Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has a long history of development co-operation with other countries in its region. Kazakhstan’s Agency of International Development (KazAID) was established in December 2020, marking a new phase in the country’s development co-operation. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the designated authority to implement the main lines of Kazakhstan’s official development assistance (ODA) policy.

Kazakhstan provided USD 37.1 million (preliminary data) of ODA in 2020, representing 0.02% of gross national income (GNI). Kazakhstan’s ODA has remained relatively stable in recent years.

Find the methodological notes behind the profile here.

Development co-operation is an integral and increasingly important part of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. The 2014 ODA Law (263-V) defines the main objectives, principles, competencies and sectoral priorities of Kazakhstan’s development co-operation, while also providing the legal foundation for the establishment of an agency under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In addition, the Foreign Policy Concept of Kazakhstan 2020-2030 guides Kazakhstan’s contribution to the international community’s development co-operation efforts. Guided by this overarching policy framework, the majority of Kazakhstan’s aid in recent years has gone to Central Asian countries and Afghanistan, where KazAID focuses on infrastructure, humanitarian aid, gender equality, education and healthcare initiatives.

Kazakhstan provided USD 37.1 million as ODA in 2020,1 representing 0.02% of GNI. This was an increase of 5.6% in real terms in volume, with a share of GNI comparable to 2019 levels. Kazakhstan’s ODA has remained relatively stable in the recent years. Kazakhstan provided all of its ODA as grants in 2020.2

Kazakhstan provided most of its ODA bilaterally in 2020. Gross bilateral ODA was 81.4% of total ODA. A share of 68.8% of gross bilateral ODA was channelled through multilateral organisations (earmarked contributions). Kazakhstan allocated 18.7% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2020, Kazakhstan provided USD 0.6 million of gross bilateral ODA for the COVID-19 response, representing 2% of its total gross bilateral ODA.

In 2020, Kazakhstan provided USD 27.7 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, a fall of 15.7% in real terms from 2019. Of this, USD 6.9 million was core multilateral ODA, while non-core contributions were earmarked for a specific country, region, theme or purpose.

All Kazakhstan’s contributions to multilateral organisations in 2020 were allocated to United Nations (UN) entities and other multilateral organisations.

The UN system received 31.3% of Kazakhstan’s gross ODA to the multilateral system, mainly through core contributions. Out of a total volume of USD 8.7 million to the UN system, the top three UN recipients of Kazakhstan’s support (core and earmarked contributions) were: WHO (USD 2.7 million), the UN Secretariat (USD 2.3 million) and the FAO (USD 0.7 million).

See the section on Geographic and sectoral focus of ODA for the breakdown of bilateral allocations, including ODA earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2020, Kazakhstan’s bilateral spending increased compared to the previous year. It provided USD 30.2 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations). This represented an increase of 9.9% in real terms from 2019.

In 2020, country programmable aid was 4.7% of Kazakhstan’s gross bilateral ODA, compared to the reporting countries’ average of 47.8%.

Figure 6. Bilateral ODA by type of expenditure 2020

In 2020, Kazakhstan channelled bilateral ODA mainly through multilateral organisations and the public sector. Technical co-operation made up 14.2% of gross ODA in 2020.

In 2020, Kazakhstan’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Asia, with a particular focus on Central Asia. USD 10.8 million was allocated to Asia, accounting for 35.6% of gross bilateral ODA. Asia was also the main regional recipient of Kazakhstan’s earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, in line with the policy priorities of its overall strategy.

In 2020, 30.7% of gross bilateral ODA went to Kazakhstan’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are in the Asia region, in line with its focus on its immediate neighbourhood and its policy priorities. The share of gross bilateral ODA that was not allocated by country was 69.3%, mainly including programmatic contributions to international organisations.

In 2020, most of Kazakhstan’s gross bilateral ODA was unallocated by income group. Kazakhstan allocated the highest share of gross bilateral ODA (30.7%) to lower middle-income countries in 2020.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 4.6 million in 2020, representing 15.1% of Kazakhstan’s gross bilateral ODA. Almost all of this ODA was provided in the form of humanitarian assistance.

Learn more about support to fragile contexts on the States of Fragility platform.

In 2020, almost half of Kazakhstan’s bilateral ODA was allocated to social infrastructure and services. Investments in this area accounted for 40% of bilateral ODA commitments (USD 12.1 million), with a strong focus on support to government and civil society (USD 9.8 million) and health and population policies (USD 2 million). A quarter (25%) of Kazakhstan’s bilateral ODA (USD 7.7 million) was unallocated by sector, mainly including programmatic support to international organisations. Bilateral humanitarian assistance amounted to USD 9.5 million (31.4% of bilateral ODA).

Kazakhstan’s Law No. 263-V on Official Development Assistance (December 2014) describes the main objectives, principles, competencies and sectoral priorities of Kazakhstan’s ODA. The law designates the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as the central authority for implementation. The same legislation also provided the legal basis for establishing KazAID on 15 December 2020, under the auspices of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. KazAID is the designated authority to implement the main lines of Kazakhstan’s development co-operation. In addition, Article 6 of the law (Presidential Decree No. 415 on ODA for 2017-2020) sets out the fundamental tools, instruments and financing modalities for Kazakhstan’s development co-operation for the period up to 2020.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan: https://www.gov.kz/memleket/entities/mfa?lang=en

Reporting to the OECD activity-level data since 2014 on 2013 activities.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

Notes

← 1. DAC members adopted the grant-equivalent methodology starting from their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. See the methodological notes for further details.

← 2. Other providers also provide non-grants, which include sovereign loans, multilateral loans, equity investment and loans to the private sector.

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