copy the linklink copied! Annex A2. The PISA target population, the PISA samples and the definition of schools

Exclusions and coverage ratios

copy the linklink copied! Who is the PISA target population?

PISA 2018 assessed the cumulative outcomes of education and learning at a point at which most young people are still enrolled in formal education – when they are 15 years old.

Any international survey of education must guarantee the comparability of its target population across nations. One way to do this is to assess students at the same grade level. However, differences between countries in the nature and extent of pre-primary education and care, the age at entry into formal schooling, and the institutional structure of education systems do not allow for a definition of internationally comparable grade levels.

Other international assessments have defined their target population by the grade level that provides maximum coverage of a particular age cohort. However, this method is particularly sensitive to the distribution of students across age and grade levels; small changes in this distribution can lead to the selection of different target grades, even within the same country over different PISA cycles. There also may be differences across countries in whether students who are older or younger than the desired age cohort are represented in the modal grade, further rendering such grade-level-based samples difficult to compare.

To overcome these problems, PISA uses an age-based definition of its target population, one that is not tied to the institutional structures of national education systems. PISA assesses students who are aged between 15 years and 3 (complete) months and 16 years and 2 (complete) months1 at the beginning of the assessment period, plus or minus an allowed 1-month variation, and who are enrolled in an educational institution2 at grade 7 or higher.3 All students who met these criteria were eligible to sit the PISA assessment in 2018, regardless of the type of educational institution in which they were enrolled and whether they were enrolled in full-time or part-time education. This also allows PISA to evaluate students shortly before they are faced with major life choices, such as whether to continue with education or enter the workforce.

Hence, PISA makes statements about the knowledge and skills of a group of individuals who were born within a comparable reference period, but who may have undergone different educational experiences both in and outside of school. These students may be distributed over different ranges of grades (both in terms of the specific grade levels and the spread in grade levels) in different countries, or over different tracks or streams. It is important to consider these differences when comparing PISA results across countries. In addition, differences in performance observed when students are 15 may disappear later on if students’ experiences in education converge over time.

If a country’s mean scores in reading, mathematics or science are significantly higher than those of another country, it cannot automatically be inferred that schools or particular parts of the education system in the first country are more effective than those in the second. However, one can legitimately conclude that it is the cumulative impact of learning experiences in the first country, starting in early childhood and up to the age of 15, and including all experiences, whether they be at school, home or elsewhere, that have resulted in the better outcomes of the first country in the subjects that PISA assesses.4

The PISA target population does not include residents of a country who attend school in another country. It does, however, include foreign nationals who attend school in the country of assessment.

To accommodate countries that requested grade-based results for the purpose of national analyses, PISA 2018 provided a sampling option to supplement age-based sampling with grade-based sampling.

copy the linklink copied! How were students chosen?

The accuracy of the results from any survey depends on the quality of the information drawn from those surveyed as well as on the sampling procedures. Quality standards, procedures, instruments and verification mechanisms were developed for PISA that ensured that national samples yielded comparable data and that the results could be compared across countries with confidence. Experts from the PISA Consortium selected the samples for most participating countries/economies and monitored the sample-selection process closely in those countries that selected their own samples.

Most PISA samples were designed as two-stage stratified samples.5 The first stage sampled schools in which 15-year-old students may be enrolled. Schools were sampled systematically with probabilities proportional to the estimated size of their (eligible) 15-year-old population. At least 150 schools6 were selected in each country, although the requirements for national analyses often demanded a larger sample. Replacement schools for each sampled school were simultaneously identified, in case an originally sampled school chose not to participate in PISA 2018.

The second stage of the selection process sampled students within sampled schools. Once schools were selected, a list of each sampled school’s 15-year-old students was prepared. From this list, 42 students were then selected with equal probability (all 15-year-old students were selected if fewer than 42 were enrolled). The target number of students who were to be sampled in a school could deviate from 42 but could not fall below 20.

Data-quality standards in PISA required minimum participation rates for schools as well as for students. These standards were established to minimise the potential for bias resulting from non-response. Indeed, it was likely that any bias resulting from non-response would be negligible – i.e. typically smaller than the sampling error – in countries that met these standards.

At least 85 % of the schools initially selected to take part in the PISA assessment were required to agree to conduct the test. Where the initial response rate of schools was between 65 % and 85 %, however, an acceptable school-response rate could still be achieved through the use of replacement schools. Inherent in this procedure was a risk of introducing bias, if replacement schools differed from initially sampled schools along dimensions other than those considered for sampling. Participating countries and economies were therefore encouraged to persuade as many of the schools in the original sample as possible to participate.

Schools with a student participation rate of between 25 % and 50 % were not considered to be participating schools, but data (from both the cognitive assessment and questionnaire) from these schools were included in the database and contributed to the various estimates. Data from schools with a student participation rate of less than 25 % were excluded from the database.

In PISA 2018, five countries and economies – Hong Kong (China) (69 %), Latvia (82 %), New Zealand (83 %), the United Kingdom (73 %) and the United States (65 %) – did not meet the 85 % threshold, but met the 65 % threshold, amongst schools initially selected to take part in the PISA assessment. Upon replacement, Hong Kong (China) (79 %), the United Kingdom (87 %) and the United States (76 %) still failed to reach an acceptable participation rate.7 Amongst the schools initially selected before replacement, the Netherlands (61 %) did not meet the 65 % school response-rate threshold, but it reached a response rate of 87 % upon replacement. However, these were not considered to be major issues as, for each of these countries/economies, additional non-response analyses showed that there were limited differences between schools that did participate and the full set of schools originally drawn in the sample.8 Data from these jurisdictions were hence considered to be largely comparable with, and were therefore reported together with, data from other countries/economies.

PISA 2018 also required that at least 80 % of the students chosen within participating schools participated themselves. This threshold was calculated at the national level and did not have to be met in each participating school. Follow-up sessions were required in schools where too few students had participated in the original assessment sessions. Student-participation rates were calculated over all original schools; and also over all schools, whether original or replacement schools. Students who participated in either the original or in any follow-up assessment sessions were counted in these participation rates; those who attended only the questionnaire session were included in the international database and contributed to the statistics presented in this publication if they provided at least a description of their father’s or mother’s occupation.

This 80 % threshold was met in every country/economy except Portugal, where only 76 % of students who were sampled actually participated. The high level of non-responding students could lead to biased results, e.g. if students who did not respond were more likely to be low-performing students. This was indeed the case in Portugal, but a non-response analysis based on data from a national mathematics assessment in the country showed that the upward bias of Portugal’s overall results was likely small enough to preserve comparability over time and with other countries. Data from Portugal was therefore reported along with data from the countries/economies that met this 80 % student-participation threshold.

