5. The Uptake of Digital Government Tools and the Development of User-driven Digital Services in the Czech Republic

In today’s geopolitical climate, governments are expected to be resilient, responsive and agile to mitigate unexpected challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the undeniable value of the strategic use of digital technologies and data when responding to these challenges. Over the past two years, governments have prioritised digital transformation in their national agendas. Governments need to continue their efforts and sustain advancements in the digital transformation of the public sector.

Robust governance is key in navigating the complexity of the digital transformation to drive change across the public sector. With such governance, governments can envision and enable a holistic digital transformation, fostering a collaborative and inclusive digital ecosystem across the public sector. The results of the OECD Digital Government Index 2019 highlight the importance of solid governance of governments to become digitally mature (OECD, 2020[1]). Such governance allows governments to move away from thinking in silos towards a strategic system-thinking approach, providing the foundation for designing and delivering user-driven public services.

In line with the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies (OECD, 2014[2]), the OECD Working Party of Senior Digital Government Officials (E-Leaders) developed the E-Leaders Handbook on the Governance of Digital Government (OECD, 2021[3]), building on the insights, knowledge and good practices of OECD member and partner countries. The handbook presents the OECD Framework on the Governance of Digital Government, which supports governments in establishing effective governance frameworks and institutional capacities towards digital maturity.

The OECD Framework on the Governance of Digital Government introduces three critical governance facets (Figure 5.1):

  1. 1. Contextual factors defines country-specific characteristics – political, administrative, socio-economical, technological, policy and geographical – to be considered when designing policies to ensure a human-centred, inclusive and sustainable digital transformation of the public sector.

  2. 2. Institutional models presents different institutional set-ups, approaches, arrangements and mechanisms within the public sector and digital ecosystem, which direct the design and implementation of digital government policies in a sustainable manner.

  3. 3. Policy levers enumerates policy instruments that support governments to ensure a sound and coherent digital transformation of the public sector.

This chapter analyses the governance of digital government in the Czech Republic. It focuses on two facets of the governance framework – Facet 2: Institutional models and Facet 3: Policy levers (see Figure 5.1). The first section assesses the formal and informal institutional arrangements that would enable the Czech government to provide the necessary leadership and secure co-ordination and collaboration to promote innovation, efficiency, effectiveness and trustworthiness across the public sector. The second section discusses policy levers, soft or hard policy instruments, that can help strengthen institutional capacities to better design and deliver inclusive, sustainable and quality services to its users. The last section explores policy recommendations for the Czech Republic on strengthening its governance for digital government to design and deliver better services for its users and promote public sector innovation.

The Czech Republic has invested significant efforts in transforming the economy, society and public sector through the whole-of-government strategic programme, Digital Czech Republic Programme. Launched in 2018 and updated annually with the accompanying implementation plans, the programme contains three interconnected pillars: 1) Czech Republic in Digital Europe; 2) Information Strategy of the Czech Republic; and 3) Digital Economy and Society (European Commission, 2022[4]). In line with the targets and objectives for 2030 of the European Commission’s Digital Decade policy programme, the Czech Republic plans to broaden the scope of the programme, including the focused pillar on education and digital skills.

The first pillar, “Czech Republic in Digital Europe”, is led by the Office of the Government. It aims to promote a whole-of-government approach to the digital agenda at the European Union (EU) level and ensure compliance with EU regulations. The second pillar, “Information Strategy of the Czech Republic”, is led by the Office of Chief Architect of eGovernment of the Ministry of the Interior1. It focuses on “e-government” of the Czech Republic. Based on Act No. 365/2000 Coll., the strategy sets out the national agenda for establishing and operating public administration information systems. The third pillar, “Digital Economy and Society”, strives to maximise societal and economic opportunities for digital transformation across the country while minimising possible negative impacts. This cross-cutting strategy is largely led and co-ordinated by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. All three pillars are co-led by the Government Council of Information Society (RVIS).

Despite the ambitious plan, progress has been slow over the past few years. The country still lags behind its European peers. In the European Commission’s Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), the Czech Republic has remained under the EU average for the past four years (Table 5.1). In the area of digital public services, the Czech Republic has gradually improved, narrowing the gap with the EU average. The results of 2022 DESI show that the percentage of e-government users grew 12% from 64% to 76% in one year. Nevertheless, there are still opportunities to improve public service design and delivery (Figure 5.2) (European Commission, 2022[5]).

