copy the linklink copied! Annex B1. Results for countries and economies

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Table I.B1.1. Percentage of students at each proficiency level in reading

All students

Below Level 1c (less than 189.33 score points)

Level 1c (from 189.33 to less than 262.04 score points)

Level 1b (from 262.04 to less than 334.75 score points)

Level 1a (from 334.75 to less than 407.47 score points)

Level 2 (from 407.47 to less than 480.18 score points)

Level 3 (from 480.18 to less than 552.89 score points)

Level 4 (from 552.89 to less than 625.61 score points)

Level 5 (from 625.61 to less than 698.32 score points)

Level 6 (above 698.32 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

OECD

Australia

0.1

(0.1)

1.4

(0.2)

5.6

(0.3)

12.5

(0.4)

21.1

(0.5)

25.4

(0.5)

20.9

(0.5)

10.3

(0.4)

2.7

(0.2)

Austria

0.0

(0.0)

0.9

(0.2)

6.4

(0.6)

16.3

(0.8)

23.5

(0.8)

26.2

(0.9)

19.3

(0.8)

6.7

(0.5)

0.7

(0.1)

Belgium

0.1

(0.1)

1.2

(0.2)

6.0

(0.4)

14.0

(0.6)

22.4

(0.7)

26.5

(0.7)

20.4

(0.7)

8.3

(0.5)

1.3

(0.2)

Canada

0.0

(0.0)

0.7

(0.1)

3.1

(0.2)

10.0

(0.4)

20.1

(0.6)

27.2

(0.5)

24.0

(0.5)

12.2

(0.5)

2.8

(0.2)

Chile

0.1

(0.1)

1.7

(0.2)

8.9

(0.6)

21.0

(0.9)

29.5

(0.9)

24.4

(0.9)

11.8

(0.6)

2.4

(0.3)

0.2

(0.1)

Colombia

0.2

(0.1)

3.6

(0.4)

15.8

(0.9)

30.3

(1.0)

27.7

(1.0)

15.8

(0.9)

5.7

(0.5)

0.9

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Czech Republic

0.1

(0.1)

0.7

(0.2)

5.0

(0.5)

15.0

(0.8)

25.0

(0.9)

26.9

(0.9)

19.1

(0.8)

7.2

(0.5)

1.1

(0.2)

Denmark

0.0

(0.0)

0.5

(0.1)

3.5

(0.3)

11.9

(0.5)

23.9

(0.8)

30.1

(0.9)

21.6

(0.8)

7.3

(0.5)

1.1

(0.2)

Estonia

0.0

c

0.3

(0.1)

2.1

(0.2)

8.7

(0.5)

21.2

(0.9)

29.9

(0.9)

24.0

(0.8)

11.1

(0.6)

2.8

(0.3)

Finland

0.0

(0.0)

0.8

(0.2)

3.3

(0.4)

9.4

(0.6)

19.2

(0.7)

27.6

(0.8)

25.4

(0.8)

11.9

(0.7)

2.4

(0.3)

France

0.0

(0.0)

1.1

(0.2)

5.7

(0.4)

14.0

(0.7)

22.8

(0.8)

26.6

(0.8)

20.5

(0.7)

8.1

(0.6)

1.1

(0.2)

Germany

0.1

(0.1)

1.3

(0.3)

5.7

(0.5)

13.6

(0.8)

21.1

(0.8)

25.4

(0.8)

21.5

(0.9)

9.5

(0.6)

1.8

(0.2)

Greece

0.1

(0.1)

2.1

(0.3)

9.3

(0.7)

19.0

(0.9)

27.3

(0.8)

25.2

(1.0)

13.3

(0.8)

3.3

(0.4)

0.3

(0.1)

Hungary

0.0

(0.1)

1.2

(0.2)

7.0

(0.6)

17.0

(0.8)

25.2

(0.9)

26.3

(0.9)

17.5

(0.8)

5.2

(0.5)

0.5

(0.1)

Iceland

0.1

(0.1)

2.3

(0.3)

8.0

(0.7)

15.9

(0.8)

24.6

(0.9)

25.1

(0.8)

16.9

(0.7)

6.2

(0.6)

0.9

(0.2)

Ireland

0.0

(0.0)

0.2

(0.1)

2.1

(0.3)

9.5

(0.6)

21.7

(0.8)

30.3

(0.9)

24.1

(0.8)

10.3

(0.6)

1.8

(0.3)

Israel

0.7

(0.2)

5.0

(0.5)

10.4

(0.7)

15.0

(0.9)

19.4

(0.7)

21.6

(0.8)

17.5

(0.8)

8.4

(0.6)

2.0

(0.3)

Italy

0.1

(0.1)

1.7

(0.3)

6.7

(0.6)

14.8

(0.7)

26.3

(0.9)

28.2

(0.9)

16.9

(0.7)

4.9

(0.4)

0.5

(0.1)

Japan

0.1

(0.0)

0.7

(0.2)

4.1

(0.4)

12.0

(0.7)

22.5

(0.9)

28.6

(1.0)

21.9

(0.8)

8.6

(0.6)

1.7

(0.3)

Korea

0.1

(0.1)

1.1

(0.2)

4.3

(0.4)

9.6

(0.7)

19.6

(0.7)

27.6

(0.8)

24.6

(0.8)

10.8

(0.6)

2.3

(0.4)

Latvia

0.0

(0.0)

0.6

(0.1)

5.2

(0.4)

16.6

(0.6)

27.4

(0.8)

28.8

(0.8)

16.6

(0.7)

4.4

(0.4)

0.4

(0.1)

Lithuania

0.0

(0.0)

1.0

(0.2)

6.3

(0.4)

17.0

(0.6)

26.1

(0.8)

27.7

(0.7)

16.9

(0.6)

4.5

(0.4)

0.4

(0.1)

Luxembourg

0.2

(0.1)

2.4

(0.2)

9.2

(0.4)

17.6

(0.6)

23.7

(0.7)

23.5

(0.7)

15.9

(0.6)

6.4

(0.4)

1.3

(0.2)

Mexico

0.0

(0.1)

2.5

(0.4)

13.1

(0.8)

29.1

(1.1)

31.7

(1.0)

17.5

(0.9)

5.3

(0.6)

0.7

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Netherlands*

0.1

(0.1)

1.3

(0.2)

7.0

(0.6)

15.6

(0.7)

23.7

(0.8)

24.3

(1.0)

18.8

(0.8)

7.9

(0.6)

1.2

(0.2)

New Zealand

0.1

(0.1)

1.0

(0.2)

5.2

(0.5)

12.7

(0.6)

20.8

(0.7)

24.6

(0.7)

22.5

(0.7)

10.7

(0.6)

2.4

(0.3)

Norway

0.1

(0.1)

1.7

(0.2)

5.6

(0.4)

11.9

(0.6)

21.5

(0.7)

26.4

(0.9)

21.6

(0.8)

9.6

(0.6)

1.6

(0.2)

Poland

0.0

(0.0)

0.5

(0.1)

3.3

(0.3)

10.8

(0.6)

22.4

(0.8)

27.7

(0.8)

23.0

(0.8)

10.1

(0.7)

2.1

(0.3)

Portugal*

0.0

(0.0)

0.9

(0.2)

5.0

(0.5)

14.3

(0.7)

23.3

(0.7)

28.2

(0.8)

21.0

(0.9)

6.5

(0.6)

0.8

(0.2)

Slovak Republic

0.1

(0.1)

2.3

(0.3)

9.2

(0.7)

19.8

(0.8)

26.9

(0.9)

23.5

(0.9)

13.6

(0.7)

4.1

(0.4)

0.5

(0.2)

Slovenia

0.0

(0.1)

0.6

(0.2)

4.3

(0.4)

12.9

(0.5)

24.5

(0.8)

29.5

(0.9)

20.3

(0.7)

6.8

(0.5)

1.0

(0.2)

Spain

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Sweden

0.2

(0.1)

1.5

(0.2)

5.1

(0.5)

11.6

(0.7)

20.6

(0.8)

25.5

(0.8)

22.3

(0.8)

10.9

(0.7)

2.4

(0.3)

Switzerland

0.1

(0.1)

1.3

(0.3)

7.1

(0.6)

15.1

(0.7)

23.4

(0.9)

26.3

(0.8)

18.5

(0.8)

6.9

(0.6)

1.2

(0.2)

Turkey

0.0

(0.0)

0.7

(0.2)

6.3

(0.6)

19.1

(0.7)

30.2

(0.9)

26.9

(1.0)

13.5

(0.6)

3.1

(0.5)

0.2

(0.1)

United Kingdom

0.0

(0.0)

0.8

(0.2)

4.2

(0.4)

12.3

(0.7)

23.0

(0.7)

27.2

(0.7)

21.0

(0.8)

9.5

(0.6)

2.0

(0.2)

United States*

0.1

(0.1)

1.1

(0.2)

5.4

(0.5)

12.7

(0.8)

21.1

(0.8)

24.7

(0.8)

21.4

(0.8)

10.7

(0.7)

2.8

(0.4)

OECD average-36a

0.1

(0.0)

1.4

(0.0)

6.2

(0.1)

15.0

(0.1)

23.7

(0.1)

26.0

(0.1)

18.9

(0.1)

7.4

(0.1)

1.3

(0.0)

OECD total

0.1

(0.0)

1.3

(0.1)

6.7

(0.2)

15.9

(0.3)

24.0

(0.3)

24.8

(0.3)

18.1

(0.3)

7.6

(0.2)

1.6

(0.1)

All students

Below Level 1c (less than 189.33 score points)

Level 1c (from 189.33 to less than 262.04 score points)

Level 1b (from 262.04 to less than 334.75 score points)

Level 1a (from 334.75 to less than 407.47 score points)

Level 2 (from 407.47 to less than 480.18 score points)

Level 3 (from 480.18 to less than 552.89 score points)

Level 4 (from 552.89 to less than 625.61 score points)

Level 5 (from 625.61 to less than 698.32 score points)

Level 6 (above 698.32 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

Partners

Albania

0.1

(0.1)

2.9

(0.3)

16.4

(0.7)

32.8

(0.9)

29.9

(0.8)

14.0

(0.7)

3.5

(0.4)

0.4

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Argentina

1.3

(0.2)

6.7

(0.6)

17.4

(0.7)

26.7

(0.9)

25.7

(0.8)

16.2

(0.7)

5.3

(0.5)

0.7

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

0.1

(0.1)

3.7

(0.4)

19.6

(0.8)

37.0

(1.1)

28.6

(0.9)

9.2

(0.6)

1.6

(0.4)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Belarus

0.0

(0.0)

0.8

(0.2)

5.8

(0.5)

16.8

(0.8)

28.7

(0.8)

28.0

(1.0)

16.0

(0.7)

3.7

(0.4)

0.3

(0.1)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0.1

(0.1)

2.8

(0.4)

17.5

(1.0)

33.2

(1.1)

28.8

(1.1)

14.3

(0.9)

3.0

(0.4)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

c

Brazil

0.4

(0.1)

5.3

(0.4)

17.7

(0.6)

26.7

(0.7)

24.5

(0.6)

16.3

(0.6)

7.4

(0.5)

1.7

(0.2)

0.2

(0.1)

Brunei Darussalam

0.3

(0.1)

5.4

(0.3)

19.1

(0.5)

27.0

(0.7)

24.5

(0.6)

15.5

(0.5)

6.9

(0.3)

1.3

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

B-S-J-Z (China)

0.0

(0.0)

0.1

(0.1)

0.7

(0.2)

4.3

(0.5)

14.3

(0.8)

27.9

(1.0)

30.8

(1.0)

17.5

(0.9)

4.2

(0.6)

Bulgaria

0.3

(0.1)

4.6

(0.6)

17.1

(1.1)

25.1

(0.9)

24.9

(1.0)

17.3

(0.9)

8.4

(0.7)

2.2

(0.3)

0.2

(0.1)

Costa Rica

0.1

(0.0)

1.8

(0.3)

11.3

(0.7)

28.9

(1.1)

32.1

(1.1)

19.4

(1.1)

5.9

(0.8)

0.6

(0.2)

0.0

c

Croatia

0.0

(0.0)

0.7

(0.2)

5.0

(0.5)

15.9

(0.8)

28.3

(0.9)

29.0

(1.0)

16.4

(0.8)

4.3

(0.4)

0.4

(0.1)

Cyprus

0.3

(0.1)

4.3

(0.3)

15.0

(0.6)

24.1

(0.8)

26.9

(0.7)

19.3

(0.6)

8.4

(0.4)

1.7

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

Dominican Republic

1.1

(0.3)

15.9

(0.9)

33.3

(1.1)

28.8

(1.0)

15.0

(0.9)

4.9

(0.5)

0.9

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Georgia

0.4

(0.1)

7.0

(0.5)

24.2

(0.9)

32.8

(0.8)

22.9

(0.8)

10.1

(0.6)

2.4

(0.3)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Hong Kong (China)*

0.1

(0.1)

0.9

(0.2)

3.5

(0.4)

8.1

(0.6)

17.8

(0.7)

27.7

(0.7)

27.1

(0.8)

12.5

(0.6)

2.3

(0.3)

Indonesia

0.2

(0.1)

6.3

(0.6)

26.7

(1.0)

36.7

(1.1)

21.8

(1.0)

7.2

(0.8)

1.1

(0.2)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

(0.0)

Jordan

1.1

(0.2)

4.0

(0.5)

11.1

(0.7)

25.0

(0.8)

33.8

(1.0)

20.5

(0.9)

4.3

(0.5)

0.3

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Kazakhstan

0.1

(0.0)

3.5

(0.3)

22.2

(0.7)

38.4

(0.7)

23.9

(0.5)

8.9

(0.3)

2.6

(0.2)

0.4

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Kosovo

0.3

(0.1)

8.7

(0.6)

31.7

(0.8)

38.0

(1.0)

17.5

(0.7)

3.6

(0.3)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Lebanon

6.3

(0.6)

16.9

(1.0)

23.0

(0.9)

21.6

(0.8)

17.4

(0.9)

10.5

(0.7)

3.7

(0.5)

0.7

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Macao (China)

0.0

(0.0)

0.3

(0.1)

2.2

(0.2)

8.2

(0.6)

19.4

(0.8)

29.8

(0.8)

26.1

(0.7)

11.7

(0.6)

2.1

(0.3)

Malaysia

0.2

(0.1)

3.6

(0.4)

14.2

(0.8)

27.9

(0.9)

31.4

(1.0)

17.9

(0.9)

4.3

(0.6)

0.5

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Malta

0.7

(0.2)

4.8

(0.4)

11.9

(0.7)

18.5

(0.9)

23.7

(0.9)

21.7

(0.9)

13.4

(0.9)

4.5

(0.5)

0.9

(0.2)

Moldova

0.4

(0.1)

3.9

(0.5)

13.5

(0.7)

25.2

(0.8)

28.0

(0.9)

20.8

(0.9)

7.2

(0.6)

1.0

(0.3)

0.0

(0.0)

Montenegro

0.1

(0.1)

2.8

(0.3)

13.5

(0.5)

28.0

(0.7)

30.5

(0.6)

18.3

(0.6)

6.0

(0.4)

0.8

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Morocco

0.3

(0.1)

8.8

(0.7)

30.8

(1.3)

33.4

(0.9)

20.6

(1.2)

5.6

(0.5)

0.5

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

North Macedonia

1.6

(0.2)

7.3

(0.5)

18.3

(0.8)

27.9

(1.0)

26.6

(0.8)

14.4

(0.6)

3.5

(0.3)

0.3

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Panama

1.0

(0.2)

8.4

(0.8)

23.4

(0.9)

31.5

(1.0)

23.0

(0.8)

9.9

(0.9)

2.6

(0.4)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Peru

0.4

(0.1)

5.5

(0.5)

19.6

(0.9)

28.9

(0.9)

25.8

(0.7)

14.3

(0.7)

4.8

(0.5)

0.7

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Philippines

0.5

(0.1)

15.1

(0.9)

38.3

(1.1)

26.7

(0.8)

13.1

(0.7)

5.1

(0.7)

1.1

(0.3)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

(0.0)

Qatar

1.2

(0.1)

8.5

(0.3)

17.6

(0.4)

23.6

(0.5)

23.4

(0.4)

15.8

(0.4)

7.3

(0.3)

2.2

(0.2)

0.4

(0.1)

Romania

0.8

(0.3)

4.3

(0.6)

12.9

(1.0)