Table I.A2.6 shows the response rate for students and schools, before and after replacement.

  • Column 1 shows the weighted participation rate of schools before replacement; it is equivalent to Column 2 divided by Column 3 (multiplied by 100 to give a percentage).

  • Column 2 shows the number of responding schools before school replacement, weighted by student enrolment.

  • Column 3 shows the number of sampled schools before school replacement, weighted by student enrolment. This includes both responding and non-responding schools.

  • Column 4 shows the unweighted number of responding schools before school replacement.

  • Column 5 shows the unweighted number of sampled schools before school replacement, including both responding and non-responding schools.

  • Columns 6 to 10 repeat Columns 1 to 5 for schools after school replacement, i.e. after non-responding schools were replaced by the replacement schools identified during the initial sampling procedure.

  • Columns 11 to 15 repeat Columns 6 to 10 but for students in schools after school replacement. Note that the weighted and unweighted numbers of students sampled (Columns 13 and 15) include students who were assessed and those who should have been assessed but who were absent on the day of assessment. Furthermore, as mentioned above, any students in schools where the student response rate was less than 50 % were not considered to be attending participating schools, and were thus excluded from Columns 14 and 15 (and, similarly, from Columns 4, 5, 9 and 10).

copy the linklink copied! What proportion of 15-year-olds does PISA represent?

All countries and economies attempted to maximise the coverage of 15-year-olds enrolled in education in their national samples, including students enrolled in special-education institutions.

The sampling standards used in PISA only permitted countries and economies to exclude up to a total of 5 % of the relevant population (i.e. 15-year-old students enrolled in school at grade 7 or higher) either by excluding schools or excluding students within schools. All but 16 countries and economies – Sweden (11.09 %), Israel (10.21 %), Luxembourg (7.92 %), Norway (7.88 %), Canada (6.87 %), New Zealand (6.78 %), Switzerland (6.68 %), the Netherlands (6.24 %), Cyprus (5.99 %), Iceland (5.99 %), Kazakhstan (5.87 %), Australia (5.72 %), Denmark (5.70 %), Turkey (5.66 %), the United Kingdom (5.45 %) and Estonia (5.03 %) – achieved this standard, and in 28 countries and economies, the overall exclusion rate was less than 2 % (Table I.A2.1) When language exclusions9 were accounted for (i.e. removed from the overall exclusion rate), Estonia and Iceland no longer had exclusion rates greater than 5 %. More details can be found in the PISA 2018 Technical Report (OECD, forthcoming[1]).

Exclusions that should remain within the above limits include both:

  • at the school level:

    • schools that were geographically inaccessible or where the administration of the PISA assessment was not considered feasible

    • schools that provided teaching only for students in the categories defined under “within-school exclusions”, such as schools for the blind.

    The percentage of 15-year-olds enrolled in such schools had to be less than 2.5 % of the nationally desired target population (0.5 % maximum for the former group and 2 % maximum for the latter group). The magnitude, nature and justification of school-level exclusions are documented in the PISA 2018 Technical Report (OECD, forthcoming[1]).

  • at the student level:

    • students with an intellectual disability, i.e. a mental or emotional disability resulting in the student being so cognitively delayed that he/she could not perform in the PISA testing environment

    • students with a functional disability, i.e. a moderate to severe permanent physical disability resulting in the student being unable to perform in the PISA testing environment

    • students with limited assessment-language proficiency. These students were unable to read or speak any of the languages of assessment in the country at a sufficient level and unable to overcome such a language barrier in the PISA testing environment, and were typically students who had received less than one year of instruction in the language of assessment

    • other exclusions, a category defined by the PISA national centres in individual participating countries and approved by the PISA international consortium

    • students taught in a language of instruction for the major domain for which no materials were available.

    Students could not be excluded solely because of low proficiency or common disciplinary problems. The percentage of 15-year-olds excluded within schools had to be less than 2.5 % of the national desired target population.

Although exceeding the exclusion rate limit of 5 % (Table I.A2.1), data from the 16 countries and economies listed above were all deemed to be acceptable for the reasons listed below. In particular, all of these reasons were accepted by a data-adjudication panel to allow for the reliable comparison of PISA results across countries and economies and across time; thus the data from these countries were reported together with data from other countries/economies.

  • In Australia, Canada, Denmark, Luxembourg, New Zealand and Norway, exclusion rates remained close to those observed in previous cycles. In the United Kingdom, exclusion rates were also above 5 % but have decreased markedly across cycles.

  • In Cyprus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, the Netherlands and Switzerland, exclusions increased but remained close to the 5 % limit. The increase could be largely attributed to a marked increase in students who were excluded within schools due to intellectual or functional disabilities. Moreover, in the Netherlands, some 17 % of students were not excluded but assigned to UH (une heure) booklets, which were intended for students with special education needs. As these booklets did not cover the domain of financial literacy (PISA 2018 Results [Volume V]: Are Students Smart about Money?, OECD, forthcomingsee [2]), the effective exclusion rate for the Netherlands in financial literacy was over 20 %. This resulted in a strong upward bias in the country mean and other population statistics in that domain. Data from the Netherlands in financial literacy are not comparable with data from other education systems; but data from the Netherlands in the core PISA subjects were still deemed to be largely comparable.

  • The higher exclusion rate in Turkey was likely the result of a higher school-level exclusion rate due to a particular type of non-formal educational institution that was not listed (and hence not excluded) in 2015 but was listed and excluded in 2018.

  • The higher exclusion rate in Israel was the result of a higher school-level exclusion rate due to the lack of participation by a particular type of boys’ school. These schools were considered to be non-responding schools in cycles up to 2015 but were treated as school-level exclusions in 2018.

  • Sweden had the highest exclusion rate: 11.07 %. It is believed that this increase in the exclusion rate was due to a large and temporary increase in immigrant and refugee inflows, although because of Swedish data-collection laws, this could not be explicitly stated in student-tracking forms. Instead, students confronted with language barriers were classified as being excluded “for other reasons”, as were students with intellectual and functional disabilities. It is expected that the exclusion rate will decrease to previous levels in future cycles of PISA, as such inflows stabilise or shrink.10

Table I.A2.1 describes the target population of the countries participating in PISA 2018. Further information on the target population and the implementation of PISA sampling standards can be found in the PISA 2018 Technical Report (OECD, forthcoming[1]).

  • Column 1 shows the total number of 15-year-olds according to the most recent available information, which in most countries and economies means from 2017, the year before the assessment.

