Higher education plays a more prominent role in OECD member and partner countries today than it did a half-century ago. It educates many more learners and is increasingly expected to make key contributions to innovation, economic development and lifelong learning. As the scope of higher education activities has increased, and societal expectations have grown, policy makers and institutional leaders have faced significant challenges in deciding how best to mobilise, allocate and deploy resources in higher education in ways that are both effective and efficient. Large exogenous shocks to economies and public budgets – such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic – make appropriate choices about how to invest in higher education all the more crucial.

The OECD initiated the Resourcing Higher Education Project to support member countries in narrowing the gap between domestic decision-making about resourcing issues in higher education and international evidence on the subject. The project seeks to do this by analysing policy approaches that affect the mobilisation, allocation and deployment of financial and human resources in higher education and sharing lessons learned about the effects of these approaches.

As part of the project, the OECD Higher Education Policy Team is working closely with OECD and partner jurisdictions to examine key aspects of their higher education resourcing policies; to compare these with policies in other, similar jurisdictions and to identify international evidence that can support and guide future policy development. System-specific analyses covering multiple aspects of resourcing policy are developed and published as “resourcing country reviews”, which draw on wide-ranging, in-country stakeholder consultation, as well as local and international evidence sources. More targeted analyses of specific aspects of national higher education resourcing policies are being developed and published in a series of thematic policy briefs.

The Flemish Community of Belgium was one of the first OECD jurisdictions to participate in a review of higher education resourcing. This report presents the findings and recommendations emerging from this review, which was undertaken by the OECD Higher Education Policy Team with the support peer experts. In line with the terms of reference agreed in advance with the Flemish authorities, the review has a strong focus on the funding of operating costs, teaching and research in Flemish higher education institutions. It also covers financial support for students, system-level frameworks governing human resources policy in higher education and key trends in higher education that will affect future higher education resourcing policies. The review team hopes that the analysis in this report captures the many strengths of the Flemish higher education system, but equally supports public authorities, higher education institutions and stakeholders as they refine resourcing policies in the coming years.

Andreas Schleicher

Special Advisor on Education Policy to the Secretary General

Director for Education and Skills

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2021

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at