In January 2022, the new government of Petr Fiala approved the national programme, which includes the digitalisation of the public sector as one of its main priorities. The programme envisions a momentous change to the governance of digital government in the Czech Republic that can drive the digital transformation across all central government bodies. The newly appointed deputy prime minister for digitalisation announced a plan to establish the Digital Information Agency (DIA) to drive the digital transformation of central and local governments in close co-ordination with the Cabinet of Deputy Prime Minister for Digitalisation and the RVIS (Government of the Czech Republic, 2022[6]).

Furthermore, under the Digital Czech Republic Programme, the government continues to prioritise and implement key digital initiatives to facilitate such a transformation (European Commission, 2022[4]). For instance, the Czech Republic plans to complete the implementation of the Act on the Right to Digital Services, the “Digital Constitution” that will give all citizens the right to access public sector services digitally by 2025. The government created various digital services in an agile, yet unconventional, manner during the COVID-19 pandemic, and is currently trying to secure continuity for these services.

The Czech Republic’s Recovery and Resilience Plan also outlines support for the digital transition of society. It plans to improve connectivity across the country and enhance the digital skills of society. In addition, it aims to facilitate the digital transformation of the public sector, and to strengthen cybersecurity (European Commission, 2022[7]).

Overall, the Czech Republic is well-positioned to strive towards greater digital government maturity with a whole-of-government strategy supported by the highest political leadership. In addition, the “Digital Constitution” provides a solid legal ground for the government to facilitate the ongoing efforts in digitalising the public sector and delivering services for the digital age. Nonetheless, to ensure the coherent and sustainable implementation of such an ambitious plan across the public sector to bring impact, it is critical for the Czech Republic to enact the foreseen changes to consolidate the governance of digital government and equip the public sector with key policy levers to design and deliver public services to all users.

The complexity of digital transformation in the public sector requires an organisation-in-charge that can steer a national digital government agenda in a coherent and sustainable manner through internal and external changes. Taking into consideration the national context, the organisation-in-charge needs to be placed where it can incorporate the digital government strategy across the public sector comprehensively with the necessary political support.

Although approaches to the institutional structure vary from one country to the other, the OECD Digital Government Index 2019 revealed that all 33 participating countries have an organisation that leads and co-ordinates decisions on digital government at the central level of government (OECD, 2020[1]). Some countries locate the organisation-in-charge within the centre of government (e.g. Chile, France, the Republic of Türkiye and the United Kingdom), while others place it in a line ministry (e.g. Estonia, Greece and Luxembourg) or under a co-ordinating ministry, such as the Ministry of Finance or the Ministry of Public Administration (e.g. Denmark, Korea, Portugal and Sweden) (OECD, 2021[3]).

The organisation-in-charge also needs to have well-defined co-ordination, advisory and decision-making responsibilities (Box 5.1). It needs to be empowered to bring together and manage the relations of different stakeholders for digital government policies, provide advice, and take decisions that can bring the whole-of-government to digital government maturity (OECD, 2021[3]).

Until recently, in the Czech Republic, the role and responsibilities of the organisation-in-charge of digital government were mainly shared between the Cabinet of Deputy Prime Minister for Digitalisation and the Ministry of the Interior. Inaugurated in January 2022, the Cabinet of Deputy Prime Minister for Digitalisation introduced a vision to transform the governance of digital government. It has started to align all ongoing initiatives on digital transformation. The Ministry of the Interior has been the central government authority governing the central information systems and shared services for the public sector, including the citizen portal, gov.cz, the Registry of Rights and Responsibilities (of public administrations) and electronic identification. The ministry was also in charge of developing and enforcing digital government-related legislation and policies, and translating legislation into government processes. Furthermore, each line ministry has led and held responsibility for implementing its sectoral digital strategy within the framework of the Digital Czech Republic Programme.

In efforts to reinforce the governance of digital government, the Czech Republic decided to establish a new organisation, the DIA, to drive the digital transformation of the public sector. On 1 January 2023, Amendment No. 471/2022 (§2a) to the Right to Digital Services Act No. 12/2022 of the Czech Republic (No. 2/1969) came into force, providing a legal foundation for the DIA. The agency will work closely with the Cabinet of Deputy Prime Minister for Digitalisation, which will continue to take strategic and political decisions. At the time of drafting this review, the Czech government announced that the agency would be fully operational within three months from the enacted date. The DIA will absorb most of the responsibilities for the digital transformation of the public sector from other central government bodies, including the Ministry of the Interior and the National Agency for Communication and Information Technologies.