  • Column 2 shows the number of 15-year-olds enrolled in school in grade 7 or above, which is referred to as the “eligible population”.

  • Column 3 shows the national desired target population. Countries and economies were allowed to exclude up to 0.5 % of students a priori from the eligible population, essentially for practical reasons. The following a priori exclusions exceed this limit but were agreed with the PISA Consortium:

    • Canada excluded 1.17 % of its population: students living in the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, and Aboriginal students living on reserves

    • Chile excluded 0.05 % of its population: students living on Easter Island, the Juan Fernandez Archipelago and Antarctica

    • Cyprus excluded 0.10 % of its population: students attending schools on the northern part of the island

    • the Philippines excluded 2.42 % of its population: students living in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

    • Saudi Arabia excluded 7.59 % of its population: students living in the regions of Najran and Jizan

    • Ukraine excluded 0.37 % of its population: some students attending schools in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions

    • the United Arab Emirates excluded 0.04 % of its population: home-schooled students.

  • Column 4 shows the number of students enrolled in schools that were excluded from the national desired target population, either from the sampling frame or later in the field during data collection. In other words, these are school-level exclusions.

  • Column 5 shows the size of the national desired target population after subtracting the students enrolled in excluded schools. This column is obtained by subtracting Column 4 from Column 3.

  • Column 6 shows the percentage of students enrolled in excluded schools. This is obtained by dividing Column 4 by Column 3 and multiplying by 100.

  • Column 7 shows the number of students who participated in PISA 2018. Note that in some cases, this number does not account for 15-year-olds assessed as part of additional national options.

  • Column 8 shows the weighted number of participating students, i.e. the number of students in the nationally defined target population that the PISA sample represents.

  • Column 9 shows the total number of students excluded within schools. In each sampled school, all eligible students – namely, those 15 years of age, regardless of grade – were listed, and a reason for the exclusion was provided for each student who was to be excluded from the sample. These reasons are further described and classified into specific categories in Table I.A2.4.

  • Column 10 shows the weighted number of students excluded within schools, i.e. the overall number of students in the national defined target population represented by the number of students from the sample excluded within schools. This weighted number is also described and classified by exclusion categories in Table I.A2.4.

  • Column 11 shows the percentage of students excluded within schools. This is equivalent to the weighted number of excluded students (Column 10) divided by the weighted number of excluded and participating students (the sum of Columns 8 and 10), multiplied by 100.

  • Column 12 shows the overall exclusion rate, which represents the weighted percentage of the national desired target population excluded from PISA either through school-level exclusions or through the exclusion of students within schools. It is equivalent to the school-level exclusion rate (Column 6) plus the product of the within-school exclusion rate and 1 minus the school-level exclusion rate expressed as a decimal (Column 6 divided by 100).11

  • Column 13 shows an index of the extent to which the national desired target population was covered by the PISA sample. As mentioned above, 16 countries/economies fell below the coverage of 95 %. This is also known as Coverage Index 1.

  • Column 14 shows an index of the extent to which 15-year-olds enrolled in school were covered by the PISA sample. The index, also known as Coverage Index 2, measures the overall proportion of the national enrolled population that is covered by the non-excluded portion of the student sample, and takes into account both school- and student-level exclusions. Values close to 100 indicate that the PISA sample represents the entire (grade 7 and higher) education system as defined for PISA 2018. This is calculated in a similar manner to Column 13; however, the total enrolled population of 15-year-olds in grade 7 or above (Column 2) is used as a base instead of the national desired target population (Column 3).

  • Column 15 shows an index of the coverage of the 15-year-old population. The index is the weighted number of participating students (Column 8) divided by the total population of 15-year-old students (Column 1). This is also known as Coverage Index 3.

A high level of coverage contributes to the comparability of the assessment results. For example, even assuming that the excluded students would have systematically scored worse than those who participated, and that this relationship is moderately strong, an exclusion rate on the order of 5 % would likely lead to an overestimation of national mean scores of less than 5 score points on the PISA scale (where the standard deviation is 100 score points).12

copy the linklink copied! Definition of schools

In some countries, subunits within schools were sampled instead of schools, which may affect the estimate of the between-school variance. In Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Romania and Slovenia, schools with more than one programme of study were split into the units delivering these programmes. In the Netherlands, locations were listed as sampling units. In the Flemish Community of Belgium, each campus (or implantation) of a multi-campus school was sampled independently, whereas the larger administrative unit of a multi-campus school was sampled as a whole in the French Community of Belgium.

In Argentina, Australia, Colombia and Croatia, each campus of a multi-campus school was sampled independently. Schools in the Basque Country of Spain that were divided into sections by language of instruction were split into these linguistic sections for sampling. International schools in Luxembourg were split into two sampling units: one for students who were instructed in a language for which testing material was available,13 and one for students who were instructed in a language for which no testing material was available (and who were hence excluded).

Some schools in the United Arab Emirates were sampled as a whole unit, while others were split by curriculum and sometimes by gender. Due to reorganisation, some schools in Sweden were split into two parts, each part with its own principal. Some schools in Portugal were organised into clusters where all units in a cluster shared the same teachers and principal; each of these clusters constituted a single sampling unit.

copy the linklink copied! The distribution of PISA students across grades

Students assessed in PISA 2018 were enrolled in various grade levels. The percentage of students at each grade level is presented, by country, in Table I.A2.8 and Table I.A2.9, and by gender within each country in Table I.A2.12 and Table I.A2.13.

copy the linklink copied!
Table I.A2.1. PISA target populations and samples

Population and sample information

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total enrolled population of 15-year-olds at grade 7 or above

Total in national desired target population

Total school-level exclusions

Total in national desired target population after all school exclusions and before within-school exclusions

School-level exclusion rate (%)

