3. Case study: Entry requirements and initial training of vocational teachers and trainers in Denmark

Vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark is delivered at upper-secondary and post-secondary levels. After completing compulsory education in integrated primary and lower secondary schools, students can choose one of the academically-oriented or vocational upper secondary education programmes. In 2018, 18% of 15-19 year-old upper-secondary students were enrolled in VET (OECD, 2020[1]). This goes up to 38% when considering learners of all ages, reflecting that the Danish VET system attracts many older learners. Upper-secondary VET programmes typically last 3.5 to 4 years.

There are two main vocational pathways at the upper-secondary level, in which students choose a programme preparing for a specific occupation:

  • Erhvervsuddannelse (EUD) leads to a journeyman’s test or a similar examination testing vocational knowledge, skills and competences (Denmark Ministry of Children and Education, 2021[2]). The programme duration is 4 years for students who completed lower secondary school less than two years ago and 3.5 years for students who finished their lower secondary education more than 2 years ago. EUD graduates can continue their education at professional academies (erhvervsakademi) in fields related to their EUD qualification (at ISCED Level 5).

  • Erhvervsfaglig studentereksamen (EUX), introduced in 2012, combines general education and VET in a four-year or three and a half year programme. As in EUD programmes, the duration of EUX programmes depends on the time of completion of lower secondary education. Upon successful completion of EUX programmes, students receive a journeyman’s certificate as well as the general upper secondary diploma, which provides a direct entry to higher education at ISCED Level 6. By 2018, 42 different technical VET fields (approximately half of all programmes) and all business programmes had implemented EUX (CEDEFOP, 2018[3]). In 2018, among students opting for VET 30% targeted EUX programmes (Andersen and Helms, 2019[4]).

Denmark also has a large adult or continuing VET sector, organised in five types of programmes:

  • Erhvervsuddannelse for voksne (EUV) offers basic vocational qualifications similar to EUD programmes. They target people aged 25 or above with relevant work experience. The EUV is adapted to the students’ skills gained through previous work experience and education and leads to qualifications equivalent to EUD (Andersen and Helms, 2019[4]).

  • HF single subject programmes (HF-enkeltfag) are aimed at individuals looking to improve their skills in one or two subjects at upper-secondary level, preparing them for tertiary studies.

  • Arbejdsmarkedsuddannelser (AMU) programmes allow both high-skilled and low-skilled adults to acquire either general skills or job-specific skills (leading to credentials at European Qualification Framework levels 2 to 5), usually related to one field of VET. There are approximately 3 000 different AMU courses offered by different types of providers. These courses can last between half a day and 6 weeks. They provide skills and competences directed towards specific sectors and job functions (Ministry of Children and Education, 2020[5])1. AMU targets individuals over 20 years of age. Both employed and unemployed people can participate in AMU courses (Cort, 2002[6]). Around 250 000 low-skilled adults participate each year in AMU courses (Amu Fyn, 2022[7]).

  • Academy professions programmes provide opportunities for specialisation at the higher-VET level (ISCED Level 5) to skilled professionals (primarily for people with an EUD qualification). They are offered by professional academies and university colleges, and typically take 2-2.5 years and are oriented towards specific professions in areas of studies such as business and economics, information technology, design, health care. These programmes combine theoretical studies with a practice-oriented approach in the form of a mandatory work placement of minimum three months. Upon completion, graduates can continue their education in a professional bachelor programme (ISCED Level 6).

  • Diploma programmes, higher level (ISCED Level 6) specialisation programmes for skilled professionals with prior higher education offered by business academies, university colleges and some universities. Diploma programmes normally require 3-4.5 years of study and are at a level corresponding to that of university bachelor programmes, but with a stronger focus on professional practice. When these programmes are taken up as top-up programmes following an academy profession qualification, their duration is normally shorter (but lasting at least a year and a half).

