Kazakhstan

As the largest economy in Central Asia, Kazakhstan has a long history of development co-operation with other countries in its region. Kazakhstan’s Agency of International Development (KazAID) was established in December 2020, marking a new phase in the country’s development co-operation. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the designated authority to implement the main lines of Kazakhstan’s official development assistance (ODA) policy. In the six years from 2013 to 2019, the country’s ODA increased from USD 8 million to USD 34 million. The lion’s share of aid to date has gone to Central Asian countries and Afghanistan, where KazAID focuses its attention on infrastructure, humanitarian aid, gender equality, education and healthcare initiatives. Kazakhstan supports global efforts to fight the COVID-19 pandemic, extending bilateral assistance and underpinning the efforts of international organisations.

Please note that 2020 preliminary and 2019 data in the text are provided in current prices whereas the charts reflect all data in constant 2018 USD, in order for the data to be comparable over time. Find the methodological notes behind the profile here.

Development co-operation is an integral and increasingly important part of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. The 2014 ODA Law (263-V) defines the main objectives, principles, competencies and sectoral priorities of Kazakhstan’s development co-operation, while also providing the legal foundation for the establishment of an agency under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In addition, the Foreign Policy Concept of Kazakhstan 2020-2030 guides Kazakhstan’s contribution to the international community’s development co-operation efforts. Guided by this overarching policy framework, the vast majority of Kazakhstan’s aid is disbursed bilaterally to countries in Central Asia through earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations.

Kazakhstan provided USD 34 million in ODA in 2019, equivalent to 0.02% of gross national income (GNI) on a grant-equivalent basis. This was a decrease of 14% in real terms in volume from 2018. The ratio of ODA as a share of GNI was 0.02% in 2019. Total ODA on a grant-equivalent basis has the same value as net ODA under the cash-flow methodology used in the past, as Kazakhstan provides only grants.

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In 2019, Kazakhstan provided more of its ODA bilaterally. Gross bilateral ODA was 78.1% of total ODA, of which 91.7% was channelled through multilateral organisations (earmarked contributions). Kazakhstan allocated 21.9% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

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In 2019, Kazakhstan provided USD 32 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, a fall of 8.2% in real terms from 2018. Of this, USD 7.5 million was core multilateral ODA, while non-core contributions were earmarked for a specific country, region, theme or purpose. Project-type funding earmarked to a specific theme and/or country accounted for 100% of Kazakhstan’s non-core contributions.

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In 2019, Kazakhstan’s total contribution to multilateral organisations was mostly unallocated by organisation. All allocated contributions were made to the United Nations (UN) system, accounting for 28.2% of total support to the multilateral system, mainly through core contributions.

The UN system received 28.2%, mainly through core contributions. Out of a total volume of USD 9 million to the UN system, the top three UN recipients of Kazakhstan’s support (core and earmarked contributions) were the World Health Organization (USD 2.7 million), the UN Secretariat (USD 2.4 million), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (USD 1.1 million).

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See the section on Geographic and thematic focus of ODA for the geographical and thematic breakdown of bilateral allocations earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2019, Kazakhstan’s bilateral spending declined compared to the previous year. It provided USD 26.7 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations). This represented a decrease of 7.9% in real terms from 2018. Technical co-operation made up 6% of gross bilateral ODA in 2019.

In 2019, country programmable aid was 14.2% of Kazakhstan’s gross bilateral ODA, compared to a DAC country average of 48%.

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Note: NGO: non-governmental organisation.

In 2019, Kazakhstan channelled bilateral ODA mainly through multilateral organisations, as earmarked funding, and the public sector.

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In 2019, Kazakhstan’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Asia. USD 3.8 million was allocated to Asia and USD 50 000 to ODA-eligible countries to Europe, accounting respectively for 14.3% and 0.2% of gross bilateral ODA. Asia was also the main regional recipient of Kazakhstan’s earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, in line with the policy priorities of its overall strategy. Eighty-five per cent of gross bilateral ODA was unspecified by region in 2019.

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Bilateral ODA by recipient country

In 2019, 8.2% of gross bilateral ODA went to Kazakhstan’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are in the Asia region, in line with its focus on its immediate neighbourhood and its policy priorities. The share of gross bilateral ODA that was not allocated by country was 91.8%.

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Note: LDC: least developed country; LMIC: lower middle-income country; UMIC: upper middle-income country.

In 2019, most of Kazakhstan’s bilateral ODA was allocated to social infrastructure and services. Investments in this area accounted for 72.3% of bilateral ODA commitments (USD 19.3 million), with a strong focus on support to government and civil society (USD 16 million), health (USD 2 million), and education (USD 1 million). ODA for economic infrastructure and services totalled USD 2.5 million. Bilateral humanitarian aid amounted to USD 100 000 (0.5% of bilateral ODA). Earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations focused also on social infrastructure and services in 2019.

Kazakhstan also committed USD 3 million (11.3% of bilateral allocable aid) to promote aid for trade and improve developing countries’ trade performance and integration into the world economy in 2019.

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Kazakhstan’s Law No. 263-V on Official Development Assistance (December 2014) describes the main objectives, principles, competencies and sectoral priorities of Kazakhstan’s ODA and designates the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as the central authority for implementation. The same legislation also provided the legal basis for establishing KazAID on 15 December 2020, under the auspices of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. KazAID is the designated authority to implement the main lines of Kazakhstan’s development co-operation. In addition, Article 6 of this law (Presidential Decree No. 415 on ODA for 2017-2020) sets out the fundamental tools, instruments and financing modalities for Kazakhstan’s development co-operation for the period up to 2020.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan: https://www.gov.kz/memleket/entities/mfa?lang=en

Reporting to the OECD activity-level data since 2014 on 2013 activities.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

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