copy the linklink copied!4. Support during vocational education and training in Germany

While most vocational education and training (VET) students learn their skills during an apprenticeship without additional support measures, some apprentices struggle to complete the training. Broadly speaking, students with immigrant parents are generally as content with their apprenticeships as students with native-born parents. They are more likely to participate in additional support measures, but are more likely to drop out of VET, and the apprenticeship contract cancellation rate is particularly high for students from the main asylum countries. For humanitarian migrants, a major issue is weak language skills, which makes it difficult to follow the theoretical curriculum in VET schools. This can indicate that many migrants need targeted support during their apprenticeship, which can increase the chances of completing the training and secure a stable connection to the labour market. This chapter discusses the challenges migrants might meet during their apprenticeship training.


copy the linklink copied!Issues and challenges in supporting apprentices, schools and employers

Many migrant apprentices struggle to complete the training

Satisfaction of youth with migrant parents with VET is mixed, but not consistently worse than apprentices without a migrant background

While there is no evidence yet for refugee students, research shows that apprentices with immigrant parents1 are as content with their apprenticeship as those with German-born parents; for both groups close to 40% indicate that they are very content with their apprenticeship (Granato and Hall, 2015[1]). This is perhaps surprising as young apprentices with immigrant parents are less likely to find an apprenticeship that reflects their occupational preference (Beicht and Walden, 2014[2]).

However, there is evidence that they are more likely than peers with German-born parents to indicate that they work overtime and are under time pressure. Moreover, a larger share is not content with their apprenticeship wages and having sufficient free time outside of work (Krewerth, 2011[3]).

At the same time, apprentices with immigrant parents assess the importance of the work of the company, the diversity of tasks and their supervisors’ understanding when mistakes are made to an extent which is similar to those with German-born parents. In addition, they are more likely to state that they receive positive feedback and appraisal when they do a task well and that they are given the autonomy to learn and work independently in the company (Gei and Granato, 2015[4]). Thus, experiences of apprentices with immigrant parents are mixed, but not consistently worse than those among apprentices without a migration background.

Migrants have higher chances of dropping out of VET

Currently, evidence on drop-outs in the German vocational education and training (VET) system is limited. Information is available on VET students whose contracts with their employer have prematurely ended, yet it is unclear whether they move on to another apprenticeship or whether they drop out and leave the education system entirely. Generally, studies have estimated that around 16% of those starting dual VET do not finish their education with a VET diploma, either because they dropped out altogether or because they continued in different educational tracks, e.g. school-based VET, higher secondary school or university (Uhly, 2015[5]).

The share of students discontinuing VET varies strongly across regions, educational background and occupations. In 2016, shares were higher in the east of Germany, among students with a lower secondary diploma (Hauptschule), students without German citizenship (32% compared to 25% among German nationals in 2016) and in a number of occupations, such as the hospitality sector, construction and the food industry (BIBB, 2017[6]; Uhly, 2015[5]).

Drop-out rates are particularly high among asylum seekers and refugees; the contracts of around 40% of students from the main asylum origin countries are ended prematurely (BIBB, 2017[6]). This high share nevertheless may demonstrate a considerable mismatch between employers and VET students. It is not clear what proportion of trainees continue in some other form of apprenticeship or education

There is currently no data available to assess drop-out rates specifically among natives with immigrant parents. However, as they are more strongly represented in VET occupations with high discontinuation rates (Beicht and Walden, 2014[2]), are more likely to hold a lower secondary degree (Hauptschule) and less likely to do an apprenticeship in their preferred occupation, it becomes clear that a lot of risk factors can come together that increase their likelihood of dropping out.

The reasons behind the relatively higher rates of apprenticeship contract termination among migrants is not clear. However, consultation rounds with German employers and VET teachers have demonstrated recent arrivals often struggle to follow the regular curriculum in VET schools, even when they are doing well in the workplace (OECD and UNHCR, 2018[7]). This issue was also discussed throughout the OECD team’s visit to Germany with many of the key stakeholders. Many recent arrivals it was argued lack sufficient language skills, and as a result they encountered difficulties during the theoretical school part of the training.