22.8

(1.2)

28.1

(1.1)

20.9

(1.3)

8.7

(1.0)

1.3

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

Russia

0.0

(0.0)

1.0

(0.2)

5.6

(0.6)

15.5

(0.9)

28.1

(0.8)

28.0

(0.8)

16.4

(0.7)

4.8

(0.5)

0.6

(0.1)

Saudi Arabia

0.5

(0.2)

5.3

(0.6)

17.0

(0.9)

29.4

(0.9)

30.4

(1.1)

14.6

(0.8)

2.6

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Serbia

0.1

(0.1)

2.7

(0.4)

12.2

(0.8)

22.7

(0.8)

27.8

(0.8)

21.8

(0.8)

10.1

(0.7)

2.4

(0.3)

0.2

(0.1)

Singapore

0.0

(0.0)

0.5

(0.1)

3.0

(0.3)

7.7

(0.4)

14.2

(0.5)

22.3

(0.7)

26.4

(0.6)

18.5

(0.7)

7.3

(0.4)

Chinese Taipei

0.1

(0.1)

1.2

(0.2)

4.5

(0.4)

12.0

(0.6)

21.8

(0.7)

27.4

(0.8)

22.0

(0.9)

9.3

(0.7)

1.6

(0.3)

Thailand

0.1

(0.1)

3.6

(0.5)

20.6

(1.1)

35.3

(1.1)

26.0

(1.0)

11.6

(0.9)

2.7

(0.4)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Ukraine

0.2

(0.1)

1.8

(0.3)

7.2

(0.7)

16.7

(0.9)

27.7

(0.8)

28.5

(1.0)

14.5

(0.8)

3.2

(0.4)

0.2

(0.1)

United Arab Emirates

0.6

(0.1)

5.8

(0.3)

14.9

(0.5)

21.6

(0.4)

23.4

(0.5)

18.1

(0.5)

10.8

(0.6)

4.1

(0.3)

0.7

(0.1)

Uruguay

0.3

(0.1)

4.0

(0.4)

13.6

(0.8)

24.0

(0.9)

28.1

(1.1)

20.1

(0.8)

8.3

(0.7)

1.5

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

Viet Nam**

0.0

(0.0)

0.1

(0.1)

1.1

(0.3)

8.3

(0.9)

26.9

(1.3)

38.1

(1.2)

20.5

(1.3)

4.6

(0.7)

0.3

(0.1)

* Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

** The data for Viet Nam have not yet been fully validated. Due to a lack of consistency in the response pattern of some performance data, the OECD cannot yet assure full international comparability of the results (see Annexes A2 and A4).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934029090

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Table I.B1.2. Percentage of students at each proficiency level in mathematics

All students

Below Level 1 (below 357.77 score points)

Level 1 (from 357.77 to less than 420.07 score points)

Level 2 (from 420.07 to less than 482.38 score points)

Level 3 (from 482.38 to less than 544.68 score points)

Level 4 (from 544.68 to less than 606.99 score points)

Level 5 (from 606.99 to less than 669.30 score points)

Level 6 (above 669.30 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

OECD

Australia

7.6

(0.5)

14.8

(0.5)

23.4

(0.5)

25.6

(0.5)

18.2

(0.5)

8.0

(0.4)

2.5

(0.3)

Austria

7.3

(0.7)

13.8

(0.8)

20.8

(1.0)

24.9

(0.9)

20.6

(0.8)

10.0

(0.7)

2.5

(0.3)

Belgium

6.9

(0.7)

12.8

(0.6)

18.6

(0.7)

23.8

(0.8)

22.2

(0.7)

12.5

(0.6)

3.2

(0.4)

Canada

5.0

(0.4)

11.3

(0.5)

20.8

(0.6)

25.9

(0.6)

21.7

(0.7)

11.3

(0.5)

4.0

(0.3)

Chile

24.7

(1.1)

27.2

(0.9)

25.5

(0.9)

15.6

(0.8)

5.7

(0.5)

1.1

(0.2)

0.1

(0.0)

Colombia

35.5

(1.7)

29.9

(1.2)

21.1

(0.9)

10.0

(0.7)

3.1

(0.4)

0.5

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Czech Republic

6.6

(0.7)

13.8

(0.7)

22.1

(0.8)

25.2

(0.9)

19.6

(0.7)

9.5

(0.5)

3.1

(0.3)

Denmark

3.7

(0.4)

10.9

(0.6)

22.0

(0.9)

28.8

(0.8)

23.0

(0.8)

9.5

(0.6)

2.1

(0.3)

Estonia

2.1

(0.3)

8.1

(0.6)

20.8

(0.8)

29.0

(0.8)

24.6

(0.8)

11.8

(0.7)

3.7

(0.4)

Finland

3.8

(0.4)

11.1

(0.6)

22.3

(0.9)

28.9

(1.0)

22.7

(0.8)

9.3

(0.5)

1.8

(0.3)

France

8.0

(0.5)

13.2

(0.6)

21.1

(0.8)

25.6

(0.8)

21.0

(0.8)

9.2

(0.6)

1.8

(0.3)

Germany

7.6

(0.7)

13.5

(0.8)

20.7

(0.9)

24.0

(0.8)

20.8

(0.8)

10.5

(0.7)

2.8

(0.3)

Greece

15.3

(1.1)

20.5

(0.9)

26.8

(0.9)

22.5

(1.0)

11.1

(0.6)

3.2

(0.4)

0.5

(0.2)

Hungary

9.6

(0.7)

16.1

(0.8)

23.6

(0.9)

25.2

(1.0)

17.5

(0.8)

6.5

(0.5)

1.4

(0.3)

Iceland

7.4

(0.5)

13.3

(0.7)

22.0

(1.0)

26.7

(1.0)

20.2

(0.9)

8.5

(0.6)

1.9

(0.3)

Ireland

3.8

(0.5)

11.9

(0.7)

24.7

(0.8)

30.5

(0.8)

20.8

(0.8)

7.2

(0.6)

1.0

(0.2)

Israel

17.7

(1.1)

16.4

(0.8)

20.7

(0.7)

21.0

(0.8)

15.4

(0.8)

7.0

(0.6)

1.8

(0.3)

Italy

9.1

(0.8)

14.8

(0.9)

22.9

(1.0)

25.6

(0.9)

18.1

(0.8)

7.5

(0.6)

2.0

(0.3)

Japan

2.9

(0.4)

8.6

(0.6)

18.7

(0.8)

26.4

(0.9)

25.1

(1.0)

14.0

(0.8)

4.3

(0.5)

Korea

5.4

(0.5)

9.6

(0.6)

17.3

(0.8)

23.4

(0.7)

22.9

(0.8)

14.4

(0.7)

6.9

(0.8)

Latvia

4.4

(0.5)

12.9

(0.8)

25.8

(0.9)

29.4

(1.0)

19.0

(0.8)

7.1

(0.5)

1.4

(0.2)

Lithuania

9.3

(0.6)

16.4

(0.7)

24.2

(0.7)

25.2

(0.9)

16.5

(0.8)

6.8

(0.5)

1.7

(0.2)

Luxembourg

10.9

(0.6)

16.4

(0.6)

21.7

(0.8)

22.6

(0.7)

17.7

(0.7)

8.6

(0.5)

2.3

(0.3)

Mexico

26.0

(1.2)

30.3

(0.9)

26.4

(0.9)

13.1

(0.8)

3.7

(0.5)

0.5

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Netherlands*

4.5

(0.6)

11.2

(0.7)

19.0

(1.0)

23.2

(1.1)

23.6

(0.9)

14.2

(0.8)

4.3

(0.5)

New Zealand

7.6

(0.5)

14.2

(0.6)

22.8

(0.8)

25.0

(0.7)

18.9

(0.7)

8.8

(0.4)

2.7

(0.3)

Norway

6.5

(0.5)

12.4

(0.6)

21.8

(0.8)

26.5

(0.8)

20.6

(0.9)

9.8

(0.6)

2.4

(0.4)

Poland

4.2

(0.5)

10.5

(0.6)

20.7

(0.8)

26.5

(0.8)

22.3

(0.7)

11.7

(0.7)

4.1

(0.5)

Portugal*

9.3

(0.6)

14.0

(0.8)

20.9

(0.8)

24.5

(1.1)

19.7

(0.8)

9.1

(0.6)

2.5

(0.3)

Slovak Republic

10.7

(0.9)

14.4

(0.6)

21.4

(0.9)

24.2

(0.9)

18.6

(0.9)

8.4

(0.6)

2.3

(0.3)

Slovenia

4.8

(0.6)

11.7

(0.7)

21.6

(0.9)

26.4

(0.9)

22.0

(0.8)

10.5

(0.8)

3.1

(0.4)

Spain

8.7

(0.4)

16.0

(0.5)

24.4

(0.4)

26.0

(0.6)

17.5

(0.5)

6.2

(0.3)

1.1

(0.1)

Sweden

6.0

(0.6)

12.8

(0.8)

21.9

(0.9)

25.7

(0.8)

21.0

(0.8)

10.0

(0.7)

2.6

(0.3)

Switzerland

4.8

(0.4)

12.0

(0.8)

19.5

(0.9)

24.4

(1.0)

22.3

(0.9)

12.1

(0.7)

4.9

(0.5)

Turkey

13.8

(0.9)

22.9

(0.8)

27.3

(0.8)

20.4

(0.8)

10.9

(0.5)

3.9

(0.4)

0.9

(0.3)

United Kingdom

6.4

(0.5)

12.8

(0.6)

22.0

(0.8)

25.5

(0.7)

20.4

(0.7)

9.8

(0.6)

3.1

(0.4)

United States*

10.2

(0.8)

16.9

(0.9)

24.2

(1.0)

24.1

(1.0)

16.3

(0.9)

6.8

(0.7)

1.5

(0.3)

OECD average

9.1

(0.1)

14.8

(0.1)

22.2

(0.1)

24.4

(0.1)

18.5

(0.1)

8.5

(0.1)

2.4

(0.1)

OECD total

11.5

(0.3)

17.2

(0.3)

22.9

(0.3)

22.6

(0.3)

16.3

(0.3)

7.4

(0.2)

2.0

(0.1)

All students

Below Level 1 (below 357.77 score points)

Level 1 (from 357.77 to less than 420.07 score points)

Level 2 (from 420.07 to less than 482.38 score points)

Level 3 (from 482.38 to less than 544.68 score points)

Level 4 (from 544.68 to less than 606.99 score points)

Level 5 (from 606.99 to less than 669.30 score points)

Level 6 (above 669.30 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

Partners

Albania

16.9

(0.9)

25.5

(0.9)

28.6

(1.0)

19.3

(0.8)

7.5

(0.7)

2.0

(0.2)

0.3

(0.1)

Argentina

40.5

(1.6)

28.5

(1.0)

19.6

(0.9)

8.8

(0.7)

2.3

(0.3)

0.3

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

24.7

(1.0)

26.1

(0.8)

25.2

(0.9)

15.7

(0.7)

6.4

(0.6)

1.7

(0.3)

0.3

(0.1)

Belarus

11.4

(0.7)

18.0

(0.7)

24.7

(0.9)

23.4

(0.7)

15.2

(0.7)

6.1

(0.5)

1.2

(0.2)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

28.7

(1.3)

28.9

(1.0)

24.2

(0.9)

13.1

(0.8)

4.3

(0.5)

0.7

(0.2)

0.1

(0.0)

Brazil

41.0

(1.0)

27.1

(0.7)

18.2

(0.7)

9.3

(0.5)

3.4

(0.3)

0.8

(0.2)

0.1

(0.0)

Brunei Darussalam

22.1

(0.8)

25.7

(0.8)

24.0

(0.6)

16.2

(0.5)

8.9

(0.5)

2.7

(0.3)

0.4

(0.1)

B-S-J-Z (China)

0.5

(0.1)

1.9

(0.3)

6.9

(0.5)

17.5

(0.8)

28.9

(1.0)

27.8

(1.0)

16.5

(1.1)

Bulgaria

21.9

(1.4)

22.5

(0.8)

23.7

(1.0)

18.2

(1.0)

9.4

(0.7)

3.3

(0.5)

0.9

(0.2)

Costa Rica

27.8

(1.3)

32.2

(1.2)

25.6

(1.2)

11.2

(1.0)

2.8

(0.5)

0.3

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Croatia

11.0

(0.8)

20.2

(0.8)

27.4

(0.9)

23.3

(0.8)

13.0

(0.8)

4.3

(0.5)

0.8

(0.2)

Cyprus

17.2

(0.6)

19.7

(0.7)

24.7

(0.9)

22.0

(0.8)

12.1

(0.5)

3.7

(0.4)

0.7

(0.1)

Dominican Republic

69.3

(1.4)

21.3

(1.0)

7.3

(0.6)

1.8

(0.4)

0.3

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Georgia

33.7

(1.2)

27.3

(1.1)

21.6

(0.8)

11.9

(0.8)

4.4

(0.5)

0.9

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

Hong Kong (China)*

2.8

(0.4)

6.4

(0.6)

13.5

(0.7)

22.1

(0.7)

26.3

(0.9)

19.5

(0.8)

9.5

(0.8)

Indonesia

40.6

(1.6)

31.3

(1.2)

18.6

(1.0)

6.8

(0.7)

2.3

(0.5)

0.4

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Jordan

30.7

(1.4)

28.6

(0.8)

24.0

(0.9)

12.4

(0.8)

3.6

(0.5)

0.6

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

Kazakhstan

22.3

(0.8)

26.8

(0.6)

26.6

(0.6)

16.0

(0.6)

6.3

(0.4)

1.6

(0.2)

0.3

(0.1)

Kosovo

47.0

(1.0)

29.6

(1.1)

16.5

(0.8)

5.4

(0.4)

1.4

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Lebanon

38.0

(1.7)

21.8

(1.0)

19.1

(1.1)

13.1

(0.9)

6.0

(0.5)

1.7

(0.3)

0.3

(0.1)

Macao (China)

1.0

(0.2)

4.0

(0.4)

12.3

(0.8)

24.8

(0.9)

30.3

(1.2)

20.0

(0.8)

7.7

(0.6)

Malaysia

16.1

(0.9)

25.4

(1.0)

28.3

(0.9)

19.3

(0.9)

8.5

(0.7)

2.2

(0.4)

0.3

(0.1)

Malta

14.3

(0.7)

15.9

(0.8)

21.5

(1.0)

23.2

(1.1)

16.6

(0.7)

6.7

(0.6)

1.8

(0.3)

Moldova

26.1

(0.9)

24.2

(0.9)

23.5

(0.9)

16.5

(0.7)

7.3

(0.6)

2.0

(0.3)

0.4

(0.1)

Montenegro

19.9

(0.7)

26.3

(0.7)

27.3

(0.7)

17.9

(0.5)

6.9

(0.4)

1.6

(0.2)

0.2

(0.1)

Morocco

47.1

(1.9)

28.5

(1.0)

16.9

(1.0)

6.2

(0.6)

1.2

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

North Macedonia

35.2

(0.8)

25.8

(0.8)

21.3

(0.7)

12.1

(0.7)

4.5

(0.4)

1.0

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

Panama

53.7

(1.4)

27.5

(1.0)

13.5

(0.8)

4.3

(0.6)

0.9

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Peru

32.0

(1.2)

28.3

(0.8)

23.1

(0.9)

11.6

(0.7)

4.1

(0.5)

0.8

(0.2)

0.1

(0.0)

Philippines

54.4

(1.7)

26.3

(0.9)

13.6

(1.0)

4.7

(0.7)

0.9

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Qatar

29.7

(0.7)

24.0

(0.5)

21.9

(0.5)

14.6

(0.4)

6.9

(0.3)

2.4

(0.2)

0.6

(0.1)

Romania

22.6

(1.6)

23.9

(1.2)

24.5

(1.1)

17.3

(1.1)

8.5

(1.0)

2.7

(0.5)

0.4

(0.2)

Russia

6.8

(0.7)

14.9

(0.8)

25.0

(0.9)

27.5

(0.9)

17.8

(0.8)

6.6

(0.6)

1.5

(0.2)

Saudi Arabia

42.8

(1.6)

29.9

(1.0)

18.8

(1.1)

6.8

(0.6)

1.5

(0.3)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Serbia

18.1

(1.1)

21.6

(0.8)

24.1

(0.8)

19.2

(0.8)

11.7

(0.7)

4.2

(0.4)

1.0

(0.2)

