant can specify when applying to public institutions cannot exceed 2 in Brazil and 3 in Canada, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the Russian Federation, but applicants can specify 20 or more preferences in France and Turkey. In Italy and New Zealand, there is no maximum number of applications. In Greece, the number of preferences is not restricted, except in the two scientific domains that a candidate is eligible to choose (among the five scientific domains possible). Regardless of the maximum number of applications, applicants receive just one offer in most countries with a centralised system. Nevertheless, there is no limit on the number of offers made in Australia, Canada, Italy and Korea, which use combined centralised and direct application systems to tertiary institutions (Table D6.1a).

Applications to private tertiary institutions are less likely to be processed through a centralised application system. However, a central system is the only (or main) way to apply to private institutions in a few countries (Chile, Finland and Sweden for government-dependent private institutions, and Hungary and Turkey for independent private institutions). Applications are made directly to private institutions in nearly half of the countries with government-dependent private institutions, and in most countries with independent private institutions. However, one-third of countries with these types of tertiary institutions combine a centralised application system with a direct application process (Tables D6.1b and D6.1c, available on line).

Application and admission process for non-national or international students

The international mobility of tertiary students has increased a lot in recent years (see Indicator B6) and admission systems to tertiary education can play a role to promote (or not) this pattern. As noted in Education at a Glance 2017 (OECD, 2017[1]), around half of countries and economies have similar systems for non-national or international students as for national students (either citizens or permanent residents in the country). In one-quarter of countries, international applicants from some countries undergo a similar process as for national applicants. This is usually the case for applicants from European Union (EU) countries applying to tertiary institutions in another EU country but is also the case, for example, in Norway for national students and international students from the other Nordic countries. In one-quarter of countries, the application and admission process for non-national or international students is different to that for national students.

Even where application systems are similar for non-national or international and national students, additional or specific admission criteria are used for international students (Table D6.9 in OECD (2017[1])). These differences, combined with differences in tuition fees and other factors, may have an impact on the applications or on the results of the applications of international students (Box D6.3).

Box D6.3. Applicants and applications to tertiary education, by international status of applicants

In the 2017 survey on the number of applicants and applications to first-degree tertiary programmes, about one-third of the 30 countries and economies that responded to the survey provided some breakdown of the data distinguishing international students from others.

Nine countries provided data to distinguish international applicants from others in the distribution of applicants by the outcomes of their applications (accepted and studying, accepted and not studying, and rejected). In these countries, the number of applications per applicant is usually similar for international students and others (Figure D6.c). The proportions of rejected applicants are also mostly similar between international applicants and others in Finland, Hungary and Israel (a difference of less than 10 percentage points). However, the difference between these proportions exceeds 20 percentage points in Denmark (where international applicants represent 18% of all applicants) and Slovenia (where international applicants account for less than 6% of applicants).

Figure D6.c. Applicants to first-degree tertiary education, by applicant status and international status of applicants (2016)
Figure D6.c. Applicants to first-degree tertiary education, by applicant status and international status of applicants (2016)

Note: The figure in parentheses refers to the proportion of international applicants among all applicants.

Countries are ranked in descending order of the difference in the proportion of applicants rejected between international applicants and others.

Source: 2017 OECD-INES NESLI survey on applicants and applications to tertiary education.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980488

While in some countries, there are specific admissions processes for non-national/international students to tertiary education, in these countries, there was no differentiation as such. However, additional or specific admission criteria are used for international applicants in all these countries, except Denmark (the information was missing for the Slovak Republic). The seven countries with available information request the successful completion of home country school system and an accredited home country school certificate. Most of these countries also required an international qualification and language proficiency as part of their criteria. None of them requested proof of sufficient funds [Table D6.9 (OECD, 2017[1])].

Definitions

A standardised examination or test refers to a test that is administered and scored under uniform conditions across different schools so that student scores are directly comparable between schools. In some cases, it also refers to multiple choice or fixed answer questions as this makes it easy and possible to score the test uniformly. However, with rubrics and calibration of test examiners (persons who manually score open-ended responses), one can also find standardised tests that go beyond multiple choice and fixed answers.

National/central examinations are standardised tests that have a formal consequence for students, such as their eligibility to progress to a higher level of education or to complete an officially recognised degree. They assess a major portion of what students are expected to know or be able to do in a given subject. Examinations differ from assessments in terms of their purpose. National assessments are mandatory but, unlike examinations, they do not have an effect on students’ progression or certification.

Other (non-national/central) standardised examinations are standardised tests that are administered and scored under uniform conditions across different schools at the state/territorial/provincial/regional or local level so that student scores are directly comparable.

Entrance examinations are examinations not administered by upper secondary schools that are typically used to determine, or help to determine, access to tertiary programmes. These examinations can be devised and/or graded at the school level (i.e. by individual tertiary institutions or a consortium of tertiary institutions), or by private companies.

First-degree tertiary programmes refer to first-degree bachelor's programmes/applied higher education programmes and first-degree master's programmes as defined in ISCED 2011.