The recent changes regarding the organisation-in-charge could hinder the government’s progress towards digital government maturity at the whole-of-government level. As the Czech Republic goes through the process of redefining the institutional structure, it is imperative to clearly identify the roles and responsibilities of the organisation-in-charge, its relations with different bodies, including the RVIS, and interpreting roles of responsibilities of different stakeholders. This process needs to be inclusive for DIA to gain legitimacy from all stakeholders across the public sector. Taking this opportunity to reinforce the governance for digital government would greatly contribute to achieving and sustaining the Czech Republic’s ambitious digital agenda with visible impact.

The creation of the Deputy Prime Minister for Digitalisation brings a sufficient level of political support and opportunities to cover the whole public sector comprehensively. Nonetheless, to ensure the effective leadership and decision-making power of the Cabinet of Deputy Prime Minister for Digitalisation, a formal arrangement firmly defining its mandate needs to be enforced and mutually agreed upon by all stakeholders. Furthermore, the soon-to-be operational DIA needs to be equipped with sufficient institutional capacities to provide shared services and tools, support ministries and public institutions with their digital transformation strategies, advise the government on the digital transformation of the public sector, and drive public sector innovation across the government to ensure coherent implementation of all sectoral digital strategies across the public sector in line with the more comprehensive vision. For instance, the French government established a similar organisation in 2019 to support the government’s digital transformation agenda (Box 5.3).

Co-ordination and co-operation make the digital transformation of the public sector more coherent, consistent and effective. Effective institutional co-ordination enables governments to drive digital transformation holistically with a long-lasting impact on society and the economy. To best avoid a possible crippling impact on the digital transformation of the public sector, all key stakeholders must collaborate on mutually established and agreed-upon objectives and action plans. A co-operative and collaborative culture throughout the public sector can ensure cohesive policy formulation, planning, implementation and monitoring. Potential policy gaps can be avoided, and a diverse policy environment can be fostered. Creative methods can flourish in the public sector by sharing knowledge, experience and lessons learnt.

Inter-ministerial co-ordination is currently carried out by the RVIS, with the involvement of deputy ministers or equivalent from each line ministry and other stakeholders, including the private sector and local governments. Led by the deputy prime minister for digitalisation, the council discusses and agrees on the horizontal issues of the Digital Czech Republic Programme. At the council meetings, representatives can table issues that require inter-ministerial co-ordination.

The council is also supported by thematic working groups composed of experts from different institutions. The thematic discussions at the working level are reported back to the council, bringing the institutions’ needs to the high-level discussions. For instance, the Czech eMandate service was first proposed at the working group level and is now in the development stage through the co-ordinated effort of the council.

Nevertheless, the council serves as more of an advisory group than an effective co-ordination body that plays a strong decision-making and implementation role. The OECD Public Governance Review process revealed that the co-ordination mechanism was quite unstable and that the instability has caused difficulties in the execution of decisions taken at the whole-of-government level. For instance, during the pandemic, weak co-ordination efforts resulted in duplication and significant errors in consolidating data in a central database from social services providers working at the regional level. In addition, the limited sharing of such data created a great barrier for ministries in using the data for their service provision. At the time of drafting this review, the co-ordination mechanism was in transition, given more decision-making responsibilities. For instance, under the new governance of digital government, the RVIS is mandated to approve strategic documents proposed by government bodies.

As the Czech Republic has a decentralised government structure, each regional and local government is in charge of implementing its own digital government, and designing and delivering its own services. At the time of writing, the Office of Chief Architect of eGovernment of the Ministry of the Interior held the mandate to approve all the regional and local governments’ ICT/digital projects. Under the ongoing restructuring of the governance of digital government, the Czech government plans to move this function to the DIA as of 1 April 2023. However, to provide consistent quality and inclusive services across the country while ensuring interoperability and responsible use of public resources, the central government needs to make additional efforts to co-ordinate with the regional governments to disseminate the guidelines, standards and common enablers to ensure that users, regardless of where they reside, can access and enjoy the same quality of services.