The completion rate of VET for migrants is generally lower than apprentices without a migrant background

The overwhelming majority of VET students who stay in VET until the end pass their final exams; in 2016, more than 90% successfully completed their apprenticeship exams (BIBB, 2018[8]). Survey data show that the share of apprentices with immigrant parents2 who successfully finished VET within the three-year period is lower than among VET students without migration background (77% vs. 85%). However, when controlling for their generally less advantageous starting positions, such as lower grades and lower likelihood of undertaking VET in their preferred occupation, the likelihood of apprenticeship completion (and so obtaining a VET upper secondary qualification) are comparable among both groups (Beicht, Granato and Ulrich, 2011[9]). These results are likely to reflect a positive selection effect occurring at the beginning of VET as students with immigrant parents face more hurdles in securing an apprenticeship in the first place. In addition, the survey only included students with an intermediate school leaving certificate (Realschule), and it is thus not clear if graduation rates may be different among students with a lower secondary degree.

There is a general lack of teachers, which can make it challenging for schools to follow up on struggling learners with additional needs

In the dual system, although the majority of the training time is spent in a company, the apprentices still spend substantial part of their training in schools learning academic and practical skills. The Länder are responsible for the schools, including teacher training. Consequently, practice differs between and also within the Länder.

In recent years, Germany has been affected by a severe lack of teachers, mainly as a result of increased birth rates and immigration. One study estimates that by 2030, about 43 000 additional teachers for all school types will be required (Klemm and Zorn, 2017[10]). There are however regional differences. In East Germany, the study expects that additional teachers are particularly required at the upper secondary level, whereas in West Germany only teachers on compulsory level are likely to be lacking. To tackle this issue, many Länder have introduced alternative pathways to become a (VET) teacher. Often, graduates from university programmes (mostly at Masters level) can now directly attend the practical part of initial teacher education (Quereinsteiger), or even work as teacher without formal qualification (Seiteneinsteiger) but usually with a pedagogical supplementary qualification. In 2017, one out of ten newly hired teachers had no formal teaching qualification (Kultusminister Konferenz, 2018[11]). A lack of teachers can make it harder for schools to follow up on struggling learners and provide them with necessary support so that the likelihood of completing the training increases.

Humanitarian migrants might require other types of support than apprentices with more experience in the country, for instance linked to language learning and social support. In addition to a lack of teachers, another question is therefore if the teachers at the VET schools are equipped with the right competences to teach and support students who are struggling with the language. Teacher training programmes across Germany are therefore exploring the inclusion of units of multicultural and language training into curricula.

Co-operation between employers, VET schools, the PES and social services can be improved

A majority of the German companies do not or rather seldom collaborate with vocational schools that their apprentices attend. In a recent survey of employers, 93% of the companies reported that they did not or seldom co-operate with the vocational schools (Gessler, 2017[12]). As there are many actors involved in the integration process of migrants, there is need to make the collaboration work smoothly in order to identify potential need for support measures. There is risk of duplication of actions and that potential challenges are not well communicated in between the key stakeholders.

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Box 4.1. Support for apprentices

There are many measures available for apprentices that offer support for skills development

Many, but not all, VET schools and other education providers offer additional services for migrants. For instance, 53% of the providers covered by the wbmonitor survey (Ambos, Koscheck and Martin, 2017[13]) offered counselling regarding further training and qualifications, 43% offered socio-pedagogic counselling and support, and 25% (mainly adult learning centres) offered language training during the qualification. In addition, they often support language aptitude tests, help to find internships or jobs or offer further services for migrants.

The public employment service also offers support measures during apprenticeships. First, training related assistance (Ausbildungsbegleitende Hilfen, abH) includes remedial courses for the vocational training, preparation for examinations, language support, assistance on everyday problems and mediation between apprentices and instructors, teachers and parents. The support measures are provided during the whole apprenticeship on an individual basis. In 2016, access to abH was extended to asylum seekers with good prospects of remaining and tolerated persons. In 2017, about 36 000 people participated and 81% of them were employed six months after the programme (BMBF, 2018[14]).