Access to EUV, HF and AMU programmes is granted by VET institutions on the basis of recognition of prior learning (non-formal or informal) and/or completion of formal lower-secondary general education focused on adults (CEDEFOP, 2018[3]). Access to academy courses requires completion of an upper-secondary qualification and two years of work experience. Access to diploma programmes requires prior higher education (at least ISCED Level 5). Academy and diploma programmes are both 60 ECTS and are provided as standalone modules of 5-15 ECTS, typically on a part-time basis. Diploma programmes give access to master level academic part-time programmes. Box 3.1 provides details of the types of institutions providing the different VET programmes.

Most upper-secondary VET programmes have a large work-based learning component. Students usually spend between half and two thirds of their time in training companies under an apprenticeship contract. Typically, they start apprenticeships after a basic education and training programme in vocational schools, usually provided over the first 12 months of their studies (Ministry of Children and Education, 2021[10]). Students preferring a more practical approach can choose to do a “new apprenticeship” (ny mesterlære), in which the programme entirely consists of work-based learning instead of both in-company training and school.

Internships are compulsory in full-time academy professions programmes. In part-time programmes there is no work placement but relevant work experience is an entry requirement and programme build on it. Also in bachelor’s programmes approximately 25% of the duration of the programme consists of internships. (OECD, 2022[11]).

In Denmark, there are two types of VET teachers at upper-secondary levels: i) teachers of general subjects, and ii) teachers of vocational subjects. The former typically hold a university degree while the latter typically have a journeyman’s certificate or hold a bachelor’s degree with relevant work experience. While vocational teacher training is not required at entry, VET teachers have to obtain the Diploma in VET-pedagogy (Diplomuddannelse i erhvervspædagogik, DEP) while on the job. For trainers, there are no formal requirements in terms of pedagogical training.

Principals in VET institutions have autonomy over teacher recruitment. The education ministry is not involved in teacher recruitment procedures, and teachers are not civil servants entering the system through tests. VET teachers are mostly full time permanent employees of VET institutions. Part-time teachers often have no formal pedagogical qualifications, but are well respected within their fields of work and are able to ensure that VET students acquire knowledge which is up to date with developments in their respective trades (OECD, 2021[12]). The share of part-time teachers in Denmark is relatively low (see Chapter 1).

Many VET teachers in Denmark gain industry experience before joining the profession (OECD, 2021[12]). VET teachers tend to have more non-teaching work experience that is not related to education and teaching than general education teachers, and having such experience is also more common in among VET teachers in Denmark than in other countries (see Figure 3.1).

As in many countries, Denmark faces teacher shortage: 37% of upper-secondary VET school leaders reported that shortages of qualified teachers significantly hinder their school's capacity to provide quality instruction, according to data from the 2018 Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS). While enrolment in upper-secondary VET is on the decline relative to general education (upper-secondary VET enrolment has decreased from 43% in 2013 to 38% in 2018), this does not automatically lead to a lower demand for VET teachers, as specialised courses are still maintained despite reduced enrolment. Ageing of teachers contributes to shortages. The ageing of the VET teaching workforce is relatively more pronounced in Denmark than in many other OECD countries: more than half (52%) of the teachers in upper-secondary VET programmes were over 50 years old in 2018 (see Figure 3.2), one of the highest shares among OECD countries. Denmark also had the fourth highest increase in that share since 2013-14 (44%). Moreover, the difference in the share of older teachers between VET and general (40%) programmes is larger in Demark than in most countries (OECD, 2021[12]). Box 3.2 provides further details about the age and other characteristics of VET teachers in VET – focussing on those teaching science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects.

VET providers, social partners, teachers and students play an important role in developing VET. Whereas the Ministry of Education is responsible for the governance of VET, the above-mentioned stakeholders provide inputs into VET policies and help define the general framework of training programmes to ensure that labour market needs are met.

The national advisory council on vocational upper-secondary education and training (Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser) advises the ministry on the establishment of new VET programmes and changes in existing ones, VET programmes to be offered , and which VET schools should be approved to offer specific VET programmes. The council includes representatives from the employer and employee organisations, local governments and regional organisations, schools, teachers, and student associations (Undervisnings Minsteriet, 2018[14]).