Furthermore, a stronger co-ordination mechanism would also help identify opportunities that digital technologies and data can bring for public sector innovation, promoting a government-wide innovation effort, and disseminating good practices across all areas and levels of government. Currently, the Czech public sector is challenged by a lack of political and financial support, awareness of public officials, and legal framework on the public sector innovation agenda. The current legal framework, specifically Act No. 130/2002 on the Support of Research, Development and Innovation from Public Funds, falls short of providing the necessary environment for public sector innovation in the Czech Republic. Despite the existing Innovation Strategy of the Czech Republic 2019-2030, the strategy highly underestimates the necessity and importance of public sector innovation are highly underestimated in the strategy and narrowly scoped only around the digitalisation of public services. The Czech Republic must leverage digital tools and data to facilitate public sector innovation. Nonetheless, public sector innovation needs to be discussed in a broader scope, including fostering an innovative culture across the public sector.

With the accelerated digital transformation across society, governments around the world are pressured to ensure the competency to operate and provide services to their citizens in an increasingly digital world. Governments must equip their workforce with skills that are fit for the 21st century and resilient to economic and social unpredictability. The OECD Framework for Digital Talent and Skills in the Public Sector highlights what governments need to attain a workforce that can drive their digital governments to maturity. The framework encourages governments to create a conducive environment to enable digital transformation; to develop skills to support digital government maturity; and to establish and maintain a digital workforce (OECD, 2021[12]).

Under the second pillar of the Digital Czech Republic Programme, “Information Strategy of the Czech Republic”, the Czech government lays out its plan to strengthen the digital talent and skills of the public sector. The plan includes 57 action items to foster an environment to facilitate changes within the public sector, secure necessary digital talents in public institutions, and enhance the capacities and competencies of the existing workforce (Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, 2020[13]).

Nevertheless, the implementation efforts can be strengthened to maximise the potential impact by identifying the right authority to drive the digital talent and skills agenda. Many of the action items are assigned to less than a handful of central ministries, with some items lacking a responsible institution. Moreover, during the review process, it was observed that the Czech public sector still faces a challenge in attracting and retaining suitable digital talents across the government.

In November 2022, the government of the Czech Republic decided to create a dedicated pillar within the Digital Czech Republic Programme to better address these challenges and streamline ongoing efforts to enhance digital skills and competencies across the public sector. At the time of drafting, the government was defining the structure and objectives of the pillar.

The 2017 OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government (OECD, 2022[15])2 acknowledges that citizens’ participation can increase civic capacity, strengthen evidence-informed policymaking, lower implementation costs, and tap into wider networks and ecosystems for innovation in policymaking and service delivery. It can also increase citizen empowerment and their influence on policy decisions. User engagement includes the processes of educating, consulting and involving stakeholders in the design and delivery of policies and services. Collaboration further facilitates shared ownership, roles and responsibilities between the public sector and users in the creation and implementation of policies and services (Welby and Tan, 2022[14]).

The Czech government engages users in service design and delivery at a very limited capacity. The government takes into account user feedback through surveys and UX testing. This practice helps the government ensure the clarity and user-friendliness of the services provided. The Ministry of the Interior also monitors web traffic and user data to improve user accessibility. Nevertheless, little evidence was found during the review process on engaging users throughout the service design and delivery cycle. A lack of formal requirements and practices to engage users in the cycle in a meaningful way limits opportunities for the government to be user-driven. This can also be affecting the uptake of digital services among users in the Czech Republic. For instance, it would be beneficial for the government to engage users in prioritising public services to be digitally transformed and provided through the citizens’ portal, gov.cz, as it continues developing the portal.

Policy levers enable governments to design and implement digital government strategies and the delivery of services to users with a sustainable impact, serving the needs of citizens and businesses. The E-Leaders Handbook on the Governance of Digital Government defines the third facet of the OECD Framework on the Governance of Digital Government – policy levers – as tools to underpin the implementation of governments’ digital transformation strategy. It focuses on strategy and plan, project management tools, financial management mechanisms, and regulations and standards (see Figure 5.1). For the purpose of this chapter, this section focuses on key policy levers to improve the design and delivery of inclusive, sustainable and quality services to users in the Czech context.

A digital government strategy needs to include a strategic vision, objectives and priorities, as well as key stakeholders and specific action plans for execution and oversight. In addition to reflecting sectoral needs and priorities, it should align with a broader national agenda or policy priorities (e.g. administrative reform, sustainable development, climate change and the environment, education, research, and technology, etc.) (OECD, 2021[3]).