Second, assisted vocational training (Assistierte Ausbildung, AsA) also provides support during VET. Financed by the PES, the instrument aims to enable regular dual apprenticeships through support measures for both apprentices and employers. In 2017, 12 000 school-leavers started assisted vocational training (BMBF, 2018[14]). The instrument typically starts with a preparation phase of six months, including skills assessment, career guidance, application training, and general assistance (e.g. financial issues, childcare). Hence, in contrast to abH, the measure starts earlier. After this preparatory phase, participants are supported during the whole dual apprenticeship. Among the participants, over 40% had a migration background and over 20% migrated themselves. Between July 2016 and January 2017, almost 17% of new participants in the programme were humanitarian migrants, more than half of them refugees (Deutsche Bundesregierung, 2017[15]).

In the context of the educational chains initiative, the BMBF initiated VerA (Verhinderung von Ausbildungsabbrüchen) (see also Chapter 2). Within this programme, voluntary senior experts counsel apprentices who are experiencing difficulties and considering terminating their training. The experts (retired professionals with broad experience) help to build capacity in order to prevent dropouts. An evaluation of the initiative concluded that about 80% of participants successfully completed their apprenticeship (Huismann, 2018[16]). In addition to such federal initiatives, many Länder have developed their own programmes to support apprentices and prevent drop out.

Migrants can have access to financial support

Apprentices struggling to finance their training or pre-vocational training measures can obtain financial support through the BAB (Berufsausbildungsbeihilfe) mechanism. Eligible are those whose apprenticeship takes place too far away from their parents’ home, so that they cannot live at home; those who participate in a BvB (berufvorbereitende Bildungsmaßnahme); those who are older than 18 years, married or living together with their partner; and those who have children and do not live in the residence of their parents. Asylum seekers with good prospects of remaining are eligible once they are not covered by the asylum support (Asylbewerberleistungsgesetz) anymore (BMBF, 2018[14]). In 2017, about 87 000 persons received BAB. The share of non-German nationals among them is rising from 13% in 2016 to about 17% in 2017 (Bundesagentur für Arbeit, 2018[17]). However, survey data show that 32% of refugees who are already undertaking an apprenticeship require more information about what financial support they can get from the state and 36.9% wish for more support filling in forms and applications (BIBB, 2019[18]).

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Box 4.2. Support for employers

Apprentices spend more than half of their time in workplaces, where they receive hands on training and engage in productive work. It is a requirement that such employers or “training companies” employ at least one company instructor who has a professional qualification and has successfully passed an aptitude test to prove pedagogical knowledge (Eignungsverordnung, AEVO). A preparation course for this test consists of 115 lessons, but is optional (KMK, 2017[19]).

The main providers of support services for employers are the chambers. In most sectors, the membership in a chamber is required by law. The support from chambers varies across sectors. For instance, the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (IHK) initiated a programme to support the integration of refugees, where they, amongst other, inform and counsel employers and help refugees to find apprenticeships. Local IHK agencies usually offer information events, individual counselling, firm visits, counselling in VET schools, job fairs and other initiatives (DIHK, 2016[20]).

In 2016, the IHK together with the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) launched the initiative Network Companies Integrate Refugees (NETZWERK Unternehmen integrieren Flüchtlinge), offering legal and practical counselling and promote peer-learning and good practice. The network consists of 1 837 members as of September 2018, which engage in training and employment of humanitarian migrants.

Within the Jobstarter Plus initiative (2015–2020), the federal government supports various projects to enhance regional training markets. For instance, measures include counselling and support for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) which take on apprentices or help enhance the quality of apprenticeships.

Source: “Willkommenslotsen” programme: (with support of the ZDH), Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (2019[21]), Wilkommenslotsen, Unternehmen bei der Besetzung von offenen Stellen mit Geflüchteten unterstützen,

From VET into the labour market: Evidence on the transition into employment

Generally, the German VET system facilitates a smooth transition into the labour market. Around two out of three apprentices continue working in the same firm where they did their apprenticeship and four out of five enter the labour market without experiencing unemployment. Only 6% of VET graduates are unemployed for four months or longer after completing their apprenticeship (Seibert and Wydra-Somaggio, 2017[22]).

Given the additional hurdles that refugees and, more broadly, students with immigrant parents face, the question is therefore if these disadvantages continue to be present when entering the labour market or if the German VET system works equally well as it does for apprentices with native-born parents. This is crucial also because holding a vocational degree has shown to be particularly important for natives with immigrant parents in order to find employment. Previous research has demonstrated that the added value of VET is even stronger for young natives with immigrant parents than for those with German-born parents. When adjusting for different background characteristics, the chance of being employed is 2.4 times higher for natives when they hold a vocational diploma compared to those who do not. For natives with immigrant parents the odds are 5 times higher, meaning the effect is more than twice as strong as among those without a migration background (OECD, 2007[23]).