Singapore

1.8

(0.2)

5.3

(0.4)

11.1

(0.5)

19.1

(0.7)

25.8

(0.8)

23.2

(0.7)

13.8

(0.8)

Chinese Taipei

5.0

(0.4)

9.0

(0.5)

16.1

(0.7)

23.2

(0.8)

23.5

(0.8)

15.6

(0.8)

7.6

(0.8)

Thailand

25.0

(1.3)

27.7

(1.0)

24.6

(1.0)

14.3

(0.8)

6.1

(0.7)

1.9

(0.3)

0.3

(0.1)

Ukraine

15.6

(1.2)

20.3

(1.0)

26.2

(1.0)

21.5

(1.0)

11.5

(0.8)

4.0

(0.5)

1.0

(0.3)

United Arab Emirates

24.2

(0.9)

21.3

(0.6)

21.5

(0.5)

17.2

(0.6)

10.4

(0.5)

4.2

(0.3)

1.2

(0.1)

Uruguay

24.6

(1.1)

26.1

(1.3)

26.5

(1.0)

15.8

(1.0)

6.0

(0.6)

1.0

(0.2)

0.1

(0.0)

Viet Nam**

3.1

(0.6)

12.6

(1.2)

27.3

(1.3)

31.4

(1.1)

18.8

(1.2)

5.7

(0.7)

1.1

(0.3)

* Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

** The data for Viet Nam have not yet been fully validated. Due to a lack of consistency in the response pattern of some performance data, the OECD cannot yet assure full international comparability of the results (see Annexes A2 and A4).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934029090

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Table I.B1.3. Percentage of students at each proficiency level in science

All students

Below Level 1b (below 260.54 score points)

Level 1b (from 260.54 to less than 334.94 score points)

Level 1a (from 334.94 to less than 409.54 score points)

Level 2 (from 409.54 to less than 484.14 score points)

Level 3 (from 484.14 to less than 558.73 score points)

Level 4 (from 558.73 to less than 633.33 score points)

Level 5 (from 633.33 to less than 707.93 score points)

Level 6 (above 707.93 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

OECD

Australia

0.6

(0.1)

4.5

(0.3)

13.7

(0.5)

23.0

(0.6)

27.5

(0.6)

21.2

(0.6)

7.9

(0.4)

1.6

(0.2)

Austria

0.6

(0.2)

4.8

(0.5)

16.5

(0.9)

25.0

(0.8)

27.6

(0.8)

19.2

(0.8)

5.8

(0.6)

0.5

(0.1)

Belgium

0.6

(0.1)

5.3

(0.5)

14.2

(0.6)

22.2

(0.7)

28.4

(0.8)

21.3

(0.7)

7.3

(0.4)

0.7

(0.2)

Canada

0.4

(0.1)

2.6

(0.2)

10.5

(0.4)

22.4

(0.6)

29.3

(0.6)

23.5

(0.7)

9.5

(0.5)

1.8

(0.2)

Chile

1.0

(0.2)

8.8

(0.7)

25.5

(1.0)

33.1

(1.0)

22.6

(1.0)

7.9

(0.6)

1.0

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Colombia

2.1

(0.3)

15.3

(1.1)

33.0

(1.1)

29.6

(1.2)

15.4

(0.8)

4.2

(0.4)

0.4

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Czech Republic

0.4

(0.1)

3.9

(0.4)

14.5

(0.8)

25.9

(1.0)

28.7

(1.0)

19.1

(0.8)

6.6

(0.5)

1.0

(0.2)

Denmark

0.7

(0.2)

4.1

(0.3)

13.9

(0.6)

26.6

(0.7)

30.1

(0.9)

19.1

(0.8)

5.0

(0.5)

0.5

(0.2)

Estonia

0.1

(0.1)

1.1

(0.2)

7.5

(0.5)

21.5

(0.7)

32.1

(0.9)

25.4

(0.8)

10.2

(0.5)

2.0

(0.2)

Finland

0.4

(0.1)

2.8

(0.3)

9.7

(0.6)

21.1

(0.7)

28.9

(0.8)

24.9

(0.8)

10.5

(0.6)

1.8

(0.3)

France

0.6

(0.2)

5.0

(0.4)

14.9

(0.8)

24.6

(0.9)

28.3

(0.7)

20.0

(0.9)

5.9

(0.5)

0.6

(0.1)

Germany

0.8

(0.2)

5.0

(0.5)

13.8

(0.7)

22.0

(0.9)

26.9

(0.9)

21.5

(1.0)

8.5

(0.6)

1.5

(0.2)

Greece

1.2

(0.3)

8.1

(0.8)

22.4

(1.0)

31.6

(0.9)

26.0

(1.0)

9.3

(0.6)

1.3

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Hungary

0.6

(0.2)

5.7

(0.6)

17.8

(0.9)

26.1

(1.0)

28.1

(0.9)

17.0

(0.7)

4.3

(0.5)

0.4

(0.1)

Iceland

0.5

(0.2)

5.9

(0.5)

18.6

(0.8)

28.3

(0.9)

27.7

(1.0)

15.2

(0.8)

3.6

(0.4)

0.2

(0.1)

Ireland

0.3

(0.1)

3.3

(0.3)

13.4

(0.7)

26.9

(0.9)

31.3

(0.9)

19.0

(0.7)

5.4

(0.5)

0.5

(0.2)

Israel

3.2

(0.4)

10.7

(0.7)

19.2

(0.9)

23.1

(0.9)

22.9

(0.8)

15.1

(0.8)

5.2

(0.4)

0.7

(0.1)

Italy

1.1

(0.2)

6.6

(0.5)

18.2

(0.9)

30.2

(1.0)

27.8

(1.1)

13.4

(0.7)

2.6

(0.4)

0.2

(0.1)

Japan

0.2

(0.1)

1.8

(0.3)

8.9

(0.6)

19.9

(0.8)

29.7

(1.1)

26.5

(0.9)

11.4

(0.7)

1.6

(0.3)

Korea

0.5

(0.1)

3.1

(0.3)

10.6

(0.7)

21.0

(0.8)

28.6

(0.9)

24.5

(0.9)

10.0

(0.6)

1.8

(0.3)

Latvia

0.3

(0.1)

3.4

(0.4)

14.8

(0.7)

29.5

(0.8)

31.5

(1.1)

16.8

(0.8)

3.5

(0.4)

0.3

(0.1)

Lithuania

0.5

(0.2)

4.7

(0.4)

17.0

(0.8)

28.4

(0.8)

28.7

(0.8)

16.3

(0.6)

4.0

(0.3)

0.5

(0.1)

Luxembourg

0.8

(0.2)

6.8

(0.4)

19.2

(0.6)

25.7

(0.8)

25.6

(0.8)

16.6

(0.6)

4.9

(0.5)

0.5

(0.2)

Mexico

1.0

(0.3)

11.6

(1.0)

34.2

(1.3)

33.9

(0.9)

15.5

(0.9)

3.5

(0.5)

0.3

(0.1)

0.0

c

Netherlands*

0.9

(0.2)

4.8

(0.5)

14.4

(0.8)

22.4

(0.8)

24.9

(1.1)

22.1

(1.0)

9.1

(0.7)

1.5

(0.3)

New Zealand

0.6

(0.2)

4.3

(0.4)

13.1

(0.6)

22.0

(0.6)

26.8

(0.7)

21.8

(0.7)

9.5

(0.6)

1.8

(0.3)

Norway

1.1

(0.2)

5.7

(0.4)

14.1

(0.8)

25.0

(0.9)

28.6

(0.7)

18.7

(0.7)

6.1

(0.5)

0.7

(0.1)

Poland

0.2

(0.1)

2.5

(0.3)

11.1

(0.7)

24.9

(0.8)

30.0

(1.0)

22.0

(0.8)

8.1

(0.7)

1.2

(0.2)

Portugal*

0.4

(0.1)

4.4

(0.6)

14.7

(0.9)

26.2

(0.9)

29.4

(1.0)

19.2

(0.9)

5.1

(0.5)

0.5

(0.2)

Slovak Republic

1.4

(0.2)

7.9

(0.6)

19.9

(0.7)

28.5

(0.9)

25.3

(0.8)

13.2

(0.6)

3.4

(0.3)

0.3

(0.1)

Slovenia

0.2

(0.1)

2.5

(0.3)

11.9

(0.6)

24.6

(0.8)

31.8

(1.0)

21.8

(0.9)

6.7

(0.5)

0.6

(0.2)

Spain

0.6

(0.1)

4.5

(0.3)

16.2

(0.5)

28.4

(0.5)

29.4

(0.5)

16.8

(0.4)

3.9

(0.2)

0.3

(0.1)

Sweden

0.6

(0.2)

4.6

(0.5)

13.8

(0.7)

24.0

(0.7)

28.0

(0.8)

20.7

(0.9)

7.3

(0.5)

1.0

(0.2)

Switzerland

0.4

(0.1)

4.6

(0.5)

15.2

(0.8)

24.9

(0.9)

27.8

(0.9)

19.3

(1.0)

6.9

(0.7)

0.9

(0.2)

Turkey

0.3

(0.1)

4.7

(0.4)

20.1

(0.8)

32.8

(1.0)

27.3

(1.0)

12.3

(0.7)

2.3

(0.4)

0.1

(0.1)

United Kingdom

0.6

(0.2)

3.9

(0.4)

12.9

(0.6)

24.0

(0.8)

28.1

(0.8)

20.8

(0.7)

8.2

(0.6)

1.5

(0.2)

United States*

0.5

(0.2)

4.4

(0.5)

13.7

(0.8)

23.6

(0.9)

27.5

(0.9)

21.1

(0.9)

7.9

(0.7)

1.3

(0.2)

OECD average

0.7

(0.0)

5.2

(0.1)

16.0

(0.1)

25.8

(0.1)

27.4

(0.1)

18.1

(0.1)

5.9

(0.1)

0.8

(0.0)

OECD total

0.7

(0.1)

5.6

(0.2)

17.2

(0.3)

25.9

(0.3)

26.0

(0.3)

17.6

(0.3)

6.1

(0.2)

0.9

(0.1)

All students

Below Level 1b (below 260.54 score points)

Level 1b (from 260.54 to less than 334.94 score points)

Level 1a (from 334.94 to less than 409.54 score points)

Level 2 (from 409.54 to less than 484.14 score points)

Level 3 (from 484.14 to less than 558.73 score points)

Level 4 (from 558.73 to less than 633.33 score points)

Level 5 (from 633.33 to less than 707.93 score points)

Level 6 (above 707.93 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

Partners

Albania

1.5

(0.2)

11.7

(0.7)

33.7

(1.0)

34.8

(1.1)

15.1

(0.7)

2.9

(0.3)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Argentina

4.9

(0.6)

18.2

(1.0)

30.4

(1.1)

27.0

(0.9)

15.0

(0.8)

4.1

(0.4)

0.5

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

2.5

(0.3)

17.3

(1.0)

38.0

(1.0)

29.9

(0.9)

10.3

(0.7)

1.8

(0.4)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Belarus

0.5

(0.2)

5.0

(0.5)

18.7

(0.9)

31.3

(0.9)

28.8

(0.8)

13.1

(0.8)

2.5

(0.4)

0.1

(0.1)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

2.9

(0.4)

18.2

(0.9)

35.6

(1.0)

29.4

(1.2)

11.7

(0.9)

1.9

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Brazil

4.0

(0.4)

19.9

(0.7)

31.4

(0.8)

25.3

(0.7)

13.9

(0.7)

4.6

(0.4)

0.8

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Brunei Darussalam

1.9

(0.3)

14.2

(0.6)

29.7

(0.8)

25.5

(0.5)

17.4

(0.5)

9.0

(0.4)

2.1

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

B-S-J-Z (China)

0.0

(0.0)

0.3

(0.1)

1.8

(0.3)

8.4

(0.6)

23.4

(0.9)

34.6

(1.0)

24.3

(1.1)

7.2

(0.7)

Bulgaria

3.0

(0.5)

15.3

(1.0)

28.3

(0.9)

26.7

(1.1)

17.9

(0.9)

7.4

(0.6)

1.4

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

Costa Rica

1.3

(0.3)

12.0

(0.8)

34.5

(1.2)

34.4

(1.2)

14.9

(1.2)

2.8

(0.6)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Croatia

0.6

(0.2)

5.6

(0.5)

19.1

(0.9)

30.0

(0.8)

26.9

(0.9)

14.2

(0.7)

3.3

(0.4)

0.3

(0.1)

Cyprus

2.0

(0.3)

11.9

(0.6)

25.0

(0.8)

28.9

(1.0)

21.4

(0.7)

9.1

(0.4)

1.5

(0.2)

0.1

(0.1)

Dominican Republic

13.6

(1.0)

39.6

(1.3)

31.6

(1.3)

12.3

(0.9)

2.6

(0.4)

0.3

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Georgia

5.8

(0.5)

22.9

(0.9)

35.7

(0.9)

24.3

(0.9)

9.5

(0.6)

1.7

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Hong Kong (China)*

0.2

(0.1)

2.4

(0.3)

8.9

(0.6)

21.7

(0.8)

33.8

(0.9)

25.0

(0.9)

7.1

(0.6)

0.7

(0.2)

Indonesia

1.8

(0.3)

16.8

(1.0)

41.4

(1.1)

29.2

(1.2)

9.2

(0.8)

1.6

(0.3)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

(0.0)

Jordan

3.2

(0.4)

11.0

(0.8)

26.2

(0.9)

32.4

(1.0)

20.7

(0.9)

6.0

(0.5)

0.6

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Kazakhstan

2.2

(0.3)

17.8

(0.7)

40.3

(0.8)

26.9

(0.8)

9.9

(0.5)

2.5

(0.3)

0.4

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Kosovo

4.2

(0.4)

29.3

(0.9)

43.1

(1.0)

19.2

(0.7)

3.9

(0.4)

0.4

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Lebanon

8.9

(0.8)

23.6

(1.2)

29.7

(1.0)

21.8

(1.0)

11.8

(0.8)

3.6

(0.4)

0.5

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Macao (China)

0.1

(0.1)

0.8

(0.2)

5.1

(0.5)

17.2

(0.7)

32.3

(1.0)

30.8

(0.9)

11.9

(0.6)

1.7

(0.3)

Malaysia

0.7

(0.2)

8.3

(0.7)

27.6

(1.0)

35.9

(1.0)

21.5

(0.9)

5.4

(0.8)

0.6

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Malta

3.4

(0.4)

10.8

(0.7)

19.4

(0.7)

24.9

(0.9)

23.7

(0.9)

13.5

(0.7)

3.9

(0.4)

0.5

(0.1)

Moldova

2.4

(0.3)

12.7

(0.7)

27.4

(0.9)

29.7

(0.9)

20.2

(0.8)

6.6

(0.5)

0.8

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Montenegro

2.2

(0.3)

14.6

(0.6)

31.4

(0.8)

31.5

(0.7)

15.9

(0.6)

4.0

(0.3)

0.3

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Morocco

2.7

(0.4)

26.1

(1.4)

40.7

(1.1)

24.0

(1.4)

6.1

(0.6)

0.4

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

North Macedonia

4.5

(0.4)

15.5

(0.6)

29.4

(0.8)

28.2

(0.9)

16.4

(0.7)

5.2

(0.4)

0.8

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Panama

10.5

(0.9)

27.3

(1.1)

33.5

(1.3)

19.7

(0.8)

7.4

(0.7)

1.5

(0.3)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Peru

2.7

(0.4)

17.3

(0.9)

34.5

(1.1)

29.0

(0.8)

13.2

(0.8)

3.1

(0.5)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

Philippines

7.5

(0.8)

35.3

(1.4)

35.2

(1.2)

15.4

(0.8)

5.6

(0.7)

1.0

(0.3)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

Qatar

5.2

(0.3)

16.6

(0.4)

26.5

(0.6)

24.9

(0.5)

17.0

(0.4)

7.5

(0.3)

2.0

(0.2)

0.2

(0.1)

Romania

2.9

(0.5)

13.1

(1.2)

28.0

(1.4)

29.8

(1.0)

18.9

(1.3)

6.4

(0.8)

0.9

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Russia

0.4

(0.2)

4.1

(0.5)

16.7

(0.9)

31.7

(0.9)

30.0

(0.9)

14.0

(0.8)

2.9

(0.4)

0.2

(0.1)

Saudi Arabia

4.9

(0.6)

21.7

(1.0)

35.6

(1.0)

26.6

(1.0)

9.6

(0.7)

1.5

(0.3)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

Serbia

1.9

(0.3)

11.1

(0.8)

25.3

(1.0)

29.9

(0.9)

21.1

(0.9)

9.1

(0.7)

1.5

(0.2)

0.1

(0.0)

Singapore

0.2

(0.1)

1.8

(0.2)

7.1

(0.4)

15.1

(0.7)

25.4

(0.7)

29.7

(0.7)

17.0

(0.5)

3.8

(0.3)

Chinese Taipei

0.7

(0.2)

3.3

(0.3)

11.2

(0.6)

21.1

(0.9)

28.5

(0.9)

23.5

(0.8)

10.0

(0.8)

1.6

(0.3)

Thailand

1.3

(0.3)

11.6

(0.8)

31.6

(1.1)

31.7

(0.9)

17.8

(1.0)

5.3

(0.7)

0.7

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Ukraine

1.0

(0.2)

6.3

(0.6)

19.2

(0.9)

30.0

(1.1)

26.7

(1.1)

13.4

(0.8)

3.2

(0.5)

0.3

(0.1)

United Arab Emirates

3.7

(0.2)

14.4

(0.5)

24.7

(0.6)

25.6

(0.5)

19.2

(0.5)

9.5

(0.5)

2.6

(0.2)

0.3

(0.1)

Uruguay

2.1

(0.4)

13.2

(0.8)

28.6

(1.0)

30.6

(1.0)

18.7

(0.9)

6.1

(0.5)

0.7

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

Viet Nam**

0.0

(0.0)

0.3

(0.1)

3.6

(0.5)

18.1

(1.2)

36.2

(1.2)

29.8

(1.1)

10.6

(0.8)

1.5

(0.3)

* Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

** The data for Viet Nam have not yet been fully validated. Due to a lack of consistency in the response pattern of some performance data, the OECD cannot yet assure full international comparability of the results (see Annexes A2 and A4).