In the Czech Republic, the cross-sector digitalisation of the public administration has been carried out under the umbrella strategy, the Digital Czech Republic Programme. Under the shared objective of creating an environment for the long-term prosperity of the Czech Republic, the programme specifies targets and a time frame for implementation. Based on the programme, an annual implementation plan is set up through the RVIS. From the catalogue of project proposals, priority projects are determined and financed in line with the national budgetary process.

The cross-sectoral programme lays out the blueprint for the Czech Republic to become a digitally mature country. Nevertheless, it can further strengthen monitoring and assessment mechanisms for the implementation of digital government initiatives to measure implementation progress and identify gaps. For example, a clear set of key performance indicators (KPIs) could help the government measure the public sector institutions’ performance towards meeting the shared objective and key actions under the programme. By publishing its progress publicly, the government can also improve its transparency and build trust in government.

In Singapore, the government has included KPIs in the Digital Government Blueprint (Table 5.2). The government regularly reviewed and updated the KPIs with a new indicator when needed, reflecting the fast-changing speed of digital transformation and unpredictable geopolitical events. The KPIs have helped the Singaporean government assess its performance and identify where it is lagging behind (Smart Nation and Digital Government Office of Singapore, 2020[16]).

Through the adoption of standardised tools and services throughout the public sector, governments may maximise efficiency and avoid duplication of efforts and expenditures. Clear business cases, agile project management and strategic acquisition of digital technology are essential components of Pillar 3 of the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies (OECD, 2014[2]). These policy levers support the sustainability of digital initiatives and the implementation of policies that are aligned with the digital government strategy.

The Czech Republic has put in place a set of standardised methodologies for all central government institutions, from presenting business cases to managing data, digital and information technology projects. Developed and enforced by the Office of Chief Architect of eGovernment of the Ministry of the Interior, the Information Strategy of the Czech Republic clearly sets out the goals and directions at the whole-of-government level (Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, 2022[17]). Composed of several chapters and annexes, this comprehensive document provides general principles, from planning, procurement and creation to operation in detail (Box 5.7). It is accompanied by the forms each central institution needs to complete to present their business case for ICT projects for approval by the Office of Chief Architect of eGovernment. The National eGovernment Architecture Knowledge Base provides essential information and best practices to support public sector stakeholders to properly design, procure, implement and manage information services.

Furthermore, with support from the National Agency for Communication and Information Technologies, the Ministry of the Interior provides shared infrastructure and services to public sector institutions, including data centres and cybersecurity. During the approval process of ICT projects, the ministry encourages other institutions to use available common infrastructure and services. In addition, the Ministry of the Interior provides support for public sector institutions to develop and provide digital services through its service called PMA³. It can assist a requesting institution in conducting desk research, possibility analysis, or user testing and evaluation (Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, 2020[18]).

The Czech Republic has developed relatively well-structured standardised project management tools along with principles and guidelines at the central level of the government. The OECD Digital Government Policy Framework highlights the importance for a government to act as a platform that provides clear and transparent guidelines, tools, data and software to meet the needs of teams to design and deliver user-driven, consistent, seamless, proactive and cross-sectoral service (OECD, 2020[19]). The Czech Republic can further advance towards taking a Government as a Platform approach.

Nevertheless, the government can benefit from having in place a formal mechanism to monitor and assess the use of such standardised methodologies, guidelines and shared services across the public sector. During the review process, it was shared that many members of the public sector lack understanding of the principles of ICT projects, which in part led to reliance on big vendors for ICT solutions and services. This has created a vicious circle of relying on external expertise rather than building necessary skills within the public sector. Another example is the use of data standards. Although it is mandatory and the Office of the Chief Architect is responsible for monitoring its implementation, there is no formal mechanism for ensuring the proper application of the standards and its continuity in practice.

  • Continue developing and institutionalising the roles and responsibilities of the organisation-in-charge and each key actor (especially the Cabinet of Deputy Prime Minister for Digitalisation, the Digital Information Agency and the Ministry of the Interior) through a transparent and inclusive process to gain legitimacy and ensure sustainability.

  • Identify the needs of public institutions to provide the necessary support for their digital transformation strategies and make necessary shared services and tools available.

  • Equip the relevant organisations with sufficient institutional capabilities and competencies.