While there is no research available regarding the transition of refugee VET students into the labour market, further evidence is available from the BIBB Transition Survey (Übergangsstudie), conducted in 2006 and 2011, for students with immigrant parents. However, research based on these survey results follows the same definition of “migration background” as the Applicant Survey (see more in Chapter 5) and furthermore does not distinguish between native- and foreign-born graduates with immigrant parents.

With this caveat in mind, there is evidence that once young people with a migration background have successfully completed upper secondary VET, they are significantly more likely to continue working in the same firm where they did their apprenticeship than VET graduates with native-born parents (70% and 60%, respectively). This higher likelihood remains when controlling for students’ grades and socio-economic background (Beicht and Walden, 2014[2]).

For those who do not stay at their training company, within two years, only around 55% of young people with a migration background had found a job corresponding to their skill level. For those without a migration background the share is at 59%. Yet, when controlling for individual background characteristics, the already small difference between these two groups is no longer statistically significant. Factors that are found to negatively impact the likelihood of being employed are having a low-skilled father and lower grades in VET school. In addition, young women are less likely to transition into employment than their male peers (Beicht and Walden, 2014[2]).

There are some indications as to why higher retention rates in companies are higher and transitions into employment at other companies are similar among both groups. In 2011, data for VET students without German citizenship showed that this group was more strongly represented in VET occupations with labour shortages than German nationals (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2012[24]; BIBB, 2012[25]). This labour shortage may contribute to high retention and employment rates. In addition, and more difficult to quantify precisely, it can be assumed that there is a positive selection effect of students with a migration background into VET. Given the considerable hurdles they face when searching for VET, it is likely that those students who succeed in finding and completing their apprenticeship are different from other students on a number of unobservable characteristics that are not captured by the data, such as social skills, ambition or social networks (OECD, 2018[26]). Thus, rather encouraging results regarding their transition into the labour market may also reflect inequalities when searching for apprenticeships.

Nevertheless, it shows that vocational education facilitates the transition for young natives with immigrant parents into the labour market and to some extent levels the playing field once students have found an apprenticeship and completed it. However, the considerable obstacles students with migrant parents face when accessing VET are cause for concern and demonstrate that concerted efforts are necessary to facilitate the entry into VET, as well as supporting the migrants throughout the training.

copy the linklink copied!Policy message

Strengthen the availability of existing support measures during VET, such as assisted vocational training (Assistierte Ausbildung, AsA), to provide employers and humanitarian migrants, as any other learner at risk of poor outcomes, with necessary help so that they can complete upper secondary VET. As Germany already has existing structures to build on when it comes to supporting apprentices and employers, make sure this support is consistently available. Review the effectiveness of existing measures and prepare to scale up the successful ones.

Ensure that collaboration and communication locally between the apprentices, employers, schools and social services is strong. There is a need to identify, and respond to, potential challenges in the training as early as possible in order to increase the chances of migrants completing VET.

copy the linklink copied!Policy arguments

Recent arrivals might be in need of support during the training, which can improve their chances of completion

Work-based learning can provide great advantages for students, including youth at risk. This is particularly linked to a successful transition from education to work, as well as tackling youth unemployment. Work-based learning can represent a hands-on and motivating training for many, and thereby increase the chances of completion with a qualification valued by the labour market. Although work-based learning has clear advantages, it is not a guarantee in itself for successful completion, but should rather be understood as an important first step. For vulnerable youths, such as many young humanitarian migrants, there can be challenges in completing an apprenticeship (Kis, 2016[27]). With commonly lower academic, language and social skills there are many hurdles to overcome. Taking into account the previous experiences apprentices with a migrant background have, it is reasonable to suspect that recent arrivals will also meet similar struggles in completing the training.