Around 50 national trade committees (faglige udvalg) are responsible for 106 upper-secondary VET programmes, and are composed of and funded by employer and employee organisations. The trade committees are set up at a national level. Trade committees contribute to updating existing programmes and creating new ones by closely monitoring developments in their particular trade. They also define learning objectives and final examination standards; decide on the duration of the programme, and the ratio between college-based teaching and practical work in an enterprise; approve enterprises as qualified training establishments and rule on conflicts which may develop between apprentices and the enterprise providing practical training; issue journeyman’s certificates in terms of content, assessment and the actual holding of examinations (Andersen and Kruse, 2016[15]).

The trade committees have local representations connected to each of the schools that provides the specific education. Each vocational college (providing school-based education and training) works with at least one local training committee that includes representatives of local employers and employees appointed by national trade committees, and representatives of staff, management and students appointed by colleges. Local training committees work closely with colleges to adapt the content of VET programmes to local needs, strengthen contacts between the college and local employers, and support colleges with the delivery of programmes, for example by securing work placements for students. They also serve as a link between local and national levels, ensuring that national committees have a good overview of local circumstances and that local policy is aligned with national objectives. For example, they assist and advise national trade committees in approving local enterprises as qualified training establishments and in mediating conflicts between apprentices and enterprises (Andersen and Kruse, 2016[15]). The National Committees can hand over obligations to the local trade committees if they are better taken care of at the local level.

This section looks at the requirements for becoming a VET teacher or trainer in Denmark. Entry requirements for VET teachers are defined by the Ministry of Education. They depend on the type of programme and the subject taught. Subject areas can be divided into general subjects, such as mathematics, and vocational subjects, such as carpentry. Vocational subjects can include both theory and practical training. This distinction is less relevant at post-secondary level where the majority of subjects taught requires a combination of technical and general knowledge. Consequently, this distinction is only reported in this section when relevant. VET programmes ending with higher-level qualifications would typically require VET teachers to have a higher level of qualifications than what is required to teach in lower-level VET programmes. Requirements for trainers are set by social partners (trade committees) and focus on the professional skills of the trainer.

This section discusses entry requirement for teachers in upper-secondary VET, including EUX, EUD and EUV, and in professional post-secondary programmes. Entry requirements are examined in three areas: formal qualifications related to the subject area, pedagogical training and work experience.

Upper secondary VET teachers are employed by VET providers. The board of governors formally employs all staff members, but in practice this is done by the school leadership, based on the delegation of authority from the school board (Appretniceship toolbox, 2019[16]). Therefore, while the entry requirements for upper-secondary VET teachers are defined by the Ministry of Education, in practice the exact requirements are defined by schools which can set higher requirements than what is formally required. Likewise, requirements for teachers in professional academies and university colleges as well as recruitment procedures are defined in a ministerial order by the Ministry of Higher Education and Science (Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, 2020[17]). In addition to these formal requirements, institutions can set up their own (stricter) criteria. The requirements described below are therefore the minimum entry requirements.

At the upper-secondary level, entry requirements differ by subject area (general vs. vocational), and programme (see also Table 3.1):

  • Vocational subjects: To become a VET teacher at upper-secondary level individuals are required to have a formal qualification related to the subject area. In vocational subjects, it would typically be a journeyman’s certificate or a bachelor degree, depending on the study area. VET teachers who have not completed general upper-secondary education have three years to complete it with at least two general subjects, after being hired. Those who want to teach vocational subjects also have to demonstrate that they have work experience relevant to their field (other than teaching). While vocational teacher training is not required at entry, VET teachers have to obtain the Diploma in VET-pedagogy (Diplomuddannelse i erhvervspædagogik, DEP) while on the job. The next section provides more details on this DEP programme.