  • Building upon the statute of the RVIS, formalise the council’s decision-making responsibilities to use the co-ordination body’s full potential and to deliver the digital transformation efforts across the public sector with impact.

  • Expand the involvement of the thematic working groups to the Government Council of Information Society to increase engagement and alignment with institutional needs and facilitate a bottom-up collaborative culture.

  • Organise a regular meeting at the chief information officers (or equivalent) level with regional representatives organised by the Digital Information Agency.

  • Raise awareness on the centralised guidelines and standards, common policy tools and services to gain support and adoption across the public sector through inter-ministerial co-ordination, communication campaigns and regular training exercises.

  • Create communities of practice to share good practices, exchange knowledge and identify common challenges that can be resolved with assistance from the Digital information Agency.

  • Create a clear set of KPIs to assess and monitor implementation progress to ensure a sustainable transformation across the government.

  • Consider empowering the organisation-in-charge to fund cross-sectoral projects to ensure the coherent and efficient implementation of such projects.


[9] Direction interministérielle du numérique (France) (2022), La DINUM, web page, https://www.numerique.gouv.fr/dinum.

[7] European Commission (2022), “Czechia’s recovery and resilience plan”, web page, https://ec.europa.eu/info/business-economy-euro/recovery-coronavirus/recovery-and-resilience-facility/czechias-recovery-and-resilience-plan_en (accessed on  October 2022).

[5] European Commission (2022), Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) 2022 – Czechia, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/redirection/document/88698.

[4] European Commission (2022), Digital Public Administration Factsheet 2022 – Czech Republic, European Commission, https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/inline-files/DPA_Factsheets_2022_Czech_Republic_vFinal.pdf.

[11] Government of Canada (2023), Impact Canada website, https://impact.canada.ca/en/about (accessed on 9 January 2023).

[6] Government of the Czech Republic (2022), Digital Czech Republic Implementation Report, Government of the Czech Republic, Prague.

[8] Government of Uruguay (2023), Agency for Electronic Government and Society of the Information and Knowledge website, https://www.gub.uy/agencia-gobierno-electronico-sociedad-informacion-conocimiento.

[17] Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic (2022), “Information Strategy of the Czech Republic”, web page, https://archi.gov.cz/ikcr (accessed on  October 2022).

[13] Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic (2020), Information Strategy of the Czech Republic 2020, Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, Prague, https://www.mvcr.cz/soubor/informacni-koncepce-cr-2020.aspx.

[18] Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic (2020), PMA3 website, https://pma3.gov.cz (accessed on  November 2022).

[10] OECD (2022), Digital Government Review of Luxembourg: Towards More Digital, Innovative and Inclusive Public Services, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/b623803d-en.

[15] OECD (2022), Recommendation of the Council on Open Government, OECD, Paris, https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0438.

[3] OECD (2021), The E-Leaders Handbook on the Governance of Digital Government, OECD Digital Government Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/ac7f2531-en.

[12] OECD (2021), “The OECD Framework for Digital Talent and Skills in the Public Sector”, OECD Working Papers on Public Governance, No. 45, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/4e7c3f58-en.

[1] OECD (2020), “Digital Government Index: 2019 results”, OECD Public Governance Policy Papers, No. 3, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/4de9f5bb-en.

[19] OECD (2020), “The OECD Digital Government Policy Framework: Six dimensions of a digital government”, OECD Public Governance Policy Papers, No. 2, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/f64fed2a-en.

[2] OECD (2014), Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies, OECD, Paris, https://www.oecd.org/gov/digital-government/recommendation-on-digital-government-strategies.htm.

[16] Smart Nation and Digital Government Office of Singapore (2020), Digital Government Blueprint: “A Singapore Government That Is Digital to the Core, and Serves With Heart”, Smart Nation and Digital Government Office of Singapore, https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/dgb-public-document_30dec20.pdf.

[14] Welby, B. and E. Tan (2022), “Designing and delivering public services in the digital age”, Going Digital Toolkit Note, No. 22, OECD, Paris, https://goingdigital.oecd.org/data/notes/No22_ToolkitNote_DigitalGovernment.pdf.


← 1. The Office of Chief Architect of eGovernment of the Ministry of the Interior (MoI) will be moved to the Digital Information Agency (DIA) on the 1st of April 2023.

← 2. The Czech Republic is adherent to the recommendation. See: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0438#adherents.

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