Indicator A1. To what level have adults studied?

Highlights
  • On average across OECD countries, about 25% of tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds have qualifications in business administration or law, while 5% or less had studied information and communication technologies (ICT), natural sciences, mathematics or statistics.

  • The proportion of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds increased by 9 percentage points on average across OECD countries between 2008 and 2018, while the share of adults with less than upper secondary education fell from 19% to 15%.

  • Across all age groups, but particularly among young adults, the proportion of tertiary-educated women is now higher than the proportion of tertiary-educated men in almost all OECD countries. In some countries, the gender imbalance is reversed between the older and younger generations.

Figure A1.1. Fields of study among tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds (2018)
Figure A1.1. Fields of study among tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds (2018)

1. Year of reference differs from 2018. Refer to the source table for more details.

2. Data refer to bachelor’s degree field, even for those with additional tertiary degrees.

Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds who studied in the field of education.

Source: OECD (2019), Table A1.3. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933976403

Context

Giving everyone a fair chance to obtain a high-quality education is a fundamental part of the social contract. To improve social mobility and socio-economic outcomes, it is critically important to eliminate inequalities in educational opportunities. A population that is highly qualified across diverse fields of study promotes inclusive growth by broadening the pool of candidates for highly skilled jobs.

Educational attainment is measured as the percentage of the population that has reached a certain level of education and holds a formal qualification at that level. It is frequently used as a proxy measure of human capital and a signal of the level of an individual’s skills (i.e. a measure of the skills associated with a given level of education and available in the population and the labour force).

Higher levels of educational attainment are associated with several positive economic and social outcomes for individuals (see Indicators A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6). Highly educated individuals tend to be more socially engaged and have higher employment rates and larger relative earnings. Greater proficiency in literacy and numeracy is also strongly associated with higher levels of formal education (OECD, 2016[1]).

Individuals thus have incentives to pursue more education, and governments have incentives to provide appropriate infrastructure and policies to support higher levels of educational attainment across the population. Over past decades, almost all OECD countries have seen significant increases in educational attainment, especially among the young and among women.

For employers, qualifications certify and offer information about the type of knowledge and skills that potential employees have acquired in formal education. This helps them to make hiring decisions, or even to decide where to locate their business in order to access the best-qualified talent. A qualification from a particular field of study is also required to gain entry to some professions and industries. Analysing qualifications by fields of study can therefore also provide an insight into supply and demand issues for different classes of occupation in OECD countries.

Other findings

  • Between 2008 and 2018, the proportion of young adults with tertiary education increased in all OECD and partner countries while the proportions of young adults with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education increased in Brazil, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, Portugal and South Africa.

  • While tertiary attainment has risen for both younger men and younger women between 2008 and 2018 across OECD countries, the gender gap in favour of women has widened from 9 percentage points in 2008 to 12 percentage points in 2018.

  • There are marked differences in the share of adults with a tertiary qualification in the field of education, ranging from about 20% in Costa Rica, Hungary and Iceland, to 5% or less in France, Italy and the United Kingdom.

  • On average across the OECD, 14% of adults hold a master’s or doctoral level qualification. In Estonia, Luxembourg, Poland, the Russian Federation, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland, the share is over 20%, while it is only around 2% in Argentina, Brazil, China, Chile, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Turkey.

Analysis

Below upper secondary education

The attainment of upper secondary education has become the minimum requirement for navigating the modern economy and society. As a result, young people today who leave school before completing upper secondary education not only face difficulties in the labour market, but are also twice as likely to have low numeracy skills as those with an upper secondary education (OECD, 2015[2]). In most OECD countries, the large majority of younger adults (25-34 year-olds) had at least an upper secondary qualification in 2018, while the average proportion of young adults without an upper secondary qualification was 15% (Figure A1.2).

Figure A1.2. Educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds (2018)
Figure A1.2. Educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds (2018)

1. Year of reference differs from 2018. Refer to Table A1.1 for more details.

2. Data for upper secondary attainment include completion of a sufficient volume and standard of programmes that would be classified individually as completion of intermediate upper secondary programmes (13% of adults aged 25-64 are in this group).

Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds.

Source: OECD (2019), Education at a Glance Database, http://stats.oecd.org. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933976422

Substantial variations remain in the share of young adults without upper secondary education across the OECD and partner countries. While the share is below 10% among 25-34 year-olds in 13 countries (Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Ireland, Israel, Korea, Lithuania, Poland, the Russian Federation, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland and the United States), it is 50% or more in the People’s Republic of China, Costa Rica, India and Indonesia. In Korea, only 2% of men and women aged 25-34 have not completed upper secondary education, the lowest share across OECD and partner countries for both genders, while in China and India the proportion of young adults with at most lower secondary education is 64% (Figure A1.2 and Table A1.2).

On average across OECD countries, the share of younger adults with below upper secondary education fell from 19% in 2008 to 15% in 2018, indicating overall progress in increasing the levels of educational attainment in the OECD. Some countries have reduced the share of young adults not completing upper secondary education by a much larger amount. Across OECD countries with comparable data between 2008 and 2018, Portugal experienced the largest decrease in young adults lacking an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, with a drop of 25 percentage points during this period. Mexico also reduced the share of young adults without upper secondary education by at least 15 percentage points between 2008 and 2018. In both countries, the decrease in the share of young adults without upper secondary education was combined with increased attainment of both upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and tertiary education (Table A1.2).

On the other hand, in Austria, Finland and Hungary the share of adults without upper secondary education changed by 1 percentage point or less between 2008 and 2018. Norway is the only country with comparable data for 2008 and 2018 where the proportion of young adults with below upper secondary education increased (Table A1.2).

In most countries, young men are more likely than young women to lack an upper secondary qualification, with an OECD average of 17% for men and 14% for women. The gender gap is 5 percentage points or more in about one-quarter of OECD and partner countries: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, India, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain and Turkey. In Iceland, India, Portugal and Spain, the gap is 10 percentage points or more. In India and Turkey, the gender gap is in favour of young men whereas in all other countries the gap is in favour of young women. Countries with similar shares of young men and women without upper secondary education include Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Korea, Luxembourg and the Slovak Republic (Table A1.2).

Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education

On average in the OECD, 42% of 25-64 year-olds have upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as the highest level of education: 37% having only an upper secondary education and 6% a post-secondary non-tertiary qualification. The proportion of adults with a post-secondary non-tertiary qualification is particularly high in Canada, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, New Zealand and the Russian Federation, where 10% or more of the adult population hold qualifications at this level (Table A1.1).

Across OECD and partner countries, the share of young adults (aged 25-34) who have upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as the highest level achieved ranges from as low as 18% in China to as high as 77% in South Africa (Figure A1.3).

The percentage of young adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as the highest level of attainment has fallen from 46% in 2008 to 41% in 2018 on average across OECD countries. This change has occurred in the context of a falling share of younger adults without an upper secondary education (from 19% in 2008 to 15% in 2018), and a rising share of young adults with tertiary education (from 35% to 44%) (Table A1.2).

Not all countries have followed a similar pattern. For example, among OECD countries, in Mexico the share of young adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education increased by 8 percentage points and in Portugal it increased by 13 percentage points from 2008 to 2018. Most other OECD countries have reduced the share of the young population with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as the highest level achieved, while increasing the share of young adults with tertiary education. For example, in Austria, the share of young adults with tertiary education increased by 7 percentage points (from 33% to 40%) while the share with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary fell by the same extent from 55% to 48% (Table A1.2).

Tertiary education

On average across OECD countries, 39% of adults aged 25-64 had achieved a tertiary qualification in 2018. Tertiary education has expanded significantly over recent decades across the OECD. On average, a larger proportion of 25-34 year-olds in the OECD have attained tertiary education in 2018 than have upper secondary education as the highest level of attainment. The share of younger adults with tertiary education is 44% on average across OECD countries, much higher than the share among 55-64 year-olds (27%), reflecting increasing access to tertiary education in the OECD in more recent decades. In all OECD countries, the share of younger adults with tertiary education has increased between 2008 and 2018 (Table A1.2 and OECD (2019[3])).