  • General subjects: Teachers of general subjects in EUD and EUV programmes should have at least a Bachelor degree in their field. They should also obtain a DEP or complete a supplementary course in pedagogy for vocational education if they already have a teacher qualification. In EUX, teachers of general subjects face the same requirements as teachers in upper-secondary general programmes, meaning that they are required to have a Master degree in one or two subjects taught at school. In addition, general subject teachers in EUX should complete professional postgraduate teacher training within four years of being recruited.

Reforms of requirements in 2010 and 2015 have aimed to further strengthen the pedagogical preparation of VET teachers (Box 3.3). Depending on their needs VET providers may accept qualifications other than the DEP for part-time teachers.

At the post-secondary level, the majority of teachers in university colleges and professional academies are employed as assistant professors. They are required to have a qualification at the level at which they are to teach or above (see Table 3.1). In addition, institutions often require that the candidate has at least one of the following: teaching experience, professional experiences in the subject area and/or research experience. The assistant professor's appointment is temporary and lasts up to maximum four years. During those four years, the assistant professor should develop her/his pedagogical competencies, knowledge of the profession corresponding to the subject area (e.g. knowledge of the nursing profession in a programmes for nurses) and develop her/his competencies in relation to research and development activities. The institution appoints a supervisor that helps the professor develop the required competences. Within four years of being recruited, the person has to be assessed by an assessment committee (appointed by the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education) that evaluates if the person has the required competencies and can be employed as an associate professor (Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, 2020[17]).

To hire apprentices companies must be approved as a work placement provider. A relevant national trade committee approves the companies based on an assessment of their training capacity. Among others, the company has to ensure that the employee who will train students has a relevant vocational qualifications, such as journeyman’s certificate. By contrast, there are no formal requirements in terms of pedagogical training for trainers. The approval can be done administratively or after a visit to the company, with practices varying by sector. The national trade committee can delegate the task of company approval to local trade committees or to the school (Confederation of Danish Industry, 2022[20]).

Initial education and training for VET teachers in Denmark mostly concerns the Diploma in VET-pedagogy (DEP), required for teaching at upper-secondary VET. It focuses on pedagogy, as VET teachers are required to hold a relevant field-specific qualification. While there are no formal requirements for in-company trainers in terms of training participation or pedagogical qualifications, dedicated trainings are available to support in-company trainers develop the right skills to train and support apprentices.

The Diploma in VET-pedagogy (DEP) is the formal pedagogical qualification for upper-secondary VET teachers (Danish Minsitry of Children and Education, 2021[21]). The requirement to hold a Diploma in VET pedagogy does not apply to teachers in post-secondary VET programmes, who, as discussed above, receive pedagogical training on the job. DEP is regulated by the Act on vocational training and higher education (the further education system) for adults. The DEP, offered within the higher adult education system, is equivalent to a professional bachelor qualification (Danish Minsitry of Children and Education, 2021[21]). The DEP is offered at six university colleges: Copenhagen University College in Copenhagen, Absalon University College in Sorø, UCL Business Academy and Odense University College, University College Nordjylland in Ålborg, UC Syd in Kolding, VIA University College Horsens.

The DEP must be started in the year after the VET teacher begins the job at a VET school and must be completed within four years. It lasts one year full-time and up to three years part-time. To start in the DEP programme the person should be qualified to at least professional academy degree level (ISCED Level 5). Being employed as a VET teacher is not required to enrol in the programme. The participant should demonstrate 2 years of professional experience since graduation. Teachers of vocational subjects without a post-secondary qualification can start the DEP and complete some parts of it. This flexibility recognises that some professionals working in VET-related fields (plumbing, construction) do generally not have a post-secondary qualification and avoids that this impedes them from entering the teaching profession. To continue and complete the full DEP, VET teachers not meeting formal qualifications requirements should ideally complete them in the course of studies. However, the institution delivering DEP can let the person not meeting the formal qualification requirements complete the programme based on his/her satisfactory performance.

The diploma programme in vocational pedagogy (DEP) prepares for organising and evaluating teaching courses across vocational areas. It is composed of compulsory modules, optional modules and a graduation project. The whole programme corresponds to 60 ECTS credits. Each module ends with a test, and there is a test at the end of the full programme (Danish Minsitry of Children and Education, 2021[21]).

Compulsory modules equip teachers with basic competencies and skills related to teaching and learning, teaching planning, didactics and theory of science in the pedagogical field (Danish Minsitry of Children and Education, 2021[21]).The compulsory modules are:

  • Teaching and learning: Learning about the characteristics of vocational pedagogy and teaching methods, such as differentiation of practice (10 ECTS)

  • Teaching planning and didactics: Exploring areas such as interplay between education, industry and society, teacher functions and general didactics as compared to subject didactics (10 ECTS)

  • Pedagogical theory of science: Among others, learning about evaluation and validation of professional knowledge (5 ECTS).

In addition to compulsory modules, participants choose two out of the proposed optional modules (10 ECTS each) to deepen knowledge of specific topics. The modules usually focus on the following areas:

  • Vocational pedagogical development work: Provide information on how to plan and carry out vocational pedagogical development work.

  • Participants in VET: Provides VET teachers with an opportunity to learn about young people’s values and culture.

  • Digital technologies in VET: Provides practical and theoretical knowledge about the use of technologies in teaching. The module is offered as part of an education programme in digital learning.

  • Professional entrepreneurship in VET: Focuses on how to create a framework for the development of students' entrepreneurial and innovative competencies.

  • Leadership of pedagogical work in VET: Develops competencies to lead and develop the school's organisational and pedagogical strategy.

  • Practice-related teaching in VET: Focuses on promoting student learning in both school and companies, i.e. how to combine theory and practice and collaborate with employers.

  • STEM-related teaching in VET.

In addition to the above, the students have to submit a graduate project (15 ECTS) that can based on issues encountered in their current employment or related to a future career.

The DEP programme is provided within the higher education system for adults. The higher education programmes for adults are more flexible concerning planning and teaching than professional bachelor programmes not designed for adults specifically. This makes the system more relevant and accessible for adults in employment and with a family.

The DEP programme can be organised in different ways according to individual needs. Courses can be provided full-time or part-time, and can be delivered on the site of the college, in school premises or virtually. Participants also have an option of completing the DEP as a self-study. Completion of one module of 10 ECTS in part-time mode takes approximatively 5 months. Students in full-time programmes complete a module over 6 weeks and 3 days, and a module corresponding to 5 ECTS in 3 weeks and 3 days (University College Copenhagen, 2022[22]). See Box 3.4 below for examples of how DEP courses can be provided.

Tuition fees for the DEP programme vary, depending on the number of credits the person needs to complete and the form of teaching, whether the teaching is offered as day or evening classes or as distance learning. The diploma programme costs approximately between DKK 52 000 and 75 000 (EUR 7 000-10 000), and VET schools cover the costs. The State Adult Education Support (Statens Voksenuddannelsesstøtte, SVU) scheme provides grants to schools who release teachers to attend the DEP programme continue to pay their salary. The grants can also go directly to the teacher who is enrolled full-time in DPE and no longer receives a salary from the school. SUV amounts to 60% of the highest unemployment benefit rates (DKK 2 676 per week in December 2021). However the grant only applies if the teacher has education below the upper-secondary level (Ministry of Children and Education, 2022[24]).

There are different forms of financial support available to adult learners in Denmark, potentially including students in DEP - depending on their situation:

  • The Municipal Competence Fund finances up to DKK 30 000 within a period of 12 months for continuing training if the student is municipally employed and covered by a collective agreement with Dansk Metal, BUPL, HK Kommunal, Social Educators, Technical Federation, Danish Social Workers Association or The Negotiating Cartel (University College Copenhagen, 2022[22]).

  • The Regional Competence Fund finances up to DKK 30 000, preferably for qualifying continuing training, if the student is employed by agreement between the Regional Payroll and Tariff Board and the Danish Social Workers' Association, covered by a collective aggrement with HK Kommunal, Dansk Metal/håndværkerforening, Social educators, Technical National Association, 3F Professional Joint Federation, Engineers' Association or Constructors' Association (University College Copenhagen, 2022[22]).