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Table I.B1.4. Mean score and variation in reading performance

Mean score

Standard deviation

Percentiles

5th

10th

25th

Median (50th)

75th

90th

95th

Mean

S.E.

S.D.

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

OECD

Australia

503

(1.6)

109

(0.9)

315

(2.7)

357

(2.8)

429

(2.2)

507

(1.9)

580

(2.0)

640

(2.2)

673

(2.6)

Austria

484

(2.7)

99

(1.2)

318

(3.9)

350

(3.7)

413

(4.1)

488

(3.8)

558

(2.9)

612

(2.9)

641

(2.9)

Belgium

493

(2.3)

103

(1.3)

317

(4.0)

352

(3.8)

421

(3.2)

498

(2.7)

568

(2.6)

623

(2.6)

653

(2.8)

Canada

520

(1.8)

100

(0.8)

349

(2.8)

388

(2.4)

452

(2.3)

524

(2.2)

592

(2.0)

646

(2.3)

677

(2.8)

Chile

452

(2.6)

92

(1.2)

298

(3.7)

331

(3.6)

389

(3.1)

453

(3.2)

517

(3.4)

572

(3.3)

602

(3.5)

Colombia

412

(3.3)

89

(1.5)

272

(4.1)

300

(3.7)

350

(3.5)

408

(3.8)

472

(4.1)

532

(4.7)

566

(4.9)

Czech Republic

490

(2.5)

97

(1.6)

328

(5.2)

362

(4.3)

422

(3.7)

492

(3.0)

560

(2.9)

616

(2.8)

647

(3.1)

Denmark

501

(1.8)

92

(1.2)

344

(4.0)

380

(3.0)

439

(2.7)

504

(2.2)

566

(2.1)

618

(2.6)

647

(3.3)

Estonia

523

(1.8)

93

(1.2)

367

(3.8)

402

(3.5)

460

(2.6)

524

(2.3)

587

(2.3)

643

(3.1)

676

(3.7)

Finland

520

(2.3)

100

(1.3)

345

(4.7)

387

(4.2)

455

(3.2)

527

(2.8)

591

(2.5)

643

(3.0)

672

(3.3)

France

493

(2.3)

101

(1.5)

319

(4.3)

355

(3.5)

423

(3.0)

497

(3.0)

567

(3.3)

622

(3.6)

651

(4.0)

Germany

498

(3.0)

106

(1.5)

316

(5.0)

354

(4.5)

424

(4.4)

504

(4.1)

576

(3.5)

632

(3.5)

663

(3.6)

Greece

457

(3.6)

97

(1.6)

292

(4.8)

326

(4.9)

390

(4.9)

460

(4.1)

526

(3.7)

583

(3.9)

614

(5.0)

Hungary

476

(2.3)

98

(1.3)

311

(3.7)

346

(4.0)

407

(3.0)

479

(3.1)

547

(2.9)

602

(3.7)

631

(4.1)

Iceland

474

(1.7)

105

(1.3)

293

(4.4)

332

(4.0)

402

(3.3)

477

(2.7)

549

(3.0)

609

(3.3)

640

(3.8)

Ireland

518

(2.2)

91

(1.0)

364

(4.1)

398

(3.5)

456

(2.8)

520

(2.4)

583

(2.6)

635

(2.8)

663

(3.8)

Israel

470

(3.7)

124

(1.9)

256

(5.4)

296

(5.9)

381

(5.8)

479

(4.9)

563

(3.8)

628

(3.7)

663

(3.9)

Italy

476

(2.4)

97

(1.7)

306

(5.5)

345

(4.6)

413

(3.2)

481

(2.9)

545

(3.0)

598

(3.4)

628

(3.5)

Japan

504

(2.7)

97

(1.7)

337

(5.1)

374

(4.5)

438

(3.7)

508

(3.0)

572

(3.1)

627

(3.7)

657

(4.1)

Korea

514

(2.9)

102

(1.7)

329

(5.8)

377

(4.9)

449

(3.8)

522

(3.1)

585

(3.1)

640

(3.9)

669

(4.1)

Latvia

479

(1.6)

90

(1.1)

328

(3.6)

360

(3.2)

415

(2.3)

480

(2.2)

542

(2.3)

595

(2.7)

624

(3.0)

Lithuania

476

(1.5)

94

(1.0)

316

(3.5)

351

(2.7)

410

(2.6)

479

(2.3)

543

(1.9)

597

(1.8)

625

(3.2)

Luxembourg

470

(1.1)

108

(1.0)

291

(3.1)

325

(2.1)

392

(2.0)

472

(1.8)

548

(1.9)

612

(2.8)

646

(3.9)

Mexico

420

(2.7)

84

(1.6)

286

(3.9)

314

(3.5)

362

(2.8)

419

(2.9)

476

(3.5)

530

(4.2)

562

(5.8)

Netherlands*

485

(2.7)

105

(1.7)

309

(5.2)

344

(4.4)

410

(3.5)

486

(3.7)

562

(3.4)

621

(3.3)

651

(3.4)

New Zealand

506

(2.0)

106

(1.3)

322

(4.8)

362

(3.7)

432

(3.2)

511

(2.9)

584

(2.1)

640

(2.9)

671

(2.9)

Norway

499

(2.2)

106

(1.3)

310

(4.3)

356

(4.3)

430

(3.2)

506

(2.7)

576

(3.1)

632

(2.9)

661

(3.0)

Poland

512

(2.7)

97

(1.4)

347

(4.5)

384

(3.6)

446

(2.9)

515

(3.3)

581

(3.4)

636

(4.0)

667

(4.1)

Portugal*

492

(2.4)

96

(1.2)

327

(4.7)

362

(4.0)

425

(3.4)

497

(2.9)

562

(2.9)

613

(2.7)

640

(4.4)

Slovak Republic

458

(2.2)

100

(1.4)

291

(4.3)

326

(4.0)

388

(3.1)

458

(2.9)

529

(3.1)

590

(3.3)

623

(3.5)

Slovenia

495

(1.2)

94

(1.2)

335

(3.9)

372

(3.0)

431

(2.2)

499

(1.9)

561

(2.1)

614

(2.8)

644

(3.4)

Spain

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Sweden

506

(3.0)

108

(1.5)

317

(5.5)

360

(5.7)

434

(4.1)

512

(3.4)

583

(3.2)

640

(3.5)

672

(3.7)

Switzerland

484

(3.1)

103

(1.5)

308

(5.1)

345

(4.6)

413

(4.0)

488

(3.6)

558

(3.8)

615

(4.0)

647

(4.4)

Turkey

466

(2.2)

88

(1.6)

321

(4.6)

351

(4.1)

404

(3.0)

466

(2.6)

527

(2.4)

581

(3.1)

610

(4.6)

United Kingdom

504

(2.6)

100

(1.3)

334

(4.4)

372

(4.3)

435

(3.2)

506

(2.7)

575

(3.1)

632

(3.5)

664

(3.8)

United States*

505

(3.6)

108

(1.6)

321

(5.7)

361

(5.3)

430

(4.4)

510

(4.1)

584

(4.3)

643

(3.9)

676

(4.6)

OECD average-36a

487

(0.4)

99

(0.2)

318

(0.7)

354

(0.7)

419

(0.6)

490

(0.5)

558

(0.5)

614

(0.5)

644

(0.6)

OECD total

485

(1.2)

105

(0.6)

311

(1.6)

347

(1.5)

411

(1.4)

486

(1.4)

560

(1.4)

620

(1.6)

654

(1.8)

Mean score

Standard deviation

Percentiles

5th

10th

25th

Median (50th)

75th

90th

95th

Mean

S.E.

S.D.

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Partners

Albania

405

(1.9)

80

(1.2)

277

(2.9)

303

(2.9)

349

(2.2)

403

(2.1)

459

(2.8)

510

(3.3)

542

(4.1)

Argentina

402

(3.0)

98

(1.5)

240

(4.5)

274

(4.2)

333

(3.4)

402

(3.6)

471

(3.6)

529

(3.4)

561

(3.9)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

389

(2.5)

74

(1.7)

270

(2.6)

294

(2.5)

338

(2.4)

389

(2.4)

438

(3.0)

485

(4.6)

514

(6.3)

Belarus

474

(2.4)

89

(1.3)

322

(4.5)

355

(3.4)

412

(3.1)

475

(3.0)

538

(3.0)

589

(3.1)

617

(4.0)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

403

(2.9)

79

(1.2)

278

(3.1)

303

(2.8)

346

(3.0)

400

(3.5)

458

(3.7)

509

(4.1)

537

(4.0)

Brazil

413

(2.1)

100

(1.3)

258

(2.6)

286

(2.6)

340

(2.3)

408

(2.4)

482

(3.1)

548

(3.7)

584

(4.1)

Brunei Darussalam

408

(0.9)

97

(0.8)

258

(1.9)

284

(1.9)

335

(1.4)

403

(1.5)

476

(1.7)

542

(2.5)

578

(2.5)

B-S-J-Z (China)

555

(2.7)

87

(1.7)

406

(5.9)

441

(4.2)

498

(3.5)

559

(2.9)

617

(3.1)

666

(3.5)

692

(4.8)

Bulgaria

420

(3.9)

101

(1.8)

263

(4.3)

290

(4.5)

344

(4.9)

416

(4.8)

491

(5.0)

557

(5.2)

594

(5.3)

Costa Rica

426

(3.4)

81

(1.7)

295

(3.8)

323

(3.1)

370

(2.9)

424

(3.5)

483

(4.5)

534

(5.9)

563

(6.4)

Croatia

479

(2.7)

89

(1.7)

329

(5.2)

362

(4.6)

418

(3.7)

480

(3.2)

542

(2.9)

594

(3.2)

623

(3.9)

Cyprus

424

(1.4)

98

(0.9)

265

(2.7)

295

(2.9)

353

(2.3)

424

(1.9)

494

(2.0)

554

(2.6)

587

(3.0)

Dominican Republic

342

(2.9)

82

(1.8)

221

(2.8)

241

(2.5)

281

(2.7)

334

(3.2)

395

(4.0)

453

(5.5)

488

(6.1)

Georgia

380

(2.2)

84

(1.2)

249

(3.1)

274

(2.5)

319

(2.6)

374

(2.7)

436

(2.8)

493

(3.6)

526

(3.8)

Hong Kong (China)*

524

(2.7)

99

(1.5)

342

(6.7)

390

(5.5)

463

(3.7)

533

(2.9)

595

(2.6)

645

(2.5)

673

(3.3)

Indonesia

371

(2.6)

75

(1.7)

254

(3.6)

277

(3.1)

318

(2.8)

367

(2.8)

420

(3.6)

472

(5.1)

502

(5.7)

Jordan

419

(2.9)

87

(1.7)

261

(6.9)

303

(5.7)

366

(3.9)

426

(3.0)

480

(2.6)

524

(3.1)

550

(3.6)

Kazakhstan

387

(1.5)

77

(1.2)

271

(2.5)

294

(2.2)

333

(1.7)

380

(1.5)

433

(1.9)

490

(2.9)

527

(4.1)

Kosovo

353

(1.1)

68

(0.7)

245

(2.2)

265

(2.1)

304

(1.9)

352

(1.7)

398

(1.7)

442

(2.0)

470

(3.1)

Lebanon

353

(4.3)

113

(1.6)

180

(4.9)

211

(4.6)

268

(4.6)

347

(5.7)

434

(5.2)

507

(5.0)

546

(5.7)

Macao (China)

525

(1.2)

92

(1.1)

365

(5.0)

403

(3.2)

464

(2.3)

530

(1.7)

590

(2.1)

641

(3.0)

670

(2.8)

Malaysia

415

(2.9)

85

(1.6)

273

(3.5)

302

(3.4)

357

(3.1)

417

(3.2)

474

(3.4)

524

(4.2)

552

(5.0)

Malta

448

(1.7)

113

(1.2)

258

(4.2)

295

(3.2)

369

(3.0)

452

(2.6)

529

(3.0)

593

(3.3)

628

(4.3)

Moldova

424

(2.4)

93

(1.6)

268

(4.4)

301

(3.3)

358

(2.9)

425

(3.1)

491

(3.4)

544

(3.7)

573

(4.9)

Montenegro

421

(1.1)

86

(0.8)

281

(2.6)

310

(2.1)

360

(1.6)

420

(1.7)

480

(1.6)

534

(2.0)

566

(2.7)

Morocco

359

(3.1)

75

(1.1)

244

(2.6)

265

(2.6)

304

(3.0)

355

(3.9)

412

(4.0)

460

(3.6)

488

(3.9)

North Macedonia

393

(1.1)

94

(1.0)

233

(3.4)

268

(2.7)

328

(2.2)

395

(1.9)

460

(1.8)

513

(2.4)

543

(2.7)

Panama

377

(3.0)

88

(1.9)

237

(4.0)

265

(3.7)

315

(3.0)

374

(3.0)

436

(4.2)

493

(5.6)

528

(6.7)

Peru

401

(3.0)

92

(1.5)

256

(3.5)

283

(2.9)

334

(3.3)

397

(3.3)

463

(3.8)

523

(4.9)

558

(6.3)

Philippines

340

(3.3)

80

(2.3)

230

(2.6)

248

(2.3)

281

(2.3)

327

(3.1)

388

(4.7)

453

(7.2)

491

(8.3)

Qatar

407

(0.8)

110

(0.6)

233

(1.9)

264

(1.8)

326

(1.5)

405

(1.3)

483

(1.2)

552

(1.8)

592

(2.1)

Romania

428

(5.1)

98

(2.2)

261

(6.5)

297

(6.0)

361

(6.1)

431

(6.0)

497

(6.0)

554

(5.9)

584

(5.5)

Russia

479

(3.1)

93

(1.8)

321

(5.4)

357

(4.8)

416

(3.7)

480

(3.4)

543

(3.3)

597

(3.6)

629

(4.4)

Saudi Arabia

399

(3.0)

84

(1.6)

256

(4.8)

286

(4.4)

341

(4.0)

402

(3.4)

459

(3.1)

507

(3.0)

534

(3.5)

Serbia

439

(3.3)

96

(1.4)

282

(4.0)

312

(3.9)

370

(4.4)

440

(4.1)

508

(3.5)

566

(3.5)

599

(3.8)

Singapore

549

(1.6)

109

(1.0)

352

(3.8)

398

(3.9)

478

(2.3)

559

(2.1)

628

(2.0)

684

(2.5)

714

(2.6)

Chinese Taipei

503

(2.8)

102

(1.5)

325

(4.2)

367

(3.8)

435

(3.4)

508

(3.1)

576

(3.7)

630

(3.8)

661

(4.5)

Thailand

393

(3.2)

79

(1.6)

271

(3.4)

295

(3.2)

337

(3.2)

388

(3.5)

445

(4.4)

501

(5.1)

533

(5.8)

Ukraine

466

(3.5)

93

(1.7)

302

(6.2)

340

(5.2)

404

(4.8)

472

(3.5)

532

(3.5)

582

(3.8)

612

(4.8)

United Arab Emirates

432

(2.3)

113

(0.9)

251

(2.4)

284

(2.7)

348

(2.5)

429

(2.6)

511

(3.5)

584

(3.1)

624

(3.0)

Uruguay

427

(2.8)

96

(1.6)

267

(3.5)

299

(3.6)

360

(3.6)

427

(3.2)

495

(3.6)

552

(4.5)

585

(4.1)

Viet Nam**

505

(3.6)

74

(1.7)

381

(4.9)

409

(4.6)

456

(3.9)

505

(3.7)

554

(4.1)

599

(4.7)

625

(5.5)

* Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

** The data for Viet Nam have not yet been fully validated. Due to a lack of consistency in the response pattern of some performance data, the OECD cannot yet assure full international comparability of the results (see Annexes A2 and A4).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934029090

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Table I.B1.5. Mean score and variation in mathematics performance

Mean score

Standard deviation

Percentiles

5th

10th

25th

Median (50th)

75th

90th

95th

Mean

S.E.