The proportion of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is 60% or more in Canada, Japan, Korea and the Russian Federation. In Canada, Korea and the Russian Federation this high share of tertiary-educated adults comes with a correspondingly lower share (less than 7%) of adults with below upper secondary education. The countries with the lowest share of tertiary-educated young adults in OECD and partner countries (16% or below) are India, Indonesia and South Africa. In India and Indonesia, the commonest level of attainment among 25-34 year-olds is below upper secondary education, while in South Africa, the commonest level of attainment is upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (Table A1.2).

In most OECD and partner countries, those with a bachelor’s or equivalent degree account for the largest share of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds, although some countries also have large numbers of adults with short-cycle tertiary education. For example, in Canada, Korea and the Russian Federation, more than one-fifth of young adults hold short-cycle tertiary qualifications, and in Austria and China, those with a short-cycle tertiary degree represent the largest share of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds. Conversely, over 15 countries have almost no young adults with short-cycle tertiary education (Figure A1.3).

Figure A1.3. Distribution of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education, by level of tertiary education (2018)
Figure A1.3. Distribution of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education, by level of tertiary education (2018)

1. Year of reference differs from 2018. Refer to Table A1.1 for more details.

Note: Some categories might be included in other categories. Please refer to Education at a Glance Database, http://stats.oecd.org for details.

Countries are ranked in descending order of the total percentage of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds.

Source: OECD (2019), Education at a Glance Database, http://stats.oecd.org. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787888933976441

In the Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, the Russian Federation, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia and Spain, those with a master’s or equivalent degree account for the largest share of adults with tertiary education. This might reflect different patterns of organisation of tertiary education across countries, with some countries having a stronger tradition of long first degree programmes that lead directly to a master’s qualification. On average across OECD countries, about 1% of younger adults have a doctoral or equivalent qualification, although in Luxembourg, Switzerland and the United States the proportion is around 2%. Slovenia has the largest share of adults with a doctoral or equivalent qualification, where the share of adults holding a qualification at this level is about 5% (Figure A1.3).

Gender differences in tertiary education

Across the OECD, the gender gap in tertiary attainment among young adults has increased from 9 percentage points in 2008 to 12 percentage points in 2018. In almost all OECD countries, the proportion of tertiary-educated women among 25-64 year-olds is higher than the proportion of tertiary-educated men. In Estonia, Iceland, Latvia and Portugal the proportion of tertiary-educated women is at least 50% higher than the proportion of tertiary-educated men, while just 9 countries have a higher proportion of tertiary-educated men. In India, the proportion of tertiary-educated women is less than 60% of the proportion of tertiary-educated men (Figure A1.4 and Table A1.2).

Figure A1.4. Share of tertiary-educated women as a percentage of the share of tertiary-educated men, by age group (2018)
25-34 year-olds, 55-64 year-olds and 25-64 year-olds
Figure A1.4. Share of tertiary-educated women as a percentage of the share of tertiary-educated men, by age group (2018)

1. Year of reference differs from 2018. Refer to Table A1.1 for more details.

Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage point difference for the age group 25-64.

Source: OECD (2019), Education at a Glance Database, http://stats.oecd.org. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933976460

The gender gap in tertiary attainment is generally larger for younger adults than for older adults, except in Estonia, Iceland, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and Sweden. Some countries have experienced a reversal of the gender gap between younger and older adults. In Korea, for example, the share of 55-64 year-old women with tertiary attainment is at 50% of the share of tertiary-educated men, but among 25-34 year-olds the proportion of women with tertiary attainment is 18% higher (Figure A1.4).

Fields of study among tertiary-educated adults

Certain fields of study are more prevalent among tertiary-educated adults. On average across OECD countries with available data, 24% of tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds have a degree in business, administration and law, which is the most common field of study. The share ranges from 12% in the Czech Republic to over 30% in Costa Rica, France, Luxembourg, Mexico and Turkey. For most countries with disaggregated data on this field of study, a larger share of adults obtained their degree in business and administration than in law (Figure A1.1 and Table A1.3).