Number of participating students

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

OECD

Australia

288 195

284 687

284 687

5 610

279 077

1.97

14 273

Austria

84 473

80 108

80 108

603

79 505

0.75

6 802

Belgium

126 031

122 808

122 808

1 877

120 931

1.53

8 475

Canada

388 205

400 139

395 448

7 950

387 498

2.01

22 653

Chile

239 492

215 580

215 470

2 151

213 319

1.00

7 621

Colombia

856 081

645 339

645 339

950

644 389

0.15

7 522

Czech Republic

92 013

90 835

90 835

1 510

89 325

1.66

7 019

Denmark

68 313

67 414

67 414

653

66 761

0.97

7 657

Estonia

12 257

12 120

12 120

413

11 707

3.41

5 316

Finland

58 325

57 552

57 552

496

57 056

0.86

5 649

France

828 196

798 480

798 480

13 732

784 748

1.72

6 308

Germany

739 792

739 792

739 792

15 448

724 344

2.09

5 451

Greece

102 868

100 203

100 203

1 266

98 937

1.26

6 403

Hungary

96 838

91 297

91 297

1 992

89 305

2.18

5 132

Iceland

4 232

4 177

4 177

35

4 142

0.84

3 294

Ireland

61 999

61 188

61 188

59

61 129

0.10

5 577

Israel

136 848

128 419

128 419

10 613

117 806

8.26

6 623

Italy

616 185

544 279

544 279

748

543 531

0.14

11 785

Japan

1 186 849

1 159 226

1 159 226

27 743

1 131 483

2.39

6 109

Korea

517 040

517 040

517 040

2 489

514 551

0.48

6 650

Latvia

17 977

17 677

17 677

692

16 985

3.92

5 303

Lithuania

27 075

25 998

25 998

494

25 504

1.90

6 885

Luxembourg

6 291

5 952

5 952

156

5 796

2.62

5 230

Mexico

2 231 751

1 697 100

1 697 100

8 013

1 689 087

0.47

7 299

Netherlands

208 704

204 753

204 753

10 347

194 406

5.05

4 765

New Zealand

59 700

58 131

58 131

857

57 274

1.47

6 173

Norway

60 968

60 794

60 794

852

59 942

1.40

5 813

Poland

354 020

331 850

331 850

6 853

324 997

2.07

5 625

Portugal

112 977

110 732

110 732

709

110 023

0.64

5 932

Slovak Republic

51 526

50 100

50 100

587

49 513

1.17

5 965

Slovenia

17 501

18 236

18 236

337

17 899

1.85

6 401

Spain

454 168

436 560

436 560

2 368

434 192

0.54

35 943

Sweden

108 622

107 824

107 824

1 492

106 332

1.38

5 504

Switzerland

80 590

78 059

78 059

3 227

74 832

4.13

5 822

Turkey

1 218 693

1 038 993

1 038 993

43 928

995 065

4.23

6 890

United Kingdom

703 991

697 603

697 603

1 315

64 076

2.01

13 818

United States

4 133 719

4 058 637

4 058 637

24 757

4 033 880

0.61

4 838

Population and sample information

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total enrolled population of 15-year-olds at grade 7 or above

Total in national desired target population

Total school-level exclusions

Total in national desired target population after all school exclusions and before within-school exclusions

School-level exclusion rate (%)

Number of participating students

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Partners

Albania

36 955

30 160

30 160

0

30 160

0.00

6 359

Argentina

702 788

678 151

678 151

5 597

672 554

0.83

11 975

Baku (Azerbaijan)

43 798

22 672

22 672

454

22 218

2.00

6 827

Belarus

89 440

82 580

82 580

1 440

81 140

1.74

5 803

Bosnia and Herzegovina

35 056

32 313

32 313

243

32 070

0.75

6 480

Brazil

3 132 463

2 980 084

2 980 084

74 772

2 905 312

2.51

10 691

Brunei Darussalam

7 081

7 384

7 384

0

7 384

0.00

6 828

B-S-J-Z (China)

1 221 746

1 097 296

1 097 296

33 279

1 064 017

3.03

12 058

Bulgaria

66 499

51 674

51 674

388

51 286

0.75

5 294

Costa Rica

72 444

58 789

58 789

0

58 789

0.00

7 221

Croatia

39 812

30 534

30 534

409

30 125

1.34

6 609

Cyprus

8 285

8 285

8 277

138

8 139

1.67

5 503

Dominican Republic

192 198

148 033

148 033

2 755

145 278

1.86

5 674

Georgia

46 605

41 750

41 750

1 018

40 732

2.44

5 572

Hong Kong (China)

51 935

51 328

51 328

643

50 685

1.25

6 037

Indonesia

4 439 086

3 684 980

3 684 980

3 892

3 681 088

0.11

12 098

Jordan

212 777

132 291

132 291

90

132 201

0.07

8 963

Kazakhstan

230 646

230 018

230 018

9 814

220 204

4.27

19 507

Kosovo

30 494

27 288

27 288

87

27 201

0.32

5 058

Lebanon

61 979

59 687

59 687

1 300

58 387

2.18

5 614

Macao (China)

4 300

3 845

3 845

14

3 831

0.36

3 775

Malaysia

537 800

455 358

455 358

3 503

451 855

0.77

6 111

Malta

4 039

4 056

4 056

37

4 019

0.91

3 363

Moldova

29 716

29 467

29 467

78

29 389

0.26

5 367

Montenegro

7 484

7 432

7 432

40

7 392

0.54

6 666

Morocco

601 250

415 806

415 806

8 292

407 514

1.99

6 814

North Macedonia

18 812

18 812

18 812

298

18 514

1.59

5 569

Panama

72 084

60 057

60 057

585

59 472

0.97

6 270

Peru

580 690

484 352

484 352

10 483

473 869

2.16

6 086

Philippines

2 063 564

1 734 997

1 692 950

42 290

1 650 660

2.50

7 233

Qatar

16 492

16 408

16 408

245

16 163

1.49

13 828

Romania

203 940

171 685

171 685

4 653

167 032

2.71

5 075

Russia

1 343 738

1 339 706

1 339 706

48 114

1 291 592

3.59

7 608

Saudi Arabia

418 788

406 768

375 914

8 940

366 974

2.38

6 136

Serbia

69 972

66 729

66 729

1 175

65 554

1.76

6 609

Singapore

46 229

45 178

45 178

552

44 626

1.22

6 676

Chinese Taipei

246 260

240 241

240 241

1 978

238 263

0.82

7 243

Thailand

795 130

696 833

696 833

10 014

686 819

1.44

8 633

Ukraine

351 424

321 833

320 636

8 352

312 284

2.60

5 998

United Arab Emirates

59 275

59 203

59 178

847

58 331

1.43

19 277

Uruguay

50 965

46 768

46 768

0

46 768

0.00

5 263

Viet Nam

1 332 000

1 251 842

1 251 842

6 169

1 245 673

0.49

5 377

Population and sample information

Coverage indices

Weighted number of participating students

Number of excluded students

Weighted number of excluded students

Within-school exclusion rate (%)

Overall exclusion rate (%)