S.D.

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

OECD

Australia

491

(1.9)

92

(1.2)

339

(3.8)

371

(3.0)

428

(2.2)

492

(2.1)

555

(2.0)

609

(2.7)

641

(3.6)

Austria

499

(3.0)

93

(1.5)

341

(4.4)

374

(4.4)

433

(4.0)

503

(3.7)

566

(3.5)

618

(3.3)

646

(3.6)

Belgium

508

(2.3)

95

(1.7)

344

(4.3)

377

(4.1)

440

(3.2)

514

(2.5)

579

(2.6)

628

(3.4)

656

(3.7)

Canada

512

(2.4)

92

(1.1)

358

(3.2)

392

(3.0)

449

(2.8)

513

(2.6)

576

(2.7)

629

(2.7)

661

(3.2)

Chile

417

(2.4)

85

(1.4)

282

(3.9)

311

(3.5)

359

(2.9)

416

(2.9)

475

(3.2)

528

(3.5)

559

(4.1)

Colombia

391

(3.0)

81

(2.0)

262

(5.4)

290

(3.9)

335

(3.5)

387

(3.5)

445

(3.8)

499

(4.5)

531

(4.4)

Czech Republic

499

(2.5)

93

(1.7)

345

(5.2)

378

(4.6)

435

(3.6)

501

(2.7)

564

(2.8)

619

(3.1)

650

(3.9)

Denmark

509

(1.7)

82

(1.0)

370

(3.6)

401

(2.6)

454

(2.3)

512

(2.3)

567

(2.3)

613

(2.8)

640

(3.5)

Estonia

523

(1.7)

82

(1.1)

390

(3.1)

419

(2.9)

468

(2.4)

524

(2.0)

579

(2.2)

628

(2.7)

657

(3.6)

Finland

507

(2.0)

82

(1.2)

368

(3.6)

399

(3.4)

451

(2.5)

510

(2.5)

565

(2.4)

612

(2.5)

639

(3.3)

France

495

(2.3)

93

(1.5)

333

(4.3)

370

(3.4)

433

(3.2)

502

(3.0)

562

(3.2)

611

(3.3)

638

(3.6)

Germany

500

(2.6)

95

(1.5)

337

(4.6)

373

(4.2)

433

(3.6)

504

(3.5)

570

(3.3)

621

(3.2)

650

(3.4)

Greece

451

(3.1)

89

(1.8)

302

(4.9)

334

(4.7)

391

(4.1)

454

(3.3)

513

(3.2)

565

(3.8)

595

(4.7)

Hungary

481

(2.3)

91

(1.6)

328

(3.9)

360

(4.0)

418

(3.3)

484

(2.9)

546

(3.0)

597

(3.7)

626

(4.7)

Iceland

495

(2.0)

90

(1.2)

340

(3.8)

374

(4.2)

434

(3.4)

499

(2.7)

559

(2.7)

609

(3.0)

638

(4.1)

Ireland

500

(2.2)

78

(1.0)

367

(3.6)

397

(3.3)

447

(2.6)

502

(2.5)

554

(2.3)

599

(3.0)

625

(3.5)

Israel

463

(3.5)

108

(1.9)

276

(6.2)

315

(5.5)

388

(5.0)

468

(4.0)

542

(3.6)

600

(3.9)

632

(3.9)

Italy

487

(2.8)

94

(1.8)

327

(5.5)

363

(4.7)

423

(3.1)

490

(3.5)

552

(3.3)

605

(3.9)

635

(4.9)

Japan

527

(2.5)

86

(1.6)

380

(4.3)

413

(3.9)

468

(3.1)

530

(2.9)

589

(2.8)

637

(3.8)

664

(4.5)

Korea

526

(3.1)

100

(2.0)

354

(5.0)

393

(4.4)

460

(3.8)

530

(3.4)

596

(3.6)

651

(4.6)

684

(5.9)

Latvia

496

(2.0)

80

(1.1)

363

(4.1)

393

(3.2)

441

(2.4)

497

(2.4)

551

(2.5)

599

(3.1)

628

(3.4)

Lithuania

481

(2.0)

91

(1.1)

330

(4.1)

362

(3.6)

418

(2.8)

483

(2.3)

545

(2.2)

598

(2.8)

630

(3.2)

Luxembourg

483

(1.1)

98

(1.3)

321

(3.4)

353

(2.9)

413

(2.1)

485

(2.0)

555

(2.0)

611

(2.4)

641

(2.9)

Mexico

409

(2.5)

78

(1.6)

284

(3.8)

311

(3.6)

356

(2.7)

408

(2.7)

461

(3.1)

510

(3.6)

539

(4.5)

Netherlands*

519

(2.6)

93

(1.8)

362

(5.0)

394

(4.8)

453

(4.0)

524

(3.0)

588

(2.7)

638

(3.6)

664

(3.7)

New Zealand

494

(1.7)

93

(1.1)

339

(3.7)

372

(3.0)

430

(2.5)

496

(2.3)

560

(2.2)

614

(2.2)

645

(3.7)

Norway

501

(2.2)

90

(1.3)

345

(4.1)

381

(3.9)

441

(2.9)

504

(2.8)

565

(2.4)

617

(3.1)

645

(4.4)

Poland

516

(2.6)

90

(1.7)

366

(4.7)

398

(3.8)

455

(2.9)

517

(2.8)

578

(3.1)

631

(4.2)

661

(4.7)

Portugal*

492

(2.7)

96

(1.3)

327

(5.2)

362

(3.8)

426

(3.6)

497

(3.2)

562

(3.0)

614

(3.6)

643

(4.5)

Slovak Republic

486

(2.6)

100

(1.7)

315

(6.0)

353

(5.4)

420

(4.1)

492

(3.0)

556

(2.7)

610

(3.1)

640

(3.7)

Slovenia

509

(1.4)

89

(1.4)

360

(5.3)

392

(3.0)

448

(2.3)

511

(1.8)

571

(2.3)

622

(2.8)

652

(3.4)

Spain

481

(1.5)

88

(1.0)

331

(2.8)

365

(2.4)

421

(1.8)

484

(1.6)

544

(1.8)

593

(2.2)

621

(2.4)

Sweden

502

(2.7)

91

(1.4)

348

(5.7)

383

(4.6)

441

(3.7)

505

(3.2)

567

(2.9)

618

(3.3)

647

(3.8)

Switzerland

515

(2.9)

94

(1.4)

360

(4.4)

391

(3.5)

448

(3.8)

518

(3.7)

582

(3.4)

636

(4.3)

668

(4.8)

Turkey

454

(2.3)

88

(1.8)

314

(4.3)

343

(3.8)

392

(3.2)

450

(2.4)

512

(2.7)

571

(4.0)

605

(5.3)

United Kingdom

502

(2.6)

93

(1.4)

346

(4.1)

381

(4.0)

439

(2.9)

504

(2.7)

567

(3.0)

620

(3.3)

651

(4.2)

United States*

478

(3.2)

92

(1.5)

326

(5.0)

357

(4.6)

414

(4.0)

479

(3.8)

543

(3.9)

598

(4.3)

629

(4.6)

OECD average

489

(0.4)

91

(0.2)

337

(0.7)

370

(0.6)

427

(0.5)

492

(0.5)

553

(0.5)

605

(0.6)

634

(0.7)

OECD total

478

(1.0)

97

(0.5)

318

(1.7)

350

(1.5)

409

(1.3)

478

(1.2)

547

(1.2)

604

(1.3)

636

(1.5)

Mean score

Standard deviation

Percentiles

5th

10th

25th

Median (50th)

75th

90th

95th

Mean

S.E.

S.D.

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Partners

Albania

437

(2.4)

83

(1.3)

303

(3.6)

332

(3.1)

381

(2.9)

436

(3.0)

493

(2.8)

544

(3.5)

575

(3.8)

Argentina

379

(2.8)

84

(1.7)

243

(4.6)

272

(4.1)

322

(3.6)

378

(3.1)

436

(3.5)

489

(3.8)

520

(4.0)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

420

(2.8)

89

(1.7)

276

(3.8)

306

(3.4)

359

(2.9)

418

(3.1)

480

(3.8)

535

(5.0)

570

(5.4)

Belarus

472

(2.7)

93

(1.4)

318

(5.0)

351

(3.4)

407

(3.1)

473

(3.0)

537

(3.2)

592

(3.5)

623

(4.1)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

406

(3.1)

82

(1.3)

276

(4.1)

303

(3.2)

349

(3.2)

404

(3.5)

462

(3.7)

514

(4.4)

545

(4.3)

Brazil

384

(2.0)

88

(1.6)

251

(3.1)

277

(2.5)

322

(2.3)

377

(2.4)

440

(2.8)

501

(3.9)

538

(4.9)

Brunei Darussalam

430

(1.2)

91

(1.0)

287

(3.4)

316

(2.4)

365

(2.0)

425

(1.6)

492

(2.0)

555

(2.2)

588

(3.4)

B-S-J-Z (China)

591

(2.5)

80

(1.8)

452

(5.2)

486

(4.2)

540

(3.0)

596

(2.7)

647

(3.0)

691

(3.2)

716

(3.6)

Bulgaria

436

(3.8)

97

(2.1)

280

(6.1)

311

(4.6)

368

(4.6)

434

(4.2)

503

(4.1)

563

(5.7)

599

(6.8)

Costa Rica

402

(3.3)

75

(2.0)

282

(4.2)

308

(3.4)

352

(2.7)

401

(3.3)

452

(4.2)

499

(5.5)

528

(7.0)

Croatia

464

(2.5)

87

(1.7)

323

(4.6)

354

(3.9)

405

(3.0)

463

(2.9)

523

(3.1)

577

(3.9)

608

(4.2)

Cyprus

451

(1.4)

95

(1.1)

292

(3.5)

325

(2.8)

385

(2.5)

454

(1.9)

517

(2.1)

571

(2.4)

601

(3.4)

Dominican Republic

325

(2.6)

71

(2.0)

214

(3.2)

236

(2.7)

276

(2.7)

322

(2.9)

370

(3.2)

417

(4.8)

449

(6.6)

Georgia

398

(2.6)

88

(1.6)

257

(3.9)

286

(3.5)

336

(2.9)

394

(2.8)

457

(3.7)

515

(4.4)

548

(6.0)

Hong Kong (China)*

551

(3.0)

94

(1.9)

387

(6.2)

426

(5.4)

490

(4.2)

557

(3.1)

617

(2.8)

667

(3.5)

696

(4.5)

Indonesia

379

(3.1)

79

(2.2)

255

(4.3)

281

(3.9)

325

(3.2)

376

(3.1)

427

(3.7)

480

(5.9)

517

(8.7)

Jordan

400

(3.3)

85

(1.7)

259

(4.6)

291

(4.2)

343

(3.4)

400

(3.4)

458

(3.9)

508

(4.3)

539

(5.2)

Kazakhstan

423

(1.9)

87

(1.1)

282

(3.2)

314

(2.4)

365

(2.2)

422

(2.0)

480

(2.2)

535

(3.0)

568

(3.1)

Kosovo

366

(1.5)

77

(1.3)

243

(3.7)

269

(2.7)

313

(2.1)

364

(1.8)

416

(2.3)

465

(3.3)

497

(4.0)

Lebanon

393

(4.0)

106

(1.6)

224

(5.2)

256

(4.8)

317

(5.1)

391

(5.0)

469

(5.0)

533

(4.7)

569

(4.7)

Macao (China)

558

(1.5)

81

(1.5)

420

(4.1)

452

(3.6)

505

(2.3)

561

(2.3)

613

(2.2)

659

(2.6)

685

(3.4)

Malaysia

440

(2.9)

83

(1.7)

307

(3.6)

335

(3.0)

383

(3.1)

438

(3.0)

496

(3.9)

550

(4.8)

580

(5.9)

Malta

472

(1.9)

102

(1.4)

297

(4.4)

334

(3.4)

401

(3.6)

478

(2.7)

545

(2.7)

599

(3.5)

630

(4.8)

Moldova

421

(2.4)

94

(1.7)

268

(3.8)

300

(3.1)

354

(2.6)

419

(2.7)

486

(3.2)

543

(4.4)

578

(5.7)

Montenegro

430

(1.2)

83

(1.0)

295

(2.8)

324

(2.2)

371

(1.9)

429

(1.7)

487

(1.6)

538

(2.1)

569

(3.1)

Morocco

368

(3.3)

76

(1.5)

249

(3.5)

273

(3.2)

314

(3.3)

363

(3.6)

418

(4.4)

469

(4.4)

499

(5.0)

North Macedonia

394

(1.6)

93

(1.2)

243

(3.9)

275

(2.9)

330

(2.1)

394

(2.4)

458

(2.2)

516

(3.5)

550

(4.4)

Panama

353

(2.7)

77

(2.1)

228

(5.0)

255

(3.9)

300

(2.9)

351

(2.7)

403

(3.6)

454

(5.5)

485

(6.3)

Peru

400

(2.6)

84

(1.5)

266

(3.4)

293

(3.1)

341

(2.9)

397

(2.9)

456

(3.5)

511

(4.1)

544

(5.1)

Philippines

353

(3.5)

78

(2.0)

229

(4.2)

255

(3.7)

299

(3.2)

349

(3.4)

403

(4.5)

456

(6.0)

488

(7.4)

Qatar

414

(1.2)

98

(0.9)

259

(2.8)

290

(2.2)

345

(1.6)

411

(1.8)

481

(1.6)

544

(2.1)

582

(2.5)

Romania

430

(4.9)

94

(2.1)

277

(5.7)

310

(5.4)

365

(4.7)

428

(5.7)

495

(6.1)

554

(6.9)

588

(7.2)

Russia

488

(3.0)

86

(1.9)

344

(5.5)

376

(4.3)

430

(4.0)

489

(3.1)

547

(3.3)

597

(3.9)

627

(4.2)

Saudi Arabia

373

(3.0)

79

(1.6)

246

(4.6)

273

(4.3)

319

(3.4)

372

(3.3)

426

(3.6)

475

(3.6)

505

(4.1)

Serbia

448

(3.2)

97

(1.7)

293

(5.3)

324

(4.3)

380

(3.9)

446

(3.8)

516

(3.8)

576

(3.9)

609

(3.9)

Singapore

569

(1.6)

94

(1.2)

401

(3.4)

441

(2.9)

508

(2.4)

576

(2.0)

636

(2.1)

684

(2.7)

713

(3.0)

Chinese Taipei

531

(2.9)

100

(1.7)

358

(4.6)

397

(3.9)

466

(3.8)

537

(3.1)

601

(3.5)

656

(4.4)

686

(5.3)

Thailand

419

(3.4)

88

(1.8)

282

(4.8)

310

(3.6)

358

(3.3)

414

(3.7)

475

(4.3)

535

(5.8)

572

(6.1)

Ukraine

453

(3.6)

94

(1.9)

297

(5.2)

331

(4.4)

390

(4.2)

454

(4.1)

517

(4.1)

573

(5.0)

607

(5.7)

United Arab Emirates

435

(2.1)

106

(1.2)

265

(3.9)

299

(3.2)

360

(2.8)

433

(2.7)

509

(2.6)

574

(2.4)

611

(3.2)

Uruguay

418

(2.6)

85

(1.7)

276

(4.4)

307

(3.5)

359

(3.1)

419

(3.4)

477

(3.7)

529

(3.9)

558

(4.4)

Viet Nam**

496

(4.0)

75

(2.0)

373

(5.0)

400

(5.0)

445

(4.4)

496

(4.1)

546

(4.5)

591

(5.1)

619

(5.8)

* Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

** The data for Viet Nam have not yet been fully validated. Due to a lack of consistency in the response pattern of some performance data, the OECD cannot yet assure full international comparability of the results (see Annexes A2 and A4).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934029090

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Table I.B1.6. Mean score and variation in science performance

Mean score

Standard deviation

Percentiles

5th

10th

25th

Median (50th)

75th

90th

95th

Mean

S.E.