In Belgium, the Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Poland and the United States, the most popular broad fields of study are arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information. In Austria, Germany, the Russian Federation and the Slovak Republic, the largest share of tertiary-educated adults hold a degree in engineering, manufacturing or construction, while the most widespread field of study in Denmark, Norway and Sweden is health and welfare (Table A1.3).

Despite strong labour-market outcomes for graduates with qualifications in information and communication technologies (ICT) (see Indicators A3 and A4), the share of adults electing to study these subjects is relatively low across the OECD. On average, only 4% of tertiary-educated adults hold a qualification in this field, and the proportion across countries varies much less than for many other fields of study. Among OECD and partner countries, the share reaches about 6% in Finland, Hungary, Mexico and Spain, while Costa Rica and Luxembourg has the highest proportion overall of adults with ICT qualification, at 7%. Conversely, just 1% or less of adults with a tertiary qualification in the Russian Federation and Turkey studied ICT (Table A1.3).

The proportions of adults who have studied subjects related to the provision of social services (for example, education, health and welfare) can indicate the potential supply of staff to carry out these vital services in the population. For example, many countries have experienced shortages of teachers and health workers in recent years, and have implemented active policies to increase staff to these areas and make these professions more attractive.

On average across OECD countries, the field of education accounts for 12% of tertiary qualifications among 25-64 year-olds, but there is great variation across countries. In France, Italy and the United Kingdom, the share of tertiary-educated adults whose field of study was education is 5% or below, whereas it is 18% or more in Costa Rica, Hungary and Iceland. Patterns of qualification in health and welfare show a similar broad variation in countries with available data. For example, in Denmark, 27% of tertiary-educated adults hold a qualification in this field, while in Turkey it is only 6% (Table A1.3).

Box A1.1. Evolving preferences in fields of study over time

The concept of attainment measures the overall level of qualifications in the population, while graduates are defined as the section of the population graduating in a given year (in this case, 2017). Nevertheless, comparing the distribution of fields of study between the overall population and recent graduates can provide insights into the evolution of preferences over time.

The broad fields of business, administration and law, and of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are the most common fields of study both for recent graduates and for the tertiary-educated population overall, although recent graduates appear to have a slightly stronger preference for business, administration and law. This preference is particularly pronounced in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg and the Slovak Republic where the shares of recent graduates who studied in this field are all at least 6 percentage points more than among tertiary-educated adults overall (Figure A1.a).

The difference is more pronounced in the field of health and welfare. In 2017, 16% of tertiary graduates obtained a degree in this field, 3 percentage points more than the share of tertiary-educated adults in the population overall. In Belgium, Latvia, Lithuania and the United States, the difference was more than 7 percentage points. These differences could be attributed to changing preferences, but could also be related to increased requirements for qualifications in order to work in this field (Figure A1.a and Table A1.3).

Figure A1.a. Distribution of recent tertiary graduates by field of study, compared with fields of study of all tertiary-education 25-64 year-olds (2017 and 2018)
On average across OECD countries
Figure A1.a. Distribution of recent tertiary graduates by field of study, compared with fields of study of all tertiary-education 25-64 year-olds (2017 and 2018)

Fields are ranked in descending order of the distribution of all tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds (2018).

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019) and OECD/ILO/UIS (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en). 

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933976479

In contrast, engineering, manufacturing and construction appears to have become a slightly less attractive option for recent graduates. While 16% of all tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds in 2017 had studied engineering, manufacturing and construction, only 14% of that year’s tertiary graduates had done so (Figure A1.a and Table A1.3).

Figure A1.b. Share of engineering, manufacturing and construction graduates among all tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds and recent graduates (2017 and 2018)
Figure A1.b. Share of engineering, manufacturing and construction graduates among all tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds and recent graduates (2017 and 2018)

Countries are ranked in descending order of the share of engineering, manufacturing and construction graduates among all tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds (2018).