Open admission: An open or unselective admission system (as opposed to selective systems) to tertiary programmes refers to a system in which all applicants with the required minimum attainment level can enrol in the programme, without the need to meet other criteria.

Public tertiary institution: An institution is classified as public if it is: 1) controlled and managed directly by a public education authority or agency of the country where it is located; or 2) controlled and managed by a government agency directly or by a governing body (council, committee etc.), most of whose members are either appointed by a public authority of the country where it is located or elected by public franchise.

A government-dependent private tertiary institution is one that either receives at least 50% of its core funding from government agencies or one whose teaching personnel are paid by a government agency – either directly or through government

An independent private tertiary institution is one that receives less than 50% of its core funding from government agencies and whose teaching personnel are not paid by a government agency.

Methodology

This indicator is based on a survey on national criteria and admission systems for students to apply and enter first-degree tertiary programmes focusing on formal requirements, rather than actual practice. As practices can vary considerably within individual schools and tertiary institutions, this indicator cannot capture the diverse array of practices that exist.

Please see Annex 3 for more information and for country-specific notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Source

Data are from two surveys: the 2016 OECD-INES NESLI survey on national criteria and admission systems for students to apply and enter first-degree tertiary programmes, which refers to the school year 2016/17, and the 2017 OECD-INES NESLI survey on applicants and applications to tertiary education, which refers to the school year 2015/16.

Note regarding data from Israel

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and are under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

References

[1] OECD (2017), Education at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2017-en.

Indicator D6. Tables

Table D6.1a Organisation of admission system and application process to first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions (2017)

WEB Table D6.1b Organisation of admission system and application process to first-degree tertiary programmes in government-dependent private institutions (2017)

WEB Table D6.1c Organisation of admission system and application process to first-degree tertiary programmes in independent private institutions (2017)

Table D6.2a Examinations and additional criteria used for admission to first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions (2017)

WEB Table D6.2b Examinations and additional criteria used in admission system to first-degree tertiary programmes in government-dependent private institutions (2017)

WEB Table D6.2c Examinations and additional criteria used in admission system to first-degree tertiary programmes in independent private institutions (2017)

Table D6.3 Minimum qualification and academic performance requirements for entry into tertiary education (government perspective) (2017)

WEB Table D6.4 Authorities responsible for examination systems for entry/admission into first-degree tertiary programmes (2017)

WEB Table D6.5a Purposes and uses of examinations/tests in criteria to determine entry/admission into first-degree tertiary programmes at public institutions (2017)

WEB Table D6.5b Purposes and uses of examinations/tests in criteria to determine entry/admission into first-degree tertiary programmes at government-dependent private institutions (2017)

WEB Table D6.5c Purposes and uses of examinations/tests in criteria to determine entry/admission into first-degree tertiary programmes at independent private institutions (2017)

Cut-off date for the data: 19 July 2019. Any updates on data can be found on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

StatLink: https://doi.org/10.1787/888933981286

Table D6.1a. Organisation of the admission system and application process to first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions (2017)
Table D6.1a. Organisation of the admission system and application process to first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions (2017)

Note: See Definitions and Methodology sections for more information.

1. There is no maximum number of preferences an applicant can specify in a few fields. Certain constraints may apply in others.

2. For national universities, the fixed number of students is decided by each national university and is submitted as a part of its mid-term plan to be approved by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

Source: OECD (2017). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980355

Table D6.2a. Examinations and additional criteria used for admission to first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions (2017)
Table D6.2a. Examinations and additional criteria used for admission to first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions (2017)
Table D6.2a. Examinations and additional criteria used for admission to first-degree tertiary programmes in public institutions (2017)

Note: See Definitions and Methodology sections for more information.

1. Except for first-degree tertiary programme entrance examinations administered by tertiary institutions, these examinations/tests are administered by upper secondary institutions (for students at the end of this level).

2. For national universities, the fixed number of students is decided by each national university and is submitted as a part of its mid-term plan to be approved by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

Source: OECD (2017). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980374

Table D6.3. Minimum qualification and academic performance requirements for entry into tertiary education (government perspective) (2017)
Table D6.3. Minimum qualification and academic performance requirements for entry into tertiary education (government perspective) (2017)

Note: Typical minimum qualification for entry into first-degree tertiary programmes refers to the ISCED level required, but not all qualifications at this level allow entry into these first-degree tertiary programmes. See Definitions and Methodology sections for more information.

1. Minimum qualification requirement is the Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate (called MATURA); additional entry routes exist.

2. Some vocational programmes at upper secondary level allow access to tertiary education, whereas others do not.

3. In Lithuania, it is possible to enter tertiary programmes with a qualification level from upper secondary (all programmes) or post-secondary non-tertiary (vocational programmes).

4. Information relates to the four separate systems across the United Kingdom. In each case, "yes" indicates the policy is in place in at least one of the four countries.

Source: OECD (2017). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980393

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