S.D.

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

OECD

Australia

503

(1.8)

101

(1.1)

334

(2.7)

369

(2.6)

432

(2.2)

506

(2.3)

575

(2.2)

631

(2.7)

664

(3.8)

Austria

490

(2.8)

96

(1.2)

332

(3.8)

361

(3.1)

420

(3.6)

493

(3.5)

560

(3.1)

614

(3.3)

642

(3.7)

Belgium

499

(2.2)

99

(1.3)

328

(4.2)

363

(4.0)

428

(3.4)

505

(2.6)

571

(2.5)

624

(2.3)

652

(2.8)

Canada

518

(2.2)

96

(1.0)

357

(2.6)

393

(2.3)

453

(2.5)

520

(2.6)

586

(2.6)

640

(2.5)

671

(3.6)

Chile

444

(2.4)

83

(1.4)

309

(3.6)

336

(3.1)

385

(3.0)

442

(2.9)

502

(3.3)

553

(3.3)

584

(3.8)

Colombia

413

(3.1)

82

(1.4)

287

(3.8)

311

(3.7)

355

(3.6)

409

(3.6)

469

(4.0)

524

(4.1)

555

(4.2)

Czech Republic

497

(2.5)

94

(1.6)

341

(4.8)

373

(4.0)

430

(3.7)

497

(3.1)

564

(3.1)

620

(2.9)

651

(3.6)

Denmark

493

(1.9)

91

(1.3)

337

(3.8)

372

(3.4)

431

(2.6)

496

(2.5)

558

(2.6)

609

(3.1)

637

(3.6)

Estonia

530

(1.9)

88

(1.2)

384

(3.9)

417

(3.5)

469

(2.9)

531

(2.4)

591

(2.4)

644

(2.7)

674

(3.0)

Finland

522

(2.5)

96

(1.3)

356

(4.4)

393

(4.1)

458

(3.2)

526

(2.9)

590

(2.8)

643

(2.9)

673

(3.8)

France

493

(2.2)

96

(1.4)

330

(4.2)

364

(3.5)

425

(3.1)

497

(3.1)

563

(2.9)

615

(3.2)

644

(3.8)

Germany

503

(2.9)

103

(1.6)

328

(5.2)

363

(4.0)

430

(3.9)

508

(3.9)

577

(3.5)

633

(3.3)

665

(3.3)

Greece

452

(3.1)

86

(1.6)

309

(5.2)

338

(4.6)

392

(4.1)

453

(3.6)

513

(3.3)

561

(3.4)

591

(4.2)

Hungary

481

(2.3)

94

(1.4)

325

(4.4)

356

(3.9)

412

(3.1)

484

(3.1)

549

(3.3)

602

(3.6)

631

(4.1)

Iceland

475

(1.8)

91

(1.0)

325

(3.6)

354

(3.1)

410

(3.0)

476

(2.6)

540

(2.7)

594

(3.1)

623

(3.7)

Ireland

496

(2.2)

88

(1.2)

348

(4.1)

380

(3.5)

435

(2.6)

498

(2.6)

558

(2.6)

610

(3.2)

639

(4.2)

Israel

462

(3.6)

111

(1.9)

279

(5.6)

314

(5.0)

381

(5.1)

464

(5.0)

544

(3.7)

607

(3.8)

640

(4.0)

Italy

468

(2.4)

90

(1.7)

316

(4.7)

348

(3.9)

407

(3.1)

470

(3.0)

532

(3.0)

583

(3.7)

612

(4.7)

Japan

529

(2.6)

92

(1.6)

371

(4.5)

405

(4.4)

466

(3.7)

534

(2.9)

595

(3.0)

646

(3.5)

673

(3.9)

Korea

519

(2.8)

98

(1.7)

352

(4.9)

388

(4.1)

453

(3.7)

524

(3.3)

589

(3.1)

642

(3.8)

672

(4.4)

Latvia

487

(1.8)

84

(1.2)

347

(3.8)

377

(3.3)

429

(2.8)

489

(2.2)

546

(2.3)

595

(2.7)

623

(3.3)

Lithuania

482

(1.6)

90

(1.0)

334

(3.6)

364

(2.9)

418

(2.8)

483

(2.2)

546

(1.8)

599

(2.3)

629

(3.0)

Luxembourg

477

(1.2)

98

(1.2)

317

(3.6)

347

(2.6)

404

(2.1)

477

(1.7)

549

(2.2)

606

(2.9)

637

(3.8)

Mexico

419

(2.6)

74

(1.6)

303

(4.3)

326

(3.9)

367

(2.7)

416

(2.7)

469

(3.0)

518

(4.3)

548

(4.5)

Netherlands*

503

(2.8)

104

(1.9)

329

(5.5)

364

(5.2)

428

(4.5)

508

(3.7)

581

(3.1)

636

(3.5)

666

(3.8)

New Zealand

508

(2.1)

102

(1.4)

336

(4.5)

371

(3.7)

437

(2.8)

512

(2.7)

582

(2.7)

640

(2.9)

670

(3.3)

Norway

490

(2.3)

98

(1.2)

321

(4.5)

357

(3.9)

424

(3.3)

495

(2.5)

560

(2.8)

616

(2.9)

645

(3.4)

Poland

511

(2.6)

92

(1.4)

359

(4.2)

392

(3.4)

448

(2.8)

511

(3.0)

576

(3.4)

630

(4.0)

660

(4.4)

Portugal*

492

(2.8)

92

(1.3)

336

(5.6)

368

(4.3)

427

(3.6)

494

(3.0)

558

(3.1)

609

(3.5)

638

(4.1)

Slovak Republic

464

(2.3)

96

(1.5)

307

(3.9)

338

(3.5)

397

(3.2)

464

(2.9)

531

(2.9)

589

(3.5)

622

(3.7)

Slovenia

507

(1.3)

88

(1.1)

359

(3.3)

390

(3.4)

447

(2.1)

510

(1.9)

569

(1.9)

621

(2.8)

648

(3.7)

Spain

483

(1.6)

89

(0.8)

334

(2.3)

365

(2.4)

421

(1.9)

485

(1.7)

547

(1.8)

598

(2.2)

627

(2.2)

Sweden

499

(3.1)

98

(1.5)

333

(6.0)

368

(5.1)

431

(4.0)

503

(3.4)

570

(3.1)

624

(3.3)

655

(3.8)

Switzerland

495

(3.0)

97

(1.4)

335

(3.9)

367

(3.5)

426

(3.8)

497

(3.8)

565

(4.0)

622

(4.6)

651

(4.0)

Turkey

468

(2.0)

84

(1.6)

335

(3.4)

361

(3.1)

409

(2.8)

466

(2.3)

526

(2.4)

579

(3.9)

608

(4.8)

United Kingdom

505

(2.6)

99

(1.4)

340

(4.7)

374

(3.8)

437

(3.2)

507

(2.7)

575

(3.2)

632

(3.2)

664

(3.7)

United States*

502

(3.3)

99

(1.6)

336

(6.1)

371

(4.9)

433

(4.4)

505

(3.9)

574

(3.8)

629

(3.9)

660

(3.8)

OECD average

489

(0.4)

94

(0.2)

333

(0.7)

365

(0.6)

423

(0.5)

491

(0.5)

555

(0.5)

609

(0.5)

639

(0.6)

OECD total

486

(1.1)

99

(0.5)

325

(1.5)

357

(1.5)

415

(1.3)

486

(1.2)

558

(1.3)

616

(1.4)

648

(1.6)

Mean score

Standard deviation

Percentiles

5th

10th

25th

Median (50th)

75th

90th

95th

Mean

S.E.

S.D.

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Score

S.E.

Partners

Albania

417

(2.0)

74

(1.1)

298

(3.2)

323

(3.1)

366

(2.4)

416

(2.5)

466

(2.6)

514

(3.2)

541

(3.6)

Argentina

404

(2.9)

90

(1.6)

261

(4.7)

291

(4.0)

340

(3.4)

401

(3.3)

466

(3.7)

523

(4.0)

555

(3.7)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

398

(2.4)

74

(1.6)

281

(3.0)

305

(2.5)

347

(2.3)

395

(2.2)

446

(3.0)

494

(4.6)

524

(6.2)

Belarus

471

(2.4)

85

(1.3)

331

(3.7)

361

(3.5)

412

(3.4)

472

(2.9)

531

(2.7)

581

(2.7)

610

(3.7)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

398

(2.7)

77

(1.3)

278

(3.6)

302

(3.1)

344

(2.7)

396

(3.2)

451

(3.6)

499

(3.8)

528

(4.1)

Brazil

404

(2.1)

90

(1.5)

268

(3.0)

292

(2.3)

338

(2.1)

396

(2.3)

464

(3.1)

527

(3.6)

563

(4.8)

Brunei Darussalam

431

(1.2)

96

(1.1)

290

(2.6)

315

(2.0)

359

(1.9)

421

(1.5)

497

(1.7)

566

(2.8)

603

(2.8)

B-S-J-Z (China)

590

(2.7)

83

(1.7)

448

(5.0)

482

(4.0)

536

(3.4)

594

(2.8)

649

(3.1)

695

(3.7)

721

(3.9)

Bulgaria

424

(3.6)

95

(2.0)

279

(5.1)

305

(4.3)

355

(4.0)

418

(4.1)

490

(4.8)

552

(5.3)

587

(6.1)

Costa Rica

416

(3.3)

73

(1.9)

300

(3.9)

324

(3.2)

364

(3.0)

414

(3.4)

466

(4.3)

512

(5.6)

540

(6.6)

Croatia

472

(2.8)

90

(1.6)

327

(4.2)

356

(4.0)

409

(3.5)

471

(3.2)

536

(3.1)

590

(3.5)

622

(3.9)

Cyprus

439

(1.4)

93

(1.1)

291

(3.3)

319

(2.6)

372

(2.7)

437

(2.2)

505

(2.2)

562

(2.2)

592

(2.9)

Dominican Republic

336

(2.5)

71

(1.6)

231

(2.7)

250

(2.8)

286

(2.4)

329

(2.9)

379

(3.5)

431

(4.8)

463

(5.7)

Georgia

383

(2.3)

81

(1.3)

255

(3.6)

281

(2.7)

326

(2.7)

379

(2.9)

437

(3.0)

491

(3.9)

522

(4.9)

Hong Kong (China)*

517

(2.5)

86

(1.2)

364

(4.6)

401

(4.3)

461

(3.2)

522

(2.7)

577

(2.5)

623

(3.3)

650

(4.0)

Indonesia

396

(2.4)

69

(1.7)

289

(3.2)

312

(3.0)

348

(2.6)

392

(2.6)

440

(3.1)

488

(4.6)

517

(5.7)

Jordan

429

(2.9)

88

(1.5)

282

(5.5)

316

(4.4)

370

(3.7)

431

(3.0)

490

(3.1)

541

(3.4)

570

(3.9)

Kazakhstan

397

(1.7)

76

(1.4)

284

(2.6)

307

(2.1)

346

(1.9)

391

(1.8)

442

(2.4)

498

(3.4)

533

(4.8)

Kosovo

365

(1.2)

65

(0.8)

265

(2.6)

285

(2.5)

320

(1.5)

361

(1.6)

406

(1.7)

450

(2.6)

478

(3.8)

Lebanon

384

(3.5)

95

(1.6)

237

(4.0)

265

(3.6)

315

(3.7)

377

(4.3)

449

(4.8)

513

(4.9)

549

(4.9)

Macao (China)

544

(1.5)

83

(1.0)

402

(4.3)

434

(3.0)

489

(2.6)

547

(1.8)

601

(1.9)

648

(2.2)

674

(3.5)

Malaysia

438

(2.7)

77

(1.5)

313

(3.6)

339

(2.9)

384

(2.7)

436

(2.8)

490

(3.4)

538

(4.3)

565

(5.2)

Malta

457

(1.9)

107

(1.2)

278

(4.8)

314

(3.5)

380

(2.9)

460

(2.5)

534

(2.9)

594

(3.3)

628

(4.2)

Moldova

428

(2.3)

89

(1.4)

285

(3.8)

314

(2.9)

365

(2.5)

427

(2.7)

492

(3.2)

546

(3.7)

575

(4.1)

Montenegro

415

(1.3)

81

(1.0)

285

(2.7)

311

(2.2)

358

(1.6)

413

(1.5)

470

(2.0)

523

(2.2)

554

(3.0)

Morocco

377

(3.0)

67

(1.2)

275

(2.9)

293

(2.7)

328

(2.8)

372

(3.7)

422

(4.0)

468

(3.9)

493

(3.8)

North Macedonia

413

(1.4)

92

(1.2)

265

(3.2)

296

(2.5)

349

(2.0)

411

(2.0)

476

(2.4)

533

(3.1)

566

(3.9)

Panama

365

(2.9)

85

(1.9)

230

(4.8)

259

(3.8)

305

(3.2)

361

(2.8)

420

(4.1)

478

(5.7)

514

(6.1)

Peru

404

(2.7)

80

(1.5)

280

(3.9)

304

(3.0)

347

(2.6)

400

(2.9)

458

(3.6)

511

(4.4)

543

(5.3)

Philippines

357

(3.2)

75

(2.3)

250

(3.3)

269

(3.1)

304

(2.6)

347

(3.1)

401

(4.5)

461

(6.6)

500

(8.3)

Qatar

419

(0.9)

103

(0.9)

259

(2.6)

290

(1.5)

345

(1.4)

414

(1.4)

490

(1.5)

557

(2.1)

596

(2.7)

Romania

426

(4.6)

90

(1.8)

282

(5.5)

312

(4.7)

362

(4.6)

424

(5.4)

488

(5.5)

545

(5.8)

577

(6.2)

Russia

478

(2.9)

84

(1.7)

339

(4.7)

369

(4.1)

420

(3.6)

478

(3.2)

536

(3.2)

586

(3.7)

616

(4.0)

Saudi Arabia

386

(2.8)

79

(1.4)

261

(4.4)

287

(3.2)

331

(3.3)

384

(3.2)

440

(3.4)

489

(3.6)

519

(4.3)

Serbia

440

(3.0)

92

(1.3)

293

(3.8)

322

(3.9)

375

(3.8)

438

(3.9)

504

(3.6)

562

(4.0)

593

(3.7)

Singapore

551

(1.5)

97

(1.0)

376

(3.5)

416

(3.2)

487

(2.7)

560

(2.1)

621

(1.6)

670

(1.8)

698

(2.7)

Chinese Taipei

516

(2.9)

99

(1.5)

346

(4.3)

382

(3.9)

449

(3.7)

521

(3.2)

587

(3.7)

641

(4.0)

670

(4.1)

Thailand

426

(3.2)

82

(1.6)

299

(3.7)

324

(3.2)

367

(3.0)

421

(3.5)

481

(4.4)

535

(5.2)

567

(5.8)

Ukraine

469

(3.3)

91

(1.8)

319

(5.0)

351

(4.4)

406

(3.8)

469

(3.8)

532

(3.7)

588

(4.5)

619

(5.5)

United Arab Emirates

434

(2.0)

103

(0.8)

272

(2.4)

302

(2.1)

358

(2.2)

430

(2.6)

506

(2.8)

572

(3.0)

609

(2.8)

Uruguay

426

(2.5)

87

(1.4)

287

(3.2)

314

(3.1)

364

(2.9)

423

(3.2)

486

(3.6)

540

(3.9)

573

(4.0)

Viet Nam**

543

(3.3)

77

(1.7)

418

(4.5)

445

(3.9)