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019) and OECD/ILO/UIS (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933976498

Labour-market demand for ICT and engineering qualifications is strong and is likely to remain strong into the future as technology progresses. However, in most countries, preferences for these fields among students appear to be either stable or decreasing. For example, across OECD countries, the percentage of the tertiary-educated population aged 25-64 with engineering, manufacturing and construction qualifications ranges from less than 10% in the United States to 20% and more in Austria, Estonia, Germany, Lithuania and the Russian Federation. However, among recent graduates, the percentage achieving an engineering, manufacturing and construction qualification is lower in almost all countries except Greece, Italy, Mexico, Norway, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia (Figure A1.b).

In Austria, the Slovak Republic, the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom, there is an significant gap (more than 6 percentage points) between the share of tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds who studied engineering, manufacturing and construction and the share of recent graduates in that field. In the United Kingdom, the share of recent graduates getting a degree in this field is less than half the share among the tertiary-educated population and the country is facing high skills shortages in this domain (Figure A1.b).

Subnational variations in educational attainment

National level data often hide important regional inequalities. In general, regional inequalities in educational attainment have narrowed in recent years, mainly due to improvements in the regions that had the lowest educational attainment levels (OECD, 2018[4]). However, many countries still have substantial differences in attainment between regions. In Brazil, the Czech Republic, Italy and Turkey, the most recent available data show the regions with the highest percentage of tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds have at least 3 times as high a rate as the regions with the lowest. Many countries with relatively high tertiary attainment rates also have strong regional inequalities. For example, in the Russian Federation (85 regions), the 2016 tertiary attainment rate at the national level is 53% and ranges between 26% and 75% across regions. Similarly, in Canada, 57% of adults have a tertiary education, but there is a 28 percentage-point gap between the provinces with the lowest and highest rates (OECD (2019[5])).

Conversely, in many other countries, regional attainment levels vary far less. The narrowest gaps tend to occur in countries with fewer defined subnational regions. The smallest ratios between the regions with the highest and lowest tertiary attainment levels (less than 1.5) occur in Belgium, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Slovenia and Switzerland, countries that mostly have few large subnational regions. In Belgium, for example, the tertiary attainment rates of all three regions are within10 percentage points of each other. In Hungary, which has eight regions, the region with the largest share of tertiary-educated adults is has a rate that is less than 4 percentage points higher than region with the lowest share (OECD, 2019[5]).

Definitions

Age groups: Adults refer to 25-64 year-olds; younger adults refer to 25-34 year-olds; and older adults refer to 55-64 year-olds.

Completion of intermediate programmes for educational attainment (ISCED 2011) corresponds to a recognised qualification from an ISCED 2011 level programme that is not considered sufficient for ISCED 2011 level completion and is classified at a lower ISCED 2011 level. In addition, this recognised qualification does not give direct access to an upper ISCED 2011 level programme.

Educational attainment refers to the highest level of education reached by a person.

Fields of study are categorised according to the ISCED Fields of Education and Training (ISCED-F 2013). See the Reader’s Guide for a full listing of the ISCED fields used in this report.

Levels of education: See the Reader’s Guide at the beginning of this publication for a presentation of all ISCED 2011 levels.

Methodology

Educational attainment profiles are based on annual data on the percentage of the adult population (25-64 year-olds) in specific age groups who have successfully completed a specified level of education.

In OECD statistics, recognised qualifications from ISCED 2011 level 3 programmes that are not of sufficient duration for ISCED 2011 level 3 completion are classified at ISCED 2011 level 2 (see the Reader’s Guide). Where countries have been able to demonstrate equivalencies in the labour-market value of attainment formally classified as the “completion of intermediate upper secondary programmes” (e.g. achieving five good GCSEs or equivalent in the United Kingdom) and “full upper secondary attainment”, attainment of these programmes is reported as ISCED 2011 level 3 completion in the tables that show three aggregate levels of educational attainment (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2012[6]).