Coverage Index 1: Coverage of national desired population

Coverage Index 2: Coverage of national enrolled population

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of 15-year-old population

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

OECD

Australia

257 779

716

10 249

3.82

5.72

0.943

0.943

0.894

Austria

75 077

117

1 379

1.80

2.54

0.975

0.975

0.889

Belgium

118 025

45

494

0.42

1.94

0.981

0.981

0.936

Canada

335 197

1 481

17 496

4.96

6.87

0.931

0.920

0.863

Chile

213 832

68

2 029

0.94

1.93

0.981

0.980

0.893

Colombia

529 976

28

1 812

0.34

0.49

0.995

0.995

0.619

Czech Republic

87 808

1

11

0.01

1.67

0.983

0.983

0.954

Denmark

59 967

444

3 009

4.78

5.70

0.943

0.943

0.878

Estonia

11 414

96

195

1.68

5.03

0.950

0.950

0.931

Finland

56 172

157

1 491

2.59

3.42

0.966

0.966

0.963

France

756 477

56

6 644

0.87

2.58

0.974

0.974

0.913

Germany

734 915

42

4 847

0.66

2.73

0.973

0.973

0.993

Greece

95 370

52

798

0.83

2.08

0.979

0.979

0.927

Hungary

86 754

75

1 353

1.54

3.68

0.963

0.963

0.896

Iceland

3 875

209

212

5.19

5.99

0.940

0.940

0.916

Ireland

59 639

257

2 370

3.82

3.91

0.961

0.961

0.962

Israel

110 645

152

2 399

2.12

10.21

0.898

0.898

0.809

Italy

521 223

93

3 219

0.61

0.75

0.992

0.992

0.846

Japan

1 078 921

0

0

0.00

2.39

0.976

0.976

0.909

Korea

455 544

7

378

0.08

0.56

0.994

0.994

0.881

Latvia

15 932

23

62

0.38

4.29

0.957

0.957

0.886

Lithuania

24 453

95

360

1.45

3.32

0.967

0.967

0.903

Luxembourg

5 478

315

315

5.44

7.92

0.921

0.921

0.871

Mexico

1 480 904

44

11 457

0.77

1.24

0.988

0.988

0.664

Netherlands

190 281

78

2 407

1.25

6.24

0.938

0.938

0.912

New Zealand

53 000

443

3 016

5.38

6.78

0.932

0.932

0.888

Norway

55 566

452

3 906

6.57

7.88

0.921

0.921

0.911

Poland

318 724

116

5 635

1.74

3.77

0.962

0.962

0.900

Portugal

98 628

158

1 749

1.74

2.37

0.976

0.976

0.873

Slovak Republic

44 418

12

72

0.16

1.33

0.987

0.987

0.862

Slovenia

17 138

124

298

1.71

3.52

0.965

0.965

0.979

Spain

416 703

747

8 951

2.10

2.63

0.974

0.974

0.918

Sweden

93 129

681

10 163

9.84

11.09

0.889

0.889

0.857

Switzerland

71 683

152

1 955

2.66

6.68

0.933

0.933

0.889

Turkey

884 971

95

13 463

1.50

5.66

0.943

0.943

0.726

United Kingdom

597 240

688

20 562

3.33

5.45

0.945

0.945

0.848

United States

3 559 045

194

119 057

3.24

3.83

0.962

0.962

0.861

Population and sample information

Coverage indices

Weighted number of participating students

Number of excluded students

Weighted number of excluded students

Within-school exclusion rate (%)

Overall exclusion rate (%)

Coverage Index 1: Coverage of national desired population

Coverage Index 2: Coverage of national enrolled population

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of 15-year-old population

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

Partners

Albania

27 963

0

0

0.00

0.00

1.000

1.000

0.757

Argentina

566 486

118

4 083

0.72

1.54

0.985

0.985

0.806

Baku (Azerbaijan)

20 271

0

0

0.00

2.00

0.980

0.980

0.463

Belarus

78 333

31

462

0.59

2.32

0.977

0.977

0.876

Bosnia and Herzegovina

28 843

24

106

0.36

1.11

0.989

0.989

0.823

Brazil

2 036 861

41

8 180

0.40

2.90

0.971

0.971

0.650

Brunei Darussalam

6 899

53

53

0.76

0.76

0.992

0.992

0.974

B-S-J-Z (China)

992 302

34

1 452

0.15

3.17

0.968

0.968

0.812

Bulgaria

47 851

80

685

1.41

2.15

0.978

0.978

0.720

Costa Rica

45 475

39

249

0.54

0.54

0.995

0.995

0.628

Croatia

35 462

135

637

1.76

3.08

0.969

0.969

0.891

Cyprus

7 639

201

351

4.40

5.99

0.940

0.939

0.922

Dominican Republic

140 330

0

0

0.00

1.86

0.981

0.981

0.730

Georgia

38 489

26

180

0.46

2.89

0.971

0.971

0.826

Hong Kong (China)

51 101

0

0

0.00

1.25

0.987

0.987

0.984

Indonesia

3 768 508

0

0

0.00

0.11

0.999

0.999

0.849

Jordan

114 901

44

550

0.48

0.54

0.995

0.995

0.540

Kazakhstan

212 229

300

3 624

1.68

5.87

0.941

0.941

0.920

Kosovo

25 739

26

132

0.51

0.83

0.992

0.992

0.844

Lebanon

53 726

1

8

0.02

2.19

0.978

0.978

0.867

Macao (China)

3 799

0

0

0.00

0.36

0.996

0.996

0.883

Malaysia

388 638

37

2 419

0.62

1.38

0.986

0.986

0.723

Malta

3 925

56

56

1.41

2.31

0.977

0.977

0.972

Moldova

28 252

35

207

0.73

0.99

0.990

0.990

0.951

Montenegro

7 087

4

12

0.18

0.71

0.993

0.993

0.947

Morocco

386 408

4

220

0.06

2.05

0.980

0.980

0.643

North Macedonia

17 820

18

85

0.48

2.05

0.979

0.979

0.947

Panama

38 540

24

106

0.27

1.24

0.988

0.988

0.535

Peru

424 586

20

1 360

0.32

2.48

0.975

0.975

0.731

Philippines

1 400 584

10

2 039

0.15

2.64

0.974

0.950

0.679

Qatar

15 228

192

192

1.25

2.72

0.973

0.973

0.923

Romania

148 098

24

930

0.62

3.32

0.967

0.967

0.726

Russia

1 257 388

96

14 905

1.17

4.72

0.953

0.953

0.936

Saudi Arabia

354 013

1

53

0.01

2.39

0.976

0.902

0.845

Serbia

61 895

42

409

0.66

2.41

0.976

0.976

0.885

Singapore

44 058

35

232

0.52

1.74

0.983

0.983

0.953

Chinese Taipei

226 698

38

1 297

0.57

1.39

0.986

0.986

0.921

Thailand

575 713

17

1 002

0.17

1.61

0.984

0.984

0.724

Ukraine

304 855

34

1 704

0.56

3.15

0.969

0.965

0.867

United Arab Emirates

54 403

166

331

0.60

2.03

0.980

0.979

0.918

Uruguay

39 746

25

164

0.41

0.41

0.996

0.996

0.780

Viet Nam

926 260

0

0

0.00

0.49

0.995

0.995

0.695

Notes: For a full explanation of the details in this table please refer to the PISA 2018 Technical Report (OECD, forthcoming[1]).