492

(3.9)

543

(3.5)

595

(3.9)

642

(4.0)

669

(5.0)

* Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

** The data for Viet Nam have not yet been fully validated. Due to a lack of consistency in the response pattern of some performance data, the OECD cannot yet assure full international comparability of the results (see Annexes A2 and A4).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934029090

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Table I.B1.7. Percentage of low achievers and top performers in reading, 2009 through 2018

Proficiency level in PISA 2009

Proficiency level in PISA 2012

Proficiency level in PISA 2015

Proficiency level in PISA 2018

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

OECD

Australia

14.2

(0.6)

12.8

(0.8)

14.2

(0.5)

11.7

(0.5)

18.1

(0.5)

11.0

(0.5)

19.6

(0.5)

13.0

(0.5)

Austria

m

m

m

m

19.5

(1.1)

5.5

(0.6)

22.5

(1.0)

7.2

(0.6)

23.6

(1.0)

7.4

(0.5)

Belgium

17.7

(0.9)

11.2

(0.6)

16.1

(0.8)

11.8

(0.6)

19.5

(0.9)

9.3

(0.6)

21.3

(0.9)

9.5

(0.5)

Canada

10.3

(0.5)

12.8

(0.5)

10.9

(0.5)

12.9

(0.6)

10.7

(0.6)

14.0

(0.7)

13.8

(0.5)

15.0

(0.6)

Chile

30.6

(1.5)

1.3

(0.3)

33.0

(1.7)

0.6

(0.1)

28.4

(1.2)

2.3

(0.3)

31.7

(1.2)

2.6

(0.3)

Colombia

47.1

(1.9)

0.6

(0.2)

51.4

(1.8)

0.3

(0.1)

42.8

(1.5)

1.0

(0.2)

49.9

(1.7)

0.9

(0.2)

Czech Republic

23.1

(1.3)

5.1

(0.5)

16.9

(1.2)

6.1

(0.5)

22.0

(1.1)

7.9

(0.6)

20.7

(1.1)

8.2

(0.5)

Denmark

15.2

(0.9)

4.7

(0.5)

14.6

(1.1)

5.4

(0.6)

15.0

(0.8)

6.5

(0.6)

16.0

(0.7)

8.4

(0.5)

Estonia

13.3

(1.0)

6.1

(0.6)

9.1

(0.6)

8.3

(0.7)

10.6

(0.7)

11.0

(0.7)

11.1

(0.6)

13.9

(0.7)

Finland

8.1

(0.5)

14.5

(0.8)

11.3

(0.7)

13.5

(0.6)

11.1

(0.8)

13.7

(0.7)

13.5

(0.7)

14.2

(0.7)

France

19.8

(1.2)

9.6

(1.0)

18.9

(1.0)

12.9

(0.8)

21.5

(0.9)

12.5

(0.7)

20.9

(0.7)

9.2

(0.7)

Germany

18.5

(1.1)

7.6

(0.6)

14.5

(0.9)

8.9

(0.7)

16.2

(0.9)

11.7

(0.7)

20.7

(1.1)

11.3

(0.7)

Greece

21.3

(1.8)

5.6

(0.5)

22.6

(1.2)

5.1

(0.6)

27.3

(1.8)

4.0

(0.5)

30.5

(1.5)

3.7

(0.5)

Hungary

17.6

(1.4)

6.1

(0.7)

19.7

(1.2)

5.6

(0.8)

27.5

(1.1)

4.3

(0.4)

25.3

(0.9)

5.7

(0.5)

Iceland

16.8

(0.6)

8.5

(0.6)

21.0

(0.7)

5.8

(0.5)

22.1

(1.0)

6.6

(0.6)

26.4

(0.9)

7.1

(0.6)

Ireland

17.2

(1.0)

7.0

(0.5)

9.6

(0.9)

11.4

(0.7)

10.2

(0.8)

10.7

(0.7)

11.8

(0.7)

12.1

(0.7)

Israel

26.5

(1.2)

7.4

(0.6)

23.6

(1.6)

9.6

(0.8)

26.6

(1.3)

9.2

(0.7)

31.1

(1.3)

10.4

(0.7)

Italy

21.0

(0.6)

5.8

(0.3)

19.5

(0.7)

6.7

(0.3)

21.0

(1.0)

5.7

(0.5)

23.3

(1.0)

5.3

(0.5)

Japan

13.6

(1.1)

13.4

(0.9)

9.8

(0.9)

18.5

(1.3)

12.9

(1.0)

10.8

(0.9)

16.8

(1.0)

10.3

(0.7)

Korea

5.8

(0.8)

12.9

(1.1)

7.6

(0.9)

14.1

(1.2)

13.7

(1.0)

12.7

(1.0)

15.1

(0.9)

13.1

(0.9)

Latvia

17.6

(1.2)

2.9

(0.4)

17.0

(1.1)

4.2

(0.6)

17.7

(0.9)

4.3

(0.5)

22.4

(0.7)

4.8

(0.4)

Lithuania

24.4

(1.2)

2.9

(0.4)

21.2

(1.2)

3.3

(0.4)

25.1

(0.9)

4.4

(0.5)

24.4

(0.8)

5.0

(0.4)

Luxembourg

26.0

(0.6)

5.7

(0.5)

22.2

(0.7)

8.9

(0.4)

25.6

(0.6)

8.1

(0.4)

29.3

(0.6)

7.6

(0.5)

Mexico

40.1

(1.0)

0.4

(0.1)

41.1

(0.9)

0.4

(0.1)

41.7

(1.3)

0.3

(0.1)

44.7

(1.3)

0.8

(0.2)

Netherlands*

14.3

(1.5)

9.8

(1.1)

14.0

(1.2)

9.8

(0.8)

18.1

(1.0)

10.9

(0.6)

24.1

(1.0)

9.1

(0.6)

New Zealand

14.3

(0.7)

15.7

(0.8)

16.3

(0.8)

14.0

(0.8)

17.3

(0.8)

13.6

(0.9)

19.0

(0.8)

13.1

(0.6)

Norway

15.0

(0.8)

8.4

(0.9)

16.2

(1.0)

10.2

(0.7)

14.9

(0.8)

12.2

(0.7)

19.3

(0.8)

11.3

(0.6)

Poland

15.0

(0.8)

7.2

(0.6)

10.6

(0.8)

10.0

(0.9)

14.4

(0.8)

8.2

(0.7)

14.7

(0.8)

12.2

(0.8)

Portugal*

17.6

(1.2)

4.8

(0.5)

18.8

(1.4)

5.8

(0.6)

17.2

(0.9)

7.5

(0.6)

20.2

(0.9)

7.3

(0.6)

Slovak Republic

22.2

(1.2)

4.5

(0.5)

28.2

(1.8)

4.4

(0.7)

32.1

(1.1)

3.5

(0.4)

31.4

(1.0)

4.6

(0.4)

Slovenia

21.2

(0.6)

4.6

(0.5)

21.1

(0.7)

5.0

(0.4)

15.1

(0.6)

8.9

(0.7)

17.9

(0.7)

7.8

(0.5)

Spain

19.6

(0.9)

3.3

(0.3)

18.3

(0.8)

5.5

(0.3)

16.2

(0.9)

5.5

(0.5)

m

m

m

m

Sweden

17.4

(0.9)

9.0

(0.7)

22.7

(1.2)

7.9

(0.6)

18.4

(1.1)

10.0

(0.8)

18.4

(1.0)

13.3

(0.7)

Switzerland

16.8

(0.9)

8.1

(0.7)

13.7

(0.8)

9.1

(0.7)

20.0

(1.1)

7.8

(0.6)

23.6

(1.1)

8.1

(0.7)

Turkey

24.5

(1.4)

1.9

(0.4)

21.6

(1.4)

4.3

(0.9)

40.0

(2.0)

0.6

(0.2)

26.1

(1.0)

3.3

(0.5)

United Kingdom

18.4

(0.8)

8.0

(0.5)

16.6

(1.3)

8.8

(0.7)

17.9

(0.9)

9.2

(0.6)

17.3

(0.9)

11.5

(0.8)

United States*

17.6

(1.1)

9.9

(0.9)

16.6

(1.3)

7.9

(0.7)

19.0

(1.1)

9.6

(0.7)

19.3

(1.1)

13.5

(0.9)

OECD average-35a

19.4

(0.2)

7.3

(0.1)

18.9

(0.2)

8.1

(0.1)

20.9

(0.2)

8.1

(0.1)

22.6

(0.2)

8.8

(0.1)

OECD average-36a

m

m

m

m

18.9

(0.2)

8.0

(0.1)

21.0

(0.2)

8.1

(0.1)

22.6

(0.2)

8.7

(0.1)

Proficiency level in PISA 2009

Proficiency level in PISA 2012

Proficiency level in PISA 2015

Proficiency level in PISA 2018

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

Partners

Albania

56.7

(1.9)

0.2

(0.1)

52.3

(1.3)

1.2

(0.2)

50.3

(1.9)

1.0

(0.2)

52.2

(1.1)

0.4

(0.1)

Argentina

51.6

(1.9)

1.0

(0.2)

53.6

(1.7)

0.5

(0.1)

m

m

m

m

52.1

(1.3)

0.7

(0.2)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

60.4

(1.3)

0.1

(0.1)

Belarus

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

23.4

(1.0)

3.9

(0.4)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

53.7

(1.6)

0.2

(0.1)

Brazil

49.6

(1.3)

1.3

(0.2)

50.8

(1.1)

0.5

(0.1)

51.0

(1.1)

1.4

(0.2)

50.0

(0.9)

1.8

(0.2)

Brunei Darussalam

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

51.8

(0.6)

1.3

(0.2)

B-S-J-Z (China)

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

5.2

(0.6)

21.7

(1.1)

Bulgaria

41.0

(2.6)

2.8

(0.5)

39.4

(2.2)

4.3

(0.6)

41.5

(2.0)

3.6

(0.5)

47.1

(1.7)

2.3

(0.4)

Costa Rica

32.6

(1.5)

0.8

(0.3)

32.4

(1.8)

0.6

(0.2)

40.3

(1.4)

0.7

(0.2)

42.0

(1.6)

0.6

(0.2)

Croatia

22.4

(1.3)

3.2

(0.4)

18.7

(1.3)

4.4

(0.7)

19.9

(1.1)

5.9

(0.5)

21.6

(1.2)

4.7

(0.5)

Cyprus

m

m

m

m

32.8

(0.7)

4.0

(0.3)

35.6

(0.9)

3.1

(0.3)

43.7

(0.7)

1.8

(0.2)

Dominican Republic

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

72.1

(1.5)

0.1

(0.1)

79.1

(1.3)

0.1

(0.1)

Georgia

62.0

(1.3)

0.3

(0.1)

m

m

m

m

51.7

(1.3)

1.1

(0.2)

64.4

(1.1)

0.2

(0.1)

Hong Kong (China)*

8.3

(0.7)

12.4

(0.8)

6.8

(0.7)

16.8

(1.2)

9.3

(0.8)

11.6

(0.9)

12.6

(0.8)

14.8

(0.7)

Indonesia

53.4

(2.3)

0.0

(0.0)

55.2

(2.2)

0.1

(0.1)

55.4

(1.5)

0.2

(0.1)

69.9

(1.4)

0.1

(0.0)

Jordan

48.0

(1.6)

0.2

(0.1)

50.7

(1.6)

0.1

(0.1)

46.3

(1.4)

0.3

(0.1)

41.2

(1.4)

0.3

(0.1)

Kazakhstan

58.7

(1.5)

0.4

(0.1)

57.1

(1.6)

0.0

(0.0)

m

m

m

m

64.2

(0.7)

0.4

(0.1)

Kosovo

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

76.9

(0.9)

0.0

c

78.7

(0.6)

0.0

(0.0)

Lebanon

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

70.4

(1.6)

0.8

(0.3)

67.8

(1.5)

0.7

(0.2)

Macao (China)

14.9

(0.5)

2.9

(0.2)

11.5

(0.4)

7.0

(0.4)

11.7

(0.5)

6.7

(0.5)

10.8

(0.5)

13.8

(0.6)

Malaysia

44.0

(1.6)

0.1

(0.1)

52.7

(1.7)

0.1

(0.1)

m

m

m

m

45.8

(1.4)

0.5

(0.2)

Malta

36.3

(0.7)

4.4

(0.4)

m

m

m

m

35.6

(0.8)

5.6

(0.4)

35.9

(0.8)

5.3

(0.5)

Moldova

57.2

(1.5)

0.1

(0.1)

m

m

m

m

45.8

(1.1)

1.2

(0.2)

43.0

(1.1)

1.0

(0.3)

Montenegro

49.5

(1.0)

0.6

(0.2)

43.3

(0.7)

1.0

(0.2)

41.9

(0.7)

1.4

(0.3)

44.4

(0.7)

0.8

(0.2)

Morocco

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

73.3

(1.6)

0.0

(0.0)

North Macedonia

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

70.7

(0.7)

0.2

(0.1)

55.1

(0.7)

0.3

(0.2)

Panama

65.3

(2.6)

0.5

(0.2)

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

64.3

(1.4)

0.2

(0.1)

Peru

64.8

(1.7)

0.5

(0.2)

59.9

(2.0)

0.5

(0.2)

53.9

(1.5)

0.3

(0.1)

54.3

(1.3)

0.8

(0.2)

Philippines

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

80.6

(1.4)

0.1

(0.0)

Qatar

63.5

(0.5)

1.7

(0.2)

57.1

(0.4)

1.6

(0.1)

51.6

(0.5)

1.6

(0.2)

50.9

(0.4)

2.6

(0.2)

Romania

40.4

(2.0)

0.7

(0.2)

37.3

(1.9)

1.6

(0.4)

38.7

(1.9)

2.0

(0.4)

40.8

(2.2)

1.4

(0.3)

Russia

27.4

(1.3)

3.2

(0.5)

22.3

(1.3)

4.6

(0.6)

16.2

(1.2)

6.7

(0.6)

22.1

(1.2)

5.4

(0.5)

Saudi Arabia

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

52.4

(1.5)

0.1

(0.1)

Serbia

32.8

(1.3)

0.8

(0.2)

33.1

(1.7)

2.2

(0.4)

m

m

m

m

37.7

(1.5)

2.5

(0.3)

Singapore

12.5

(0.5)

15.7

(0.5)

9.9

(0.4)

21.2

(0.6)

11.1

(0.5)

18.4

(0.7)

11.2

(0.5)

25.8

(0.7)

Chinese Taipei

15.6

(0.9)

5.2

(0.8)

11.5

(0.9)

11.8

(0.8)

17.2

(0.8)

6.9

(0.8)

17.8

(0.8)

10.9

(0.8)

Thailand

42.9

(1.5)

0.3

(0.2)

33.0

(1.4)

0.8

(0.2)

50.0

(1.8)

0.3

(0.1)

59.5

(1.7)

0.2

(0.1)

Ukraine

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

25.9

(1.4)

3.4

(0.5)

United Arab Emirates

39.8

(1.2)

2.3

(0.3)

35.5

(1.1)

2.2

(0.3)

40.4

(1.2)

3.0

(0.3)

42.9

(0.8)

4.8

(0.3)

Uruguay

41.9

(1.2)

1.8

(0.3)

47.0

(1.4)

0.9

(0.3)

39.0

(1.1)

2.5

(0.4)

41.9

(1.3)

1.5

(0.3)

Viet Nam**

m

m

m

m

9.4

(1.4)

4.5

(0.8)

13.8

(1.4)

2.7

(0.7)

m

m

m

m

Change between 2009 and 2018 (PISA 2018 - PISA 2009)

Change between 2012 and 2018 (PISA 2018 - PISA 2012)

Change between 2015 and 2018 (PISA 2018 - PISA 2015)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

OECD

Australia

5.4

(1.1)

0.3

(1.1)

5.4

(1.1)

1.3

(1.1)

1.6

(1.2)

2.0

(1.1)

Austria

m

m

m

m

4.1

(1.7)

1.9

(0.9)

1.1

(1.8)

0.2

(0.9)

Belgium

3.5

(1.6)

- 1.6

(0.9)

5.2

(1.6)

- 2.2

(1.0)

1.7

(1.7)

0.2

(1.0)

Canada

3.5

(0.9)

2.2

(1.2)

2.9

(0.9)

2.1

(1.4)

3.1

(1.1)

1.0

(1.6)

Chile

1.2

(2.7)

1.3

(0.4)

- 1.3

(2.9)