Most OECD countries include people without formal education under the international classification ISCED 2011 level 0. Therefore, averages for the category “less than primary educational attainment” are likely to be influenced by this inclusion.

Please see the OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics (OECD, 2018[7]) for more information and Annex 3 for country-specific notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Source

Data on population and educational attainment for most countries are taken from OECD and Eurostat databases, which are compiled from National Labour Force Surveys by the OECD Labour Market, Economic and Social Outcomes of Learning (LSO) Network. Data on educational attainment for Indonesia and Saudi Arabia are taken from the International Labour Organization (ILO) database, and data for China are from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics (UIS) database.

Data on subnational regions for selected indicators are available in the OECD Regional Statistics Database (OECD, 2019[5]).

Note regarding data from Israel

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and are under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

References

[3] OECD (2019), Education at a Glance Database - Educational attainment and labour-force status, http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?datasetcode=EAG_NEAC.

[5] OECD (2019), Regional Statistics Database - Educational attainment, by age group, http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?datasetcode=REGION_EDUCAT.

[7] OECD (2018), OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics 2018: Concepts, Standards, Definitions and Classifications, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264304444-en.

[4] OECD (2018), OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance 2018, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/reg_cit_glance-2018-en.

[1] OECD (2016), Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2016-en.

[2] OECD (2015), “What are the advantages today of having an upper secondary qualification?”, Education Indicators in Focus, No. 34, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jrw5p4jn426-en.

[6] UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2012), International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, UNESCO-UIS, Montreal, http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/international-standard-classification-of-education-isced-2011-en.pdf.

Indicator A1. Tables

Table A1.1 Educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds (2018)

Table A1.2 Trends in educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds, by gender (2008 and 2018)

Table A1.3 Fields of study among tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds (2018)

Cut-off date for the data: 19 July 2019. Any updates on data can be found on line at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-data-en. More breakdowns can also be found at http://stats.oecd.org/, Education at a Glance Database.

StatLink: https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980792

Table A1.1. Educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds (2018)
Percentage of adults with a given level of education as the highest level attained
Table A1.1. Educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds (2018)

Note: In most countries data refer to ISCED 2011. For Indonesia and Saudi Arabia data refer to ISCED-97. See Definitions and Methodology sections for more information. Data and more breakdowns are available at http://stats.oecd.org/, Education at a Glance Database.

1. Year of reference 2017.

2. Year of reference 2010.

3. Year of reference 2011.

4. Year of reference 2016.

Source: OECD / ILO / UIS (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933976346

Table A1.2. Trends in educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds, by gender (2008 and 2018)
Percentage of 25-34 year-olds with a given level of education as the highest level attained
Table A1.2. Trends in educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds, by gender (2008 and 2018)

Note: In most countries there is a break in the time series, represented by the code "b", as data for 2018 refer to ISCED 2011 while data for 2008 refer to ISCED-97. For Indonesia and Saudi Arabia data refer to ISCED-97. See Definitions and Methodology sections for more information. Data and more breakdowns are available at http://stats.oecd.org/, Education at a Glance Database.

1. Year of reference 2017 instead of 2018.

2. Data for tertiary education include upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary programmes (less than 5% of adults are in this group).

3. Data for upper secondary attainment include completion of a sufficient volume and standard of programmes that would be classified individually as completion of intermediate upper secondary programmes (13% of adults aged 25-64 are in this group).

4. Year of reference 2010 instead of 2018.

5. Year of reference 2011 instead of 2018.

Source: OECD / ILO / UIS (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933976365

Table A1.3. Fields of study among tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds (2018)
Percentage of adults with tertiary education
Table A1.3. Fields of study among tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds (2018)

Note: Data for aggregated fields may not be equivalent to the sum of the subcategories because of the category unknown.

1. Year of reference 2017.

2. Year of reference 2016.

3. Data refer to bachelor’s degree field, even for those with additional tertiary degrees.

Source: OECD / ILO / UIS (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933976384

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