The figure for total national population of 15-year-olds enrolled in Column 2 may occasionally be larger than the total number of 15-year-olds in Column 1 due to differing data sources.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934028862

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Table I.A2.2. Change in the enrolment of 15-year-olds in grade 7 and above (PISA 2003 through PISA 2018)

PISA 2018

PISA 2015

PISA 2012

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

OECD

Australia

288 195

284 687

257 779

0.89

282 888

282 547

256 329

0.91

291 967

288 159

250 779

0.86

Austria

84 473

80 108

75 077

0.89

88 013

82 683

73 379

0.83

93 537

89 073

82 242

0.88

Belgium

126 031

122 808

118 025

0.94

123 630

121 954

114 902

0.93

123 469

121 493

117 912

0.95

Canada

388 205

400 139

335 197

0.86

396 966

381 660

331 546

0.84

417 873

409 453

348 070

0.83

Chile

239 492

215 580

213 832

0.89

255 440

245 947

203 782

0.80

274 803

252 733

229 199

0.83

Colombia

856 081

645 339

529 976

0.62

760 919

674 079

567 848

0.75

889 729

620 422

560 805

0.63

Czech Republic

92 013

90 835

87 808

0.95

90 391

90 076

84 519

0.94

96 946

93 214

82 101

0.85

Denmark

68 313

67 414

59 967

0.88

68 174

67 466

60 655

0.89

72 310

70 854

65 642

0.91

Estonia

12 257

12 120

11 414

0.93

11 676

11 491

10 834

0.93

12 649

12 438

11 634

0.92

Finland

58 325

57 552

56 172

0.96

58 526

58 955

56 934

0.97

62 523

62 195

60 047

0.96

France

828 196

798 480

756 477

0.91

807 867

778 679

734 944

0.91

792 983

755 447

701 399

0.88

Germany

739 792

739 792

734 915

0.99

774 149

774 149

743 969

0.96

798 136

798 136

756 907

0.95

Greece

102 868

100 203

95 370

0.93

105 530

105 253

96 157

0.91

110 521

105 096

96 640

0.87

Hungary

96 838

91 297

86 754

0.90

94 515

90 065

84 644

0.90

111 761

108 816

91 179

0.82

Iceland

4 232

4 177

3 875

0.92

4 250

4 195

3 966

0.93

4 505

4 491

4 169

0.93

Ireland

61 999

61 188

59 639

0.96

61 234

59 811

59 082

0.96

59 296

57 979

54 010

0.91

Israel

136 848

128 419

110 645

0.81

124 852

118 997

117 031

0.94

118 953

113 278

107 745

0.91

Italy

616 185

544 279

521 223

0.85

616 761

567 268

495 093

0.80

605 490

566 973

521 288

0.86

Japan

1 186 849

1 159 226

1 078 921

0.91

1 201 615

1 175 907

1 138 349

0.95

1 241 786

1 214 756

1 128 179

0.91

Korea

517 040

517 040

455 544

0.88

620 687

619 950

569 106

0.92

687 104

672 101

603 632

0.88

Latvia

17 977

17 677

15 932

0.89

17 255

16 955

15 320

0.89

18 789

18 389

16 054

0.85

Lithuania

27 075

25 998

24 453

0.90

33 163

32 097

29 915

0.90

38 524

35 567

33 042

0.86

Luxembourg

6 291

5 952

5 478

0.87

6 327

6 053

5 540

0.88

6 187

6 082

5 523

0.85

Mexico

2 231 751

1 697 100

1 480 904

0.66

2 257 399

1 401 247

1 392 995

0.62

2 114 745

1 472 875

1 326 025

0.63

Netherlands

208 704

204 753

190 281

0.91

203 234

200 976

191 817

0.94

194 000

193 190

196 262

1.01

New Zealand

59 700

58 131

53 000

0.89

60 162

57 448

54 274

0.90

60 940

59 118

53 414

0.88

Norway

60 968

60 794

55 566

0.91

63 642

63 491

58 083

0.91

64 917

64 777

59 432

0.92

Poland

354 020

331 850

318 724

0.90

380 366

361 600

345 709

0.91

425 597

410 700

379 275

0.89

Portugal

112 977

110 732

98 628

0.87

110 939

101 107

97 214

0.88

108 728

127 537

96 034

0.88

Slovak Republic

51 526

50 100

44 418

0.86

55 674

55 203

49 654

0.89

59 723

59 367

54 486

0.91

Slovenia

17 501

18 236

17 138

0.98

18 078

17 689

16 773

0.93

19 471

18 935

18 303

0.94

Spain

454 168

436 560

416 703

0.92

440 084

414 276

399 935

0.91

423 444

404 374

374 266

0.88

Sweden

108 622

107 824

93 129

0.86

97 749

97 210

91 491

0.94

102 087

102 027

94 988

0.93

Switzerland

80 590

78 059

71 683

0.89

85 495

83 655

82 223

0.96

87 200

85 239

79 679

0.91

Turkey

1 218 693

1 038 993

884 971

0.73

1 324 089

1 100 074

925 366

0.70

1 266 638

965 736

866 681

0.68

United Kingdom

703 991

697 603

597 240

0.85

747 593

746 328

627 703

0.84

738 066

745 581

688 236

0.93

United States

4 133 719

4 058 637

3 559 045

0.86

4 220 325

3 992 053

3 524 497

0.84

3 985 714

4 074 457

3 536 153

0.89

PISA 2018

PISA 2015

PISA 2012

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Partners

Albania

36 955

30 160

27 963

0.76

45 667

45 163

40 896

0.90

55 099

50 157

42 466

0.77

Argentina

702 788

678 151

566 486

0.81

718 635

578 308

394 917

0.55

684 879

637 603

545 942

0.80

Baku (Azerbaijan)

