1. Monitoring the implementation of the AEOI Standard

Following a call by the G20, the OECD, working with G20 countries, developed the AEOI Standard in 2014. The Global Forum was immediately tasked by the G20 with monitoring the implementation of the AEOI Standard worldwide. As a first step the Global Forum put in place a commitment process to facilitate the widespread application of the AEOI Standard, based on a level playing field.

As soon as the AEOI Standard was developed, the Global Forum recognised the potential benefits of its rapid and widespread implementation, alongside its existing standard of exchange of information on request (EOIR). The Global Forum therefore immediately put in place a process to promote the global implementation of the AEOI Standard. Consequently, all Global Forum members, except for developing countries that did not host a financial centre, were asked to commit to:

  • implement the AEOI Standard;

  • exchange information with all Interested Appropriate Partners (all jurisdictions interested in receiving information from a jurisdiction and that meet the expected standards in relation to confidentiality and data safeguards); and

  • commence exchanges in 2017 or 2018.

Forty-nine “early adopter” jurisdictions quickly committed to exchange information under the AEOI Standard in 2017 and a further 51 jurisdictions in 2018. Another 20 jurisdictions have since committed to implementing the AEOI Standard in time to start exchanging by 2024. This includes 14 developing countries not asked to commit to the AEOI Standard to a specific timeline, but that want to access the benefits the AEOI Standard has to offer. It also includes a further three jurisdictions identified through the Global Forum’s “jurisdiction of relevance” process established to maintain a level playing field, which subsequently voluntarily committed to implement the AEOI Standard.

Further details on the individual commitments made are contained in the tables 1.1 to 1.3 below.

The Global Forum has since monitored the timeliness of the delivery of each aspect of the implementation process. The key milestones relate to:

  • putting in place a domestic legislative framework to require Financial Institutions to collect and report the information for exchange that is in accordance with the detailed due diligence and reporting rules contained in the AEOI Standard;

  • putting in place an international legal framework permitting the automatic exchange of information with a jurisdiction’s Interested Appropriate Partners. This includes an underlying legal basis and an administrative agreement containing the details of the exchanges – the vast majority of jurisdictions are using the multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters (the Convention) along with the CRS Multilateral Competent Authority Agreement (or CRS MCAA)1; and

  • a technical infrastructure to receive the information from Financial Institutions and to process and transmit it to a jurisdiction’s exchange partners. All jurisdictions use the Common Transmission System (CTS), developed and procured by the OECD and managed by the Global Forum.

Further details on each jurisdiction’s timeliness in meeting these milestones are contained in the tables 1.2 to 1.4 below.

Table 1.1 presents details of the exchanges that took place in 2020 and 2021. The widespread delivery of the exchanges shows that the overwhelming majority of jurisdictions implemented the necessary legal and technical frameworks, in accordance with their commitments.

97% of the jurisdictions have delivered on their commitment to exchange information under the AEOI Standard.  

While recognising the widespread successes in the fulfilment of the commitments made, some jurisdictions have not yet delivered. A fully effective AEOI Standard requires a level playing field and the Global Forum therefore continues to work closely with these jurisdictions to facilitate the delivery of their commitments.

Table 1.2 shows the jurisdictions that are late in putting in place the necessary legal frameworks to implement the AEOI Standard, namely Sint Maarten and Trinidad and Tobago.

Table 1.3 shows the jurisdictions that have in place the legal frameworks to implement the AEOI Standard but that have not put in place the technical requirements for exchange, namely Niue.

A further twelve jurisdictions are committed to starting exchanges in the coming years. These are set out in Table 1.4 below.

While the timeliness of implementation is critical, the full potential benefits of the AEOI Standard will only be delivered if the requirements are implemented in a complete and effective manner.

To ensure this, Global Forum conducts peer reviews with respect to the quality of the implementation of all aspects of the AEOI Standard. Chapter 2 contains further details in this regard.


← 1. Details on each of the agreements in place can be found in Annex B.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2021

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions.