This publication constitutes the 45th report of the OECD’s Continuous Reporting System on Migration. The report is divided into six chapters plus a statistical annex.

Chapter 1 provides a broad overview of recent trends in international migration flows and policies up to 2020 and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international movements. It also analyses recent changes on the labour market inclusion of immigrants in OECD countries. Chapter 2 monitors the recent changes in migration policies with a special focus on the implications of the execution of the Brexit Withdrawal Agreement. Chapter 3 looks at the recent changes in policies that support the integration of immigrants and their children with a particular attention to anti-discrimination policies and digitalisation of integration services.

Chapter 4 updates and further explores previous OECD estimates on the fiscal impact of immigrants. The increased pressure on public finances due to the COVID-19 pandemic brings back the question of the impact of immigration on the labour market and public finances to the forefront of the political debate. In this context, it is critical to have sound, updated and internationally comparable data on how much immigrants contribute and cost to receiving countries. This chapter estimates the yearly net fiscal impact of immigrants in 25 OECD countries over the 2006-18 period. It also provides a systematic analysis of the differences between the foreign and native-born populations in each item of government expenditure and revenue, as well as a detailed analysis of the socio-economic determinants of the fiscal position of immigrants.

Chapter 5 looks at the causes and consequences of residential segregation of immigrants in OECD countries. It shows that in all OECD countries, immigrants are concentrated in certain areas, especially in the poorer neighbourhoods and outskirts of the large metropolitan cities. However, not all immigrant groups tend to concentrate to the same extent, and concentration is shaped by both geography and historical settlement patterns. The effects of this concentration on integration are complex. On the one hand, arrival in an area with high concentration is often associated with better initial employment prospects for immigrants. On the other hand, in the longer run, immigrant concentration tends to hamper host-country language acquisition and, in many cases, educational advancement for children of immigrants.

Chapter 6 presents succinct country-specific notes and statistics on developments in international migration movements and policies in OECD and selected non-OECD countries in recent years. Lastly, the statistical annex includes a broad selection of recent and historical statistics on immigrant flows, asylum requests, foreign and foreign-born populations, and naturalisations.

This year’s edition of the OECD International Migration Outlook is the collective work of the staff of the International Migration Division in the Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs. Chapter 2 contains important contributions from John Salt (University College London). Chapter 4 was prepared by Ana Damas de Matos (OECD). Chapter 5 was prepared by Thomas Liebig (OECD) and Gilles Spielvogel (OECD). Jean-Christophe Dumont edited the report. Research assistance and statistical work were carried out by Véronique Gindrey and Philippe Hervé. Editorial assistance was provided by Dominika Andrzejczak and Charlotte Baer as well as Liv Gudmundson and Lucy Hulett.

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