43 798

22 672

20 271

0.46

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Belarus

89 440

82 580

78 333

0.88

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Bosnia and Herzegovina

35 056

32 313

28 843

0.82

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Brazil

3 132 463

2 980 084

2 036 861

0.65

3 379 467

2 853 388

2 425 961

0.72

3 520 371

2 786 064

2 470 804

0.70

Brunei Darussalam

7 081

7 384

6 899

0.97

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

B-S-J-Z (China)

1 221 746

1 097 296

992 302

0.81

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Bulgaria

66 499

51 674

47 851

0.72

66 601

59 397

53 685

0.81

70 188

59 684

54 255

0.77

Costa Rica

72 444

58 789

45 475

0.63

81 773

66 524

51 897

0.63

81 489

64 326

40 384

0.50

Croatia

39 812

30 534

35 462

0.89

45 031

35 920

40 899

0.91

48 155

46 550

45 502

0.94

Cyprus

8 285

8 285

7 639

0.92

9 255

9 255

8 785

0.95

9 956

9 956

9 650

0.97

Dominican Republic

192 198

148 033

140 330

0.73

193 153

139 555

132 300

0.68

m

m

m

m

Georgia

46 605

41 750

38 489

0.83

48 695

43 197

38 334

0.79

m

m

m

m

Hong Kong (China)

51 935

51 328

51 101

0.98

65 100

61 630

57 662

0.89

84 200

77 864

70 636

0.84

Indonesia

4 439 086

3 684 980

3 768 508

0.85

4 534 216

3 182 816

3 092 773

0.68

4 174 217

3 599 844

2 645 155

0.63

Jordan

212 777

132 291

114 901

0.54

196 734

121 729

108 669

0.55

153 293

125 333

111 098

0.72

Kazakhstan

230 646

230 018

212 229

0.92

211 407

209 555

192 909

0.91

258 716

247 048

208 411

0.81

Kosovo

30 494

27 288

25 739

0.84

31 546

28 229

22 333

0.71

m

m

m

m

Lebanon

61 979

59 687

53 726

0.87

64 044

62 281

42 331

0.66

m

m

m

m

Macao (China)

