Annex B. Case studies on stakeholder participation and open government

Finland: Operational commitments to engage stakeholders

Mechanisms for dialogue and engagement, whereby governments and key stakeholders can come together to identify common challenges, set priorities, contribute to the development of laws and regulations, align policies and actions, and mobilise resources for sustainable development, are essential for coherent implementation of the SDGs. In Finland, operational commitments are among the main tools to foster participation of key stakeholders and create opportunities for organisations and active citizens to pursue the sustainable development goals as a task for society as a whole. Such commitments, notably Society’s Commitment to Sustainable Development, have provided various actors with an effective and sensible way of participating in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. More than 750 commitments to action promoting sustainable development have been made, encompassing all sectors of society: companies, schools, non-governmental organisations, administration, trade unions, political parties, cities, and even private individuals (OECD, 2017[1]; 2018[2]; PMO Finland, 2017[3]; National Comission on Sustainable Development, 2016[4]).

The National Commission on Sustainable Development (NCSD) seeks to ensure national follow-up on its commitments invigorated by continuous stakeholder participation. The NCSD includes 16 representatives from the business and industry (including agriculture), the three largest labour unions and their youth sections, 28 non-governmental organisations (including environment, women, children, indigenous peoples Saami, Somali immigrants, sports, education, consumer, disabled peoples associations and many others) as well as representatives from municipalities, regions, the church, academia and development. A sustainable development expert panel established in 2014 supports and challenges the work of the government and NCSD. The Panel is composed of eight eminent professors from different disciplines. Since spring 2017, the government partners with 20 young people from different backgrounds and regions via the Agenda 2030 Youth Group (OECD, 2017[1]; 2018[2]; PMO Finland, 2017[3]; National Comission on Sustainable Development, 2016[4]).

Indonesia: A multi-platform approach to stakeholder engagement

Indonesia applies a partnership principle among stakeholders, which is based on mutual trust, participation, transparency and accountability. Stakeholders involved in Indonesia’s SDG implementation consist of four participatory platforms: the government and Parliament; civil society organisations and media; philanthropy and business; and academics. Each platform has representatives in the Implementation Team and Working Groups of the SDGs National Coordination Team, which provides many opportunities to participate actively.

Each platform has different roles and approaches. The role of the government is to formulate policies and programmes, determine the indicators, prepare data and information, disseminate information, communicate and advocate, allocate budget, as well as monitor, evaluate and report. The role of civil society organisations and media is to disseminate and advocate, facilitate and implement programme, build public understanding, publish and monitor. The role of philanthropy and business is to advocate business actors. Finally, the role of academics and experts is to build capacity, monitor and evaluate, and prepare policy papers for policy formulation.

These stakeholder groups are involved not only in the implementation stage, but also in enriching the direction for SDG implementation as well as contributing to the monitoring and evaluation of its implementation. All stakeholders were involved in the discussions on the Presidential Decree of the SDGs, on the development of metadata, and on the development of guidelines for formulating the Action Plans, as well as other SDG activities. The processes are conducted in the form of offline and online public consultations.

Open government

As a founder of the Open Government Partnership (OGP), Indonesia is also well suited to take the lead in exploring how the SDGs and open government reform agendas can complement and reinforce each other. Through its endorsement of the OGP Joint Declaration on Open Government for the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in September 2015, Indonesia has already recognised the value of linking these two initiatives. Specifically, the declaration notes the “importance of harnessing [countries’] efforts and championing the principles of transparency and open government as crucial tools for ensuring the effective implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”.1

Indonesia’s open government reform efforts have contributed to important progress in pursuing the initiatives to realise the governance targets to promoting transparent, accountable and inclusive government as laid out in Goal 16, as well as to support the process for inclusive design, implementation and monitoring of all SDGs.

Luxembourg: A co-working process to support stakeholder engagement

Luxembourg has collaborated closely with a broad range of stakeholders, including through a co-working process of the Interdepartmental Commission on Sustainable Development (ICSD), as well as the Cooperation Circle of NGOs on sustainable development. The launch of the Fair Politics barometer, a report by Luxembourg’s national umbrella organisation of NGOs (, and the subsequent discussion in Parliament in December 2017, was a first step towards greater stakeholder engagement. The outcomes of the discussion and several participatory workshops were integrated into the national strategy.

The Inter-ministerial Committee for Development Cooperation (ICD) invites NGOs active in the development and co-operation sector to participate in its debates, attend its meetings and identify priority topics. An additional platform for reflection, discussion and recommendations on sustainable development, the High Council for Sustainable Development, consisting of 15 persons from civil society and the private sector, submits an annual report to Parliament (Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 2018[5]; OECD, 2018[2]).


[5] Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (2018), Luxembourg 2030 - 3rd National Plan for Sustainable Developpement (draft).

[4] National Comission on Sustainable Development (2016), The Finland We Want by 2050 - Society’s Commitment to Sustainable Development, (accessed on 13 February 2018).

[2] OECD (2018), Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development 2018: Towards Sustainable and Resilient Societies, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[1] OECD (2017), Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development 2017: Eradicating Poverty and Promoting Prosperity, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[3] PMO Finland (2017), Government Report on the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development in Finland – Long-term, Coherent and Inclusive Action, (accessed on 13 February 2018).

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