copy the linklink copied!Turkey

copy the linklink copied!Introduction

Government Decree No. 234/2011 on the policy of Turkey to participate in international development co-operation defines the tasks, mechanisms and institutional framework of the country’s development co-operation. It also provides guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and auditing Turkey’s development co-operation. The medium-term programmes for development co-operation and humanitarian aid, covering three- or four-year periods, determine the specific areas of intervention and expected outcomes, as well as financial allocations among priority partner countries and sectors.

copy the linklink copied!Official development assistance

In 2018, Turkey provided USD 8.61 billion in total official development assistance (ODA) (preliminary data), using the new “grant-equivalent” methodology (see the methodological notes for further details) adopted by DAC members on their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. This represented 1.1% of gross national income (GNI). Under the “cash-flow basis” methodology used in the past, 2018 net ODA was USD 8.56 billion, which represented an increase of 20.4% in real terms from 2017, due to an increase in bilateral aid.

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In 2017, 98% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally. Turkey allocated 2% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2017, bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Asia. USD 7.5 billion was allocated to Asia, of which USD 7.3 billion to the Middle East, noting that USD 481.6 million was for “developing countries, unspecified”.

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In 2017, 89% of gross bilateral ODA went to Turkey’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are mainly in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The biggest recipient was the Syrian Arab Republic (USD 7.2 billion). Support to fragile contexts reached USD 7.5 billion in 2017 (89.3% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts.

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In 2017, 2.1% of Turkey’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 177.9 million) was allocated to the least developed countries (LDCs). This is down from 2.3% in 2016, lower than the average of providers beyond the DAC of 12.3% in 2017. Lower middle-income countries received USD 7.4 billion (88%). Within bilateral ODA that is unallocated by country (8.4%), Turkey estimates that 38.5% was directed to the LDCs.

At 0.03% of GNI in 2017, total ODA to the LDCs was lower than the UN target of 0.15-0.20% of GNI. This includes imputed multilateral flows, i.e. making allowance for contributions through multilateral organisations, calculated using the geographical distribution of multilateral disbursements.

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copy the linklink copied!Institutional set-up

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (United Nations and Co-operation for Development Directorate, International Co-operation for Development Department) leads and co-ordinates Turkey’s development co-operation activities, in co-operation with line ministries, elaborates ODA policy and annual action plans, and negotiates agreements with partner countries. The Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA), established in 2011, designs and co-ordinates Turkey’s bilateral development co-operation activities and implements projects in collaboration with other ministries, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the private sector. TIKA is an autonomous institution attached to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Other public institutions, NGOs and the private sector also implement projects and programmes funded through Turkey’s ODA. In addition, the inter-institutional International Development Co-operation Council, a consultative body created in 2007, assists the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in programming and promoting Turkey’s development co-operation.

copy the linklink copied!Additional resources

Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA): https://www.tika.gov.tr/en

Member of the OECD since 1961. Not a member of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Reporting to the OECD since 1990.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

https://doi.org/10.1787/2dcf1367-en

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