Additional support such as remedial courses and mentoring programmes can help humanitarian migrants overcome challenges, and thereby have higher chances of completing the training. Although research is limited, a number of studies suggests that the lack of support measures during VET can be linked to non-completion. The support provided to apprentices can take different forms, for instance support on completing the academic part of the education that takes place at the school, vocational support for apprentices both at school and at the company. Also support can be more broadly focused than on individual challenges that the migrant is experiencing. This is support that can both be given to the apprentice, but also support for the employer, for instance on preparing for the arrival of the apprentice or to mediate in case of conflict (Kis, 2016[27]).

There are today numerous programmes and measures that aim at supporting migrant students during training. Central to their effectiveness is the need to ensure that collaboration between VET schools, employers, social services and migrants can help identify potential challenges at an early stage and find suitable ways to follow-up the apprentice. A lack of a clear communication can delay problems being addressed and lead to early termination of the apprenticeship contract.

Additional support for migrants can also be beneficial for employers and increase their willingness to provide training for struggling learners

There can be substantial risks for employers in taking on recent arrivals as an apprentice and provide them with training. Recent arrivals have often weaker set of skills compared to students who went through the German school system. The employers’ training costs training might rise, as weaker students can be more dependent upon more support from trainers and co-workers as they develop productive skills at a slower pace. Well-crafted support measures, such as remedial courses in language, mentoring, can help improve the migrants’ ability to learn and develop. In this way, employers’ costs can be reduced because they are not left alone in supporting the migrants during the workplace part of the training. Lowering the risks of taking on struggling learners can in this way also improve the employers’ general willingness to provide training for vulnerable groups (Kis, 2016[27]).

Providing support for employers can lower their risk of taking on struggling learners

As taking a training responsibility for recent arrivals can increase the costs of training for an enterprise, there can be a need for measures to make sure that the costs and benefits for the employers are more balanced. Providing support directly to employers can help in this regard to contribute to lower employers’ costs. SMEs can be in particular need for support in training in general terms because they would not have the same capacities as bigger companies, notably in terms of human resource management. When apprentices present a wider range of challenges in progressing successfully through provision, the need for external support grows. Support measures can include, for instance, training for trainers and reducing the administrative burden falling on employers (Kis, 2016[27]).

There are already measures in place in Germany that provide such support, but opportunity exists to ensure that such support is consistently available. The chambers are the main providers of support for employers, but federal measures also exists. One important example is the KAUSA (The Coordination Agencies for Education and Migration) service points. One of its core objectives is to provide support for SMEs run by migrants to take on apprentices. This can be support in supporting the management of administrative arrangements involved in recruiting and training apprentice. KAUSA points also facilitate communication with VET schools and the local employment services to be able to identify and address potential challenges. The KAUSA project is however temporary and also only available in some areas. There is potential for the authorities and the chambers to consider increasing sustainable support mechanisms that target the employers and it is important to monitor closely the costs incurred by employers in offering apprenticeships.

Supporting migrant apprentices during the school part of the training can improve their language and academic skills and so increase completion rates

Many migrant students struggle during the school part of the training to keep up with the academic skills. Weak language skills can be one explanatory factor. Having support to improve language skills and the academic skills can be substantial elements in completing the training. Putting increased emphasis and resources on support at the schools can therefore be a worth-while investment, for instance by providing remedial programmes.

The content of the teacher’s education can also be another approach. Teaching an increasingly diverse youth cohort can require specific competences for the teacher. Migrant students benefit from teachers who take into account the diversity of their students in their pedagogical approaches (OECD, 2015[28]). Training to teach students with diverse backgrounds can include intercultural training and training for different learner needs. In Germany, teacher training is the responsibility of the Länder, which means that the provision can vary between the regions. Examples from other countries show how diversity training can be incorporated in the teacher education. In the French Community of Belgium, intercultural education has been part of teacher training since 2000 (OECD, 2018[29]). In the Netherlands, an understanding of cultural diversity is also a prerequisite for qualifying as a teacher. In Norway, the government has introduced a five-year plan in 2013 to improve multicultural competence among teachers, including multilingualism and second-language teaching (Jeon, 2019[30]).

With the VET cohort changing in terms of increasing numbers of migrant apprentices, it is important to be ready to scale up promising measures

Germany has put its focus on preparing the migrants for VET, and rightfully so, migrants meet substantial hurdles in trying to secure an apprenticeship placement. As the humanitarian migrants who arrived in Germany in 2015-16 are moving through different preparatory courses and are getting ready to enter VET, there are reasons to believe that the demand for additional support services during VET might increase in the coming years. There can now be a need to raise the awareness of also supporting struggling learners after they start their training. Support during the training can raise the chances of completing with a qualification, which has advantages in terms of the future connection the labour market.