  • National Competence Fund is available to students covered by the joint agreements between the Ministry of Finance and the Joint Committee of the Central Organisations (CFU) or the Ministry of Finance and the Academics (University College Copenhagen, 2022[22]).

  • The Conversion Fund finances up to DKK 10 000 annually for upskilling in academy and diploma programmes (University College Copenhagen, 2022[22]).

The provision of any diploma programme, including the DEP, is approved by the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education. Within institutions there are educational advisory committees, typically involving social partners, advising on the quality and relevance of existing and future programmes of study (Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, 2012[9]).

All new and existing higher education programmes including teacher training are systematically accredited by the Accreditation Council in Denmark. Accreditation takes place at programme levels. The focus of the accreditation is on quality and relevance of individual programmes, and includes criteria concerning the institutional quality assurance procedures (Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, 2012[9]).

Accreditation of diploma programmes is based on predefined criteria, specified by a ministerial order. There are two main types of accreditation that are carried out: one for new programmes and one for existing provisions of programmes. Final decisions on accreditation are made by the Accreditation Council, whose members are appointed by the Minister for Higher Education and Science (The Accreditation Council, 2022[25]), while the accreditation processes themselves are carried out by the Danish Evaluation Institute (Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut – EVA). EVA uses a generally accepted methodology for quality assurance in the European Higher Education Area with a self-evaluation, submitted by the institution under review, appointment of a panel of experts including students, a site visit and a report, which is published on EVA's website. For new programmes site visits are not included, nor are there any student members in the panels. There are also fewer criteria, none, of course, relating to achieved learning outcomes. All reports contain the expert panel's assessment of the extent to which the programme and the provisions of the programme fulfil the pre-defined criteria and also a recommendation for a decision. The accreditation of provisions of existing programmes is undertaken on a cyclical basis. The length of validity of diploma programmes is set to six years. In the case of conditional positive accreditation, existing programmes are subject to re-accreditation within one year, the process concentrating on those criteria where their quality has been questioned (Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, 2012[9]).

As part of the accreditation process, higher education institutions are legally required to establish internal quality assurance procedures and to conduct systematic quality assurance of their provision of education. The quality assurance of study programmes typically includes: course evaluations, feedback from external examiners, strategies for further education and training of teachers, and regular interaction with stakeholders. While the institutions can decide which approach and method they want to apply, they are legally obliged to make quality evaluation results publicly available on their websites, and their internal quality assurance work will be assessed through accreditation procedures. This also applies to teacher-training programmes (Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, 2012[9]).

A specific training qualification is not required to become a trainer, but trainers can participate on a voluntary basis in adult vocational training courses (AMU) that help them in their trainer role (Appretniceship toolbox, 2019[16]). The course duration varies from one day to a couple of weeks. These AMU-courses are primarily used in the social and healthcare sector (Cedefop, 2018[26]). AMU programmes are offered by different training schools and centres (see Box 3.2).

Adult vocational training courses (AMU) that can prepare trainers for their role provide training on various aspects of apprenticeship, including, how to organise and provide work-based training, motivate students and ensure quality of the training. For example, a course for trainers who work with students who have special needs lasts 5 days. During the course trainers learn about youth culture, including young people's different values and norms, and how to support and motivate the individual student's professional and personal development taking into account the student's special academic, linguistic, personal, social and learning competencies. A one day course for trainers in hospitality assists trainers in the planning students' daily work based and defining training goals (Amukurs.dk, 2022[27]).