2.0

(0.3)

3.3

(2.9)

0.3

(0.4)

Colombia

2.8

(3.4)

0.4

(0.2)

- 1.5

(3.5)

0.6

(0.2)

7.1

(3.6)

0.0

(0.2)

Czech Republic

- 2.3

(2.0)

3.1

(0.8)

3.9

(2.0)

2.2

(0.9)

- 1.3

(2.0)

0.4

(0.9)

Denmark

0.8

(1.4)

3.7

(0.9)

1.4

(1.6)

3.0

(1.1)

1.0

(1.5)

1.9

(1.1)

Estonia

- 2.3

(1.3)

7.8

(1.2)

1.9

(1.1)

5.5

(1.3)

0.4

(1.1)

2.8

(1.4)

Finland

5.4

(1.0)

- 0.3

(1.5)

2.2

(1.1)

0.7

(1.6)

2.5

(1.1)

0.5

(1.7)

France

1.2

(1.6)

- 0.4

(1.3)

2.0

(1.5)

- 3.7

(1.3)

- 0.5

(1.5)

- 3.3

(1.2)

Germany

2.2

(1.7)

3.7

(1.1)

6.2

(1.6)

2.4

(1.2)

4.5

(1.7)

- 0.4

(1.3)

Greece

9.2

(2.8)

- 2.0

(0.7)

7.9

(2.6)

- 1.5

(0.8)

3.2

(3.0)

- 0.4

(0.7)

Hungary

7.7

(2.1)

- 0.4

(0.9)

5.6

(2.1)

0.1

(1.0)

- 2.2

(2.1)

1.4

(0.8)

Iceland

9.5

(1.6)

- 1.4

(0.9)

5.4

(1.7)

1.3

(0.8)

4.3

(2.0)

0.5

(0.9)

Ireland

- 5.4

(1.4)

5.1

(1.3)

2.2

(1.3)

0.7

(1.4)

1.6

(1.3)

1.4

(1.5)

Israel

4.5

(1.9)

3.0

(1.0)

7.5

(2.3)

0.8

(1.2)

4.5

(2.0)

1.2

(1.1)

Italy

2.2

(1.7)

- 0.5

(0.7)

3.8

(1.9)

- 1.3

(0.7)

2.3

(2.2)

- 0.3

(0.8)

Japan

3.2

(1.7)

- 3.2

(1.2)

7.0

(1.6)

- 8.2

(1.6)

3.9

(1.7)

- 0.5

(1.3)

Korea

9.3

(1.3)

0.2

(1.6)

7.5

(1.4)

- 1.0

(1.7)

1.5

(1.5)

0.5

(1.6)

Latvia

4.9

(2.0)

1.9

(0.7)

5.5

(2.1)

0.7

(0.8)

4.8

(2.1)

0.5

(0.7)

Lithuania

0.0

(1.8)

2.1

(0.6)

3.2

(1.9)

1.7

(0.6)

- 0.7

(1.8)

0.5

(0.7)

Luxembourg

3.3

(1.3)

1.9

(0.7)

7.1

(1.4)

- 1.3

(0.7)

3.6

(1.5)

- 0.5

(0.8)

Mexico

4.6

(3.6)

0.4

(0.2)

3.6

(3.9)

0.4

(0.2)

2.9

(4.3)

0.5

(0.2)

Netherlands*

9.8

(2.2)

- 0.7

(1.3)

10.1

(2.1)

- 0.7

(1.2)

6.0

(2.1)

- 1.8

(1.1)

New Zealand

4.6

(1.4)

- 2.6

(1.4)

2.7

(1.5)

- 0.9

(1.4)

1.7

(1.6)

- 0.5

(1.6)

Norway

4.3

(1.3)

2.9

(1.2)

3.1

(1.5)

1.1

(1.1)

4.4

(1.4)

- 0.9

(1.1)

Poland

- 0.4

(1.4)

5.0

(1.3)

4.1

(1.4)

2.2

(1.6)

0.3

(1.5)

4.0

(1.5)

Portugal*

2.6

(1.8)

2.5

(0.9)

1.4

(2.0)

1.5

(1.0)

3.0

(1.8)

- 0.2

(1.0)

Slovak Republic

9.2

(2.3)

0.2

(0.7)

3.2

(2.8)

0.3

(0.8)

- 0.7

(2.6)

1.2

(0.6)

Slovenia

- 3.3

(1.2)

3.2

(0.8)

- 3.3

(1.3)

2.7

(0.8)

2.7

(1.3)

- 1.2

(0.9)

Spain

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Sweden

1.0

(1.5)

4.2

(1.4)

- 4.3

(1.7)

5.4

(1.5)

0.0

(1.7)

3.3

(1.7)

Switzerland

6.8

(1.6)

0.0

(1.1)

9.9

(1.7)

- 1.0

(1.1)

3.7

(1.9)

0.3

(1.1)

Turkey

1.6

(2.6)

1.5

(0.6)

4.5

(2.8)

- 1.0

(1.0)

- 13.8

(3.3)

2.7

(0.6)

United Kingdom

- 1.1

(1.5)

3.4

(1.0)

0.7

(1.9)

2.7

(1.2)

- 0.6

(1.7)

2.3

(1.2)

United States*

1.6

(1.7)

3.7

(1.5)

2.7

(1.8)

5.6

(1.4)

0.3

(1.8)

4.0

(1.5)

OECD average-35a

3.2

(1.0)

1.4

(0.5)

3.7

(1.2)

0.7

(0.6)

1.7

(1.3)

0.7

(0.6)

OECD average-36a

m

m

m

m

3.7

(1.1)

0.7

(0.6)

1.7

(1.3)

0.6

(0.5)

Change between 2009 and 2018 (PISA 2018 - PISA 2009)

Change between 2012 and 2018 (PISA 2018 - PISA 2012)

Change between 2015 and 2018 (PISA 2018 - PISA 2015)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 407.47 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 625.61 score points)

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

% dif.

S.E.

Partners

Albania

- 4.4

(4.0)

0.2

(0.2)

- 0.1

(4.2)

- 0.8

(0.3)

2.0

(4.8)

- 0.6

(0.3)

Argentina

0.5

(3.2)

- 0.3

(0.3)

- 1.4

(3.3)

0.2

(0.2)

m

m

m

m

Baku (Azerbaijan)

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Belarus

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Bosnia and Herzegovina

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Brazil

0.4

(2.4)

0.5

(0.3)

- 0.8

(2.5)

1.3

(0.3)

- 1.0

(2.6)

0.4

(0.3)

Brunei Darussalam

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

B-S-J-Z (China)

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Bulgaria

6.1

(3.5)

- 0.4

(0.6)

7.7

(3.4)

- 2.0

(0.7)

5.6

(3.3)

- 1.2

(0.6)

Costa Rica

9.3

(3.8)

- 0.2

(0.3)

9.6

(4.2)

0.1

(0.3)

1.7

(4.4)

0.0

(0.2)

Croatia

- 0.9

(2.1)

1.5

(0.7)

2.9

(2.2)

0.3

(0.9)

1.7

(2.2)

- 1.2

(0.8)

Cyprus

m

m

m

m

10.9

(2.2)

- 2.2

(0.4)

8.1

(2.5)

- 1.3

(0.4)

Dominican Republic

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

6.9

(2.4)

0.0

(0.1)

Georgia

2.4

(2.9)

- 0.1

(0.1)

m

m

m

m

12.7

(3.4)

- 0.9

(0.3)

Hong Kong (China)*

4.3

(1.1)

2.4

(1.4)

5.8

(1.1)

- 2.0

(1.7)

3.3

(1.1)

3.3

(1.6)

Indonesia

16.5

(3.7)

0.0

(0.0)

14.7

(3.9)

0.0

(0.1)

14.5

(3.8)

- 0.1

(0.1)

Jordan

- 6.8

(3.8)

0.0

(0.1)

- 9.5

(4.1)

0.1

(0.2)

- 5.1

(4.3)

0.0

(0.1)

Kazakhstan

5.5

(3.5)

0.0

(0.1)

7.1

(3.9)

0.4

(0.1)

m

m

m

m

Kosovo

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

1.9

(2.9)

0.0

(0.0)

Lebanon

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

- 2.6

(2.5)

- 0.1

(0.3)

Macao (China)

- 4.1

(0.9)

10.9

(1.0)

- 0.7

(0.9)

6.8

(1.1)

- 0.9

(0.9)

7.1

(1.3)

Malaysia

1.9

(3.7)

0.4

(0.2)

- 6.9

(4.0)

0.4

(0.2)

m

m

m

m

Malta

- 0.4

(1.6)

0.9

(0.6)

m

m

m

m

0.3

(1.9)

- 0.3

(0.7)

Moldova

- 14.2

(2.9)

0.9

(0.3)

m

m

m

m

- 2.8

(3.2)

- 0.2

(0.4)

Montenegro

- 5.1

(2.9)

0.2

(0.3)

1.1

(3.2)

- 0.2

(0.3)

2.5

(3.5)

- 0.6

(0.4)

Morocco

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

North Macedonia

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

- 15.5

(2.9)

0.2

(0.2)

Panama

- 0.9

(3.7)

- 0.3

(0.2)

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Peru

- 10.5

(2.9)

0.3

(0.3)

- 5.6

(3.2)

0.3

(0.3)

0.4

(3.2)

0.5

(0.2)

Philippines

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Qatar

- 12.6

(1.7)

0.9

(0.2)

- 6.3

(1.9)

1.0

(0.2)

- 0.7

(2.1)

1.1

(0.2)

Romania

0.4

(3.5)

0.7

(0.4)

3.6

(3.5)

- 0.2

(0.5)

2.1

(3.7)

- 0.6

(0.5)

Russia

- 5.3

(2.2)

2.3

(0.7)

- 0.2

(2.3)

0.8

(0.8)

5.9

(2.3)

- 1.2

(0.8)

Saudi Arabia

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Serbia

4.9

(2.7)

1.7

(0.4)

4.6

(3.0)

0.3

(0.5)

m

m

m

m

Singapore

- 1.2

(0.7)

10.1

(1.8)

1.4

(0.7)

4.6

(2.0)

0.1

(0.8)

7.5

(2.2)

Chinese Taipei

2.2

(1.4)

5.7

(1.3)

6.3

(1.5)

- 0.9

(1.4)

0.6

(1.5)

4.0

(1.4)

Thailand

16.7

(3.7)

- 0.1

(0.2)

26.6

(3.9)

- 0.6

(0.2)

9.6

(4.4)

- 0.1

(0.1)

Ukraine

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

United Arab Emirates

3.1

(2.0)

2.5

(0.4)

7.4

(2.0)

2.6

(0.4)

2.5

(2.2)

1.8

(0.5)

Uruguay

0.0

(2.9)

- 0.2

(0.4)

- 5.2

(3.2)

0.6

(0.4)

2.9

(3.3)

- 1.0

(0.5)

Viet Nam**

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

* PISA 2018 data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

** The data for Viet Nam have not yet been fully validated. Due to a lack of consistency in the response pattern of some performance data, the OECD cannot yet assure full international comparability of the results (see Annexes A2 and A4).

Notes: Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

Costa Rica, Georgia, Malta and Moldova conducted the PISA 2009 assessment in 2010 as part of PISA 2009+.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934029090

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Table I.B1.8. Percentage of low achievers and top performers in mathematics, 2003 through 2018

Proficiency level in PISA 2003

Proficiency level in PISA 2006

Proficiency level in PISA 2009

Below Level 2 (less than 420.07 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 606.99 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 420.07 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 606.99 score points)

Below Level 2 (less than 420.07 score points)

Level 5 or above (at or above 606.99 score points)

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

OECD

Australia

14.3

(0.7)

19.8

(0.8)

13.0

(0.6)

16.4

(0.8)

15.9

(0.7)

16.4

(0.9)

Austria

18.8

(1.2)

14.3

(1.0)

20.0

(1.4)

15.8

(1.0)

m

m

m

m

Belgium

16.5

(0.8)

26.4

(0.8)

17.3

(1.0)

22.3

(0.8)

19.1

(0.8)

20.4

(0.7)

Canada

10.1

(0.5)

20.3

(0.7)

10.8

(0.6)

17.9

(0.7)

11.5

(0.5)

18.3

(0.6)

Chile

m

m

m

m

55.1

(2.2)

1.5

(0.4)

51.0

(1.7)

1.3

(0.3)

Colombia

m

m

m

m

71.9

(1.6)

0.4

(0.2)

70.4

(1.6)

0.1

(0.1)

Czech Republic

16.6

(1.3)

18.3

(1.2)

19.2

(1.2)

18.3

(1.2)

22.3

(1.1)

11.6

(0.9)

Denmark

15.4

(0.8)

15.9

(0.9)

13.6

(1.0)

13.7

(0.8)

17.1

(0.9)

11.6

(0.8)

Estonia

m

m

m

m

12.1

(1.0)

12.5

(0.8)

12.6

(0.9)

12.1

(0.8)

Finland

6.8

(0.5)

23.4

(0.8)

6.0

(0.6)

24.4

(1.0)

7.8

(0.5)

21.7

(0.9)

France

16.6

(1.1)

15.1

(0.9)

22.3

(1.3)

12.5

(0.9)

22.5

(1.3)

13.7

(1.0)

Germany

21.6

(1.2)

16.2

(0.9)

19.9

(1.4)

15.4

(1.0)

18.6

(1.1)

17.8

(0.9)

Greece

38.9

(1.9)

4.0

(0.6)

32.3

(1.4)

5.0

(0.5)

30.3

(1.8)

5.7

(0.6)

Hungary

23.0

(1.0)

10.7

(0.9)

21.2

(1.1)

10.3

(0.9)

22.3

(1.5)

10.1

(1.1)

Iceland

15.0

(0.7)

15.5

(0.7)

16.8

(0.8)

12.7

(0.7)

17.0

(0.6)

13.6

(0.6)

Ireland

16.8

(1.0)

11.4

(0.8)

16.4

(1.2)

10.2

(0.8)

20.8

(1.0)

6.7

(0.6)

Israel

m

m

m

m

42.0

(1.7)

6.1

(0.6)

39.5

(1.3)

5.9

(0.7)

Italy

31.9

(1.5)

7.0

(0.5)

32.8

(0.9)

6.2

(0.5)

24.9

(0.6)

9.0

(0.5)

Japan

13.3

(1.2)

24.3

(1.5)

13.0

(1.1)

18.3

(1.0)

12.5

(1.0)

20.9

(1.2)

Korea

9.5

(0.8)

24.8

(1.4)

8.9

(1.0)

27.1

(1.5)

8.1

(1.0)

25.6

(1.6)

Latvia

23.7

(1.4)

8.0

(0.8)

20.7

(1.2)

6.6

(0.6)

22.6

(1.4)

5.7

(0.6)

Lithuania

m

m

m

m

23.0

(1.1)

9.1

(0.9)

26.3

(1.2)

7.0

(0.7)

Luxembourg

21.7

(0.6)

10.8

(0.6)

22.8

(0.6)

10.6

(0.5)

23.9

(0.6)

11.4

(0.6)

Mexico

65.9

(1.7)

0.4

(0.1)

56.5

(1.3)

0.8

(0.2)

50.8

(1.0)

0.7

(0.1)

Netherlands*

10.9

(1.1)

25.5

(1.3)

11.5

(1.0)

21.1

(1.1)

13.4

(1.4)

19.9

(1.5)

New Zealand

15.1

(0.8)

20.7

(0.7)

14.0

(0.8)

18.9

(0.9)

15.4

(0.9)

18.9

(0.9)

Norway

20.8

(1.0)

11.4

(0.6)

22.2

(1.2)

10.4

(0.7)

18.2

(0.9)

10.2

(0.7)

Poland

22.0

(1.1)

10.1

(0.6)

19.8

(0.9)

10.6

(0.8)

20.5

(1.1)

10.4

(0.9)

Portugal*

30.1

(1.7)

5.4

(0.5)

30.7

(1.5)

5.7

(0.5)

23.7

(1.1)

9.6

(0.8)

Slovak Republic

19.9

(1.4)

12.7

(0.9)

20.9

(1.0)

11.0

(0.9)

21.0

(1.2)

12.7

(1.0)

Slovenia

m

m

m

m

17.7

(0.7)

13.7

(0.6)

20.3

(0.5)

14.2

(0.6)

Spain

23.0

(1.0)

7.9

(0.7)

24.7

(1.1)

7.2