[13] Ambos, I., S. Koscheck and A. Martin (2017), Kulturelle Vielfalt: Ergebnisse der wbmonitor Umfrage 2016, Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, Bonn,

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[2] Beicht, U. and G. Walden (2014), “Einmündungschancen in duale Berufsausbildung und Ausbildungserfolg junger Migranten und Migrantinnen”, BIBB Report, No. 5, Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, Bonn.

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[21] Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (2019), Wilkommenslotsen, Unternehmen bei der Besetzung von offenen Stellen mit Geflüchteten unterstützen, Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie, Bonn,

[15] Deutsche Bundesregierung (2017), Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Dr. Rosemarie Hein, Nicole Gohlke, Sigrid Hupach, weiterer Abgeordneter und der Fraktion DIE LINKE. – Drucksache 18/12270 – Erfahrungen mit dem Förderinstrument der Assistierten Ausbildung, Drucksache 18/12483, Deutscher Bundestag, 18. Wahlperiode,

[20] DIHK (2016), Verantwortung übernommen – Engagement verstetigen: Ein Jahr IHK-Aktionsprogramm “Ankommen in Deutschland – Gemeinsam unterstützen wir Integration!”, Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag e. V.

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[12] Gessler, M. (2017), “The lack of collaboration between companies and schools in the German dual apprenticeship system: Historical background and recent data”, International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, Vol. 4/2, pp. 164-195,

[1] Granato, M. and A. Hall (2015), “Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund: Zugang zu einer betrieblichen Ausbildung und Anforderungen, Ressourcen und Ausbildungszufriedenheit im betrieblichen Alltag”, in Datenreport zum Berufsbildungsbericht 2015. Informationen und Analysen zur Entwicklung der beruflichen Bildung, Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, Bonn.

[16] Huismann, A. (2018), “Guidance and outreach for inactive and unemployed - Germany”, Cedefop ReferNet Germany Thematic Perspectives Series, BIBB,

[30] Jeon, S. (2019), Unlocking the Potential of Migrants: Cross-country Analysis, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[27] Kis, V. (2016), “Work-based learning for youth at risk: Getting employers on board”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 150, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[10] Klemm, K. and D. Zorn (2017), Demographische Rendite adé: Aktuelle Bevölkerungsentwicklung und Folgen für die allgemeinbildenden Schulen, Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh,

[19] KMK (2017), The Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany 2014/2015, Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn.

[3] Krewerth, A. (2011), Ausbildungsqualität aus Sicht der Auszubildenden Welche Rolle spielt der Migrationshintergrund?, Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, Bonn.

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[26] OECD (2018), Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants, OECD Publishing, Paris,

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[28] OECD (2015), Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration, OECD Reviews of Migrant Education, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[23] OECD (2007), Jobs for Immigrants: Labour market integration in Australia, Denmark, Germany and Sweden, OECD Publishing , Paris,

[7] OECD and UNHCR (2018), Engaging with Employers in the Hiring of Refugees. A 10-point Multi-stakeholder Action Plan for Employers, Refugees, Governments and Civil Society,

[22] Seibert, H. and G. Wydra-Somaggio (2017), “Berufseinstieg nach der betrieblichen Ausbildung. Meist gelingt ein nahtloser Übergang”, IAB-Kurzbericht, No. 20, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Nürnberg.

[24] Statistisches Bundesamt (2012), Bildung und Kultur. Berufliche Bildung 2011. Fachserie 11 Reihe 3, Statistisches Bundesamt, Bonn.

[5] Uhly, A. (2015), “Vorzeitige Vertragslösungen und Ausbildungsverlauf in der dualen Berufsausbildung. Forschungsstand, Datenlage und Analysemöglichkeiten auf Basis der Berufsbildungsstatistik”, Wissenschaftliche Diskussionspapiere, No. 157, Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, Bonn.


← 1. No distinction is made whether apprentices with immigrant parents are born in Germany or born abroad.

← 2. No distinction is made whether students were born in Germany or abroad. For refugee students, graduation cohorts are still too small to assess how they fare in their final exams.

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