Adult vocational training programmes (AMU) are partially publicly funded. The providers receive a grant per full-time equivalent participant with the amount of funding varying by programme. In general, there are tuition fees in AMU programmes, amounting on average to about 15% of the programme cost. Selected AMU courses, such as those in the social and health service, including some programmes for trainers in the relevant areas, and individual competence assessment are free. Other participants can apply for VEU (Voksen- og efteruddanelse, Adult and continuing education) allowance covering the cost of the programme if they incur salary loss and if the programme is at most at upper-secondary level. If the participants receive a salary while participating in the course, it is the employer that can receive the allowance (LifeinDenmark, 2022[28]).

Various actors contribute to the development and quality assurance of AMU courses. The Ministry of Education approves new training programmes, usually for a period of five years (Danish Ministry of Children and Education, 2021[18]). The social partners are responsible for developing AMU courses and associated tests. They sit in the Council for Adult and Continuing Education (Rådet for Voksen- og Efteruddannelse) (VEU Council) advising the minister on various matters related to AMU. Social partners also set up 11 Continuing Education Committees (efteruddannelsesudvalgene) that are approved by the Council for Adult and Continuing Education. Together, the continuing education committees cover all areas of training in AMU, for example, industry, office, social and health, transport and construction. Continuing Education Committees develop AMU courses on the basis of analyses of skill needs and the co-operation with the business community within the industry. The committees are also in charge of the development of tests for AMU, teaching material and professional continuing education of AMU teachers (Ministry of Children and Education, 2022[29]). The Danish Agency for Education and Quality ensures the programmes comply with the applicable rules and oversees the AMU providers (Ministry of Children and Education, 2022[29]).


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[28] LifeinDenmark (2022), VEU allowance for occupation oriented adult and further education, https://lifeindenmark.borger.dk/school-and-education/the-danish-education-system/veu-allowance-for-occupation-oriented-adult-and-further-education (accessed on 27 January 2022).

[29] Ministry of Children and Education (2022), Labour Market Education (AMU) / Rules and actors, https://www.uvm.dk/arbejdsmarkedsuddannelser/regelsaet-og-aktoerer/ansvar-og-aktoerer.

[24] Ministry of Children and Education (2022), Statens Voksenuddannelsesstøtte (SVU), https://www.ug.dk/uddannelser/artikleromuddannelser/oekonomi/statens-voksenuddannelsesstoette-svu.

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[5] Ministry of Children and Education (2020), Adult vocational training, https://eng.uvm.dk/adult-education-and-continuing-training/adult-vocational-training.

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[12] OECD (2021), Teachers and Leaders in Vocational Education and Training, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/59d4fbb1-en.

[1] OECD (2020), Education at a Glance 2020: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/69096873-en.

[25] The Accreditation Council (2022), , https://akkrediteringsraadet.dk/home/accreditation-council/.

[14] Undervisnings Minsteriet (2018), Om Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser - Undervisningsministeriet, https://uvm.dk/erhvervsuddannelser/ansvar-og-aktoerer/raad-og-udvalg/reu/om-reu (accessed on 29 August 2018).

[22] University College Copenhagen (2022), Diploma in Vocational Eduction, https://www.kp.dk/videreuddannelser/diplomuddannelse-i-erhvervspaedagogik/ (accessed on 18 February 2022).

[13] VIVE (2019), STEM-grundfag på erhvervsuddannelserne. Analyse af undervisningspraksisser og undervisernes kvalifikationer og kompetenceudviklingsbehov, https://emu.dk/sites/default/files/2019-09/Rappor_STEM-grundfag%20p%C3%A5%20erhvervsuddannelserne.PDF.


← 1. The main goals of AMU programmes are: i) to give, maintain and improve the vocational skills of the participants in accordance with the needs and background of students, companies and the labour market in line with technological and social developments; ii) to solve restructuring and adaptation problems on the labour market in a short term perspective; and iii) To give adults the possibility of upgrading of competences for the labour market as well as personal competences through possibilities to obtain formal competence in vocational education and training (Ministry of Children and Education, 2020[5]).

← 2. The board consists of teachers, students and administrative staff representatives, and social partner representatives. The board takes decisions regarding offer of programmes, the administration of the college’s financial resources, and hires and fires the operational manager (director, principal, dean or similar).

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