4 300

3 845

3 799

0.88

5 100

4 417

4 507

0.88

6 600

5 416

5 366

0.81

Malaysia

537 800

455 358

388 638

0.72

540 000

448 838

412 524

0.76

544 302

457 999

432 080

0.79

Malta

4 039

4 056

3 925

0.97

4 397

4 406

4 296

0.98

m

m

m

m

Moldova

29 716

29 467

28 252

0.95

31 576

30 601

29 341

0.93

m

m

m

m

Montenegro

7 484

7 432

7 087

0.95

7 524

7 506

6 777

0.90

8 600

8 600

7 714

0.90

Morocco

601 250

415 806

386 408

0.64

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

North Macedonia

18 812

18 812

17 820

0.95

16 719

16 717

15 847

0.95

m

m

m

m

Panama

72 084

60 057

38 540

0.53

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Peru

580 690

484 352

424 586

0.73

580 371

478 229

431 738

0.74

584 294

508 969

419 945

0.72

Philippines

2 063 564

1 734 997

1 400 584

0.68

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Qatar

16 492

16 408

15 228

0.92

13 871

13 850

12 951

0.93

11 667

11 532

11 003

0.94

Romania

203 940

171 685

148 098

0.73

218 846

176 334

164 216

0.75

212 694

146 243

140 915

0.66

Russia

1 343 738

1 339 706

1 257 388

0.94

1 176 473

1 172 943

1 120 932

0.95

1 272 632

1 268 814

1 172 539

0.92

Saudi Arabia

418 788

406 768

354 013

0.85

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Serbia

69 972

66 729

61 895

0.88

m

m

m

m

85 121

75 870

67 934

0.80

Singapore

46 229

45 178

44 058

0.95

48 218

47 050

46 224

0.96

53 637

52 163

51 088

0.95

Chinese Taipei

246 260

240 241

226 698

0.92

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Thailand

795 130

696 833

575 713

0.72

895 513

756 917

634 795

0.71

982 080

784 897

703 012

0.72

Ukraine

351 424

321 833

304 855

0.87

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

United Arab Emirates

59 275

59 203

54 403

0.92

51 687

51 518

46 950

0.91

48 824

48 446

40 612

0.83

Uruguay

50 965

46 768

39 746

0.78

53 533

43 865

38 287

0.72

54 638

46 442

39 771

0.73

Viet Nam

1 332 000

1 251 842

926 260

0.70

1 340 000

1 032 599

874 859

0.65

1 393 000

1 091 462

956 517

0.69

PISA 2009

PISA 2006

PISA 2003

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

OECD

Australia

286 334

269 669

240 851

0.84

270 115

256 754

234 940

0.87

268 164

250 635

235 591

0.88

Austria

99 818

94 192

87 326

0.87

97 337

92 149

89 925

0.92

94 515

89 049

85 931

0.91

Belgium

126 377

126 335

119 140

0.94

124 943

124 557

123 161

0.99

120 802

118 185

111 831

0.93

Canada

430 791

426 590

360 286

0.84

426 967

428 876

370 879

0.87

398 865

399 265

330 436

0.83

Chile

290 056

265 542

247 270

0.85

297 085

255 459

233 526

0.79

m

m

m

m

Colombia

893 057

582 640

522 388

0.58

897 477

543 630

537 262

0.60

m

m

m

m

Czech Republic

122 027

116 153

113 951

0.93

127 748

124 764

128 827

1.01

130 679

126 348

121 183

0.93

Denmark

70 522

68 897

60 855

0.86

66 989

65 984

57 013

0.85

59 156

58 188

51 741

0.87

Estonia

14 248

14 106

12 978

0.91

19 871

19 623

18 662

0.94

m

m

m

m

Finland

66 198

66 198

61 463

0.93

66 232

66 232

61 387

0.93

61 107

61 107

57 883

0.95

France

749 808

732 825

677 620

0.90

809 375

809 375

739 428

0.91

809 053

808 276

734 579

0.91

Germany

852 044

852 044

766 993

0.90

951 535

1 062 920

903 512

0.95

951 800

916 869

884 358

0.93

Greece

102 229

105 664

93 088

0.91

107 505

110 663

96 412

0.90

111 286

108 314

105 131

0.94

Hungary

121 155

118 387

105 611

0.87

124 444

120 061

106 010

0.85

129 138

123 762

107 044

0.83

Iceland

4 738

4 738

4 410

0.93

4 820

4 777

4 624

0.96

4 168

4 112

3 928

0.94

Ireland

56 635

55 464

52 794

0.93

58 667

57 648

55 114

0.94

61 535

58 997

54 850

0.89

Israel

122 701

112 254

103 184

0.84

122 626

109 370

93 347

0.76

m

m

m

m

Italy

586 904

573 542

506 733

0.86

578 131

639 971

520 055

0.90

561 304

574 611

481 521

0.86

Japan

1 211 642

1 189 263

1 113 403

0.92

1 246 207

1 222 171

1 113 701

0.89

1 365 471

1 328 498

1 240 054

0.91

Korea

717 164

700 226

630 030

0.88

660 812

627 868

576 669

0.87

606 722

606 370

533 504

0.88

Latvia

28 749

28 149

23 362

0.81

34 277

33 659

29 232

0.85

37 544

37 138

33 643

0.90

Lithuania

51 822

43 967

40 530

0.78

53 931

51 808

50 329

0.93

m

m

m

m

Luxembourg

5 864

5 623

5 124

0.87

4 595

4 595

4 733

1.03

4 204

4 204

4 080

0.97

Mexico

2 151 771

1 425 397

1 305 461

0.61

2 200 916

1 383 364

1 190 420

0.54

2 192 452

1 273 163

1 071 650

0.49

Netherlands

199 000

198 334

183 546

0.92

197 046

193 769

189 576

0.96

194 216

194 216

184 943

0.95

New Zealand

63 460

60 083

55 129

0.87

63 800

59 341

53 398

0.84

55 440

53 293

48 638

0.88

Norway

63 352

62 948

57 367

0.91

61 708

61 449

59 884

0.97

56 060

55 648

52 816

0.94

Poland

482 500

473 700

448 866

0.93

549 000

546 000

515 993

0.94

589 506

569 294

534 900

0.91

Portugal

115 669

107 583

96 820

0.84

115 426

100 816

90 079

0.78

109 149

99 216

96 857

0.89

Slovak Republic

72 826

72 454

69 274

0.95

79 989

78 427

76 201

0.95

84 242

81 945

77 067

0.91

Slovenia

20 314

19 571

18 773

0.92

23 431

23 018

20 595

0.88

m

m

m

m

Spain

433 224

425 336

387 054

0.89

439 415

436 885

381 686

0.87

454 064

418 005

344 372

0.76

Sweden

121 486

121 216

113 054

0.93

129 734

127 036

126 393

0.97

109 482

112 258

107 104

0.98

Switzerland

90 623

89 423

80 839

0.89

87 766

86 108

89 651

1.02

83 247

81 020

86 491

1.04

Turkey

1 336 842

859 172

757 298

0.57

1 423 514

800 968

665 477

0.47

1 351 492

725 030

481 279

0.36

United Kingdom

786 626

786 825

683 380

0.87

779 076

767 248

732 004

0.94

768 180

736 785

698 579

0.91

United States

4 103 738

4 210 475

3 373 264

0.82

4 192 939

4 192 939

3 578 040

0.85

3 979 116

3 979 116

3 147 089

0.79

PISA 2009

PISA 2006

PISA 2003

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Total population of 15-year-olds

Total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above

Weighted number of participating students

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of the national 15-year-old population

Partners

Albania

55 587

42 767

34 134

0.61

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Argentina

688 434

636 713

472 106

0.69

662 686

579 222

523 048

0.79

m

m

m

m

Baku (Azerbaijan)

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Belarus

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Bosnia and Herzegovina

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Brazil

3 434 101

2 654 489

2 080 159

0.61

3 439 795

2 374 044

1 875 461

0.55

3 560 650

2 359 854

1 952 253

0.55

Brunei Darussalam

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

B-S-J-Z (China)

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Bulgaria

80 226

70 688

57 833

0.72

89 751

88 071

74 326

0.83

m

m

m

m

Costa Rica

80 523

63 603

42 954

0.53

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Croatia

48 491

46 256

43 065

0.89

54 500

51 318

46 523

0.85

m

m

m

m

Cyprus

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Dominican Republic

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Georgia

56 070

51 351

42 641

0.76

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Hong Kong (China)

85 000

78 224

75 548

0.89

77 398

75 542

75 145

0.97

75 000

72 631

72 484

0.97

Indonesia

4 267 801

3 158 173

2 259 118

0.53

4 238 600

3 119 393

2 248 313

0.53

4 281 895

3 113 548

1 971 476

0.46

Jordan

133 953

107 254

104 056

0.78

122 354

126 708

90 267

0.74

m

m

m

m

Kazakhstan

281 659

263 206

250 657

0.89

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Kosovo

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Lebanon

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Macao (China)

7 500

5 969

5 978

0.80

m

m

m

m

8 318

6 939

6 546

0.79

Malaysia

539 295

492 758

421 448

0.78

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Malta

5 152

4 930

4 807

0.93

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Moldova

47 873

44 069

43 195

0.90

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Montenegro

8 500

8 493

7 728

0.91

9 190

8 973

7 734

0.84

m

m

m

m

Morocco

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

North Macedonia

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Panama

57 919

43 623

30 510

0.53

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Peru

585 567

491 514

427 607

0.73

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Philippines

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Qatar

10 974

10 665

9 806

0.89

8 053

7 865

7 271

0.90

m

m

m

m

Romania

220 264

152 084

151 130

0.69

312 483

241 890

223 887

0.72

m

m

m

m

Russia

1 673 085

1 667 460

1 290 047

0.77

2 243 924

2 077 231

1 810 856

0.81

2 496 216

2 366 285

2 153 373

0.86

Saudi Arabia

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Serbia

85 121

75 128

70 796

0.83

88 584

80 692

73 907

0.83

m

m

m

m

Singapore

54 982

54 212

51 874

0.94

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Chinese Taipei

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Thailand

949 891

763 679

691 916

0.73

895 924

727 860

644 125

0.72

927 070

778 267

637 076

0.69

Ukraine

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

United Arab Emirates

41 564

40 447

38 707

0.93

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Uruguay

53 801

43 281

33 971

0.63

52 119

40 815

36 011

0.69

53 948

40 023

33 775

0.63

Viet Nam

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Notes: Costa Rica, Georgia, Malta and Moldova conducted the PISA 2009 assessment in 2010 as part of PISA 2009+.

For Albania, Brazil, Chile, Jordan, the Netherlands, Romania, Uruguay and Viet Nam, estimates of the total population of 15-year-olds across years have been updated to align data sources with those used in 2018. Therefore, the estimates reported in this table do not match those that appear in previous PISA reports.

For Mexico, in 2015, the total population of 15-year-olds enrolled in grade 7 or above is an estimate of the target population size of the sample frame from which the 15-year-old students were selected for the PISA test. At the time Mexico provided the information to PISA, the official figure for this population was 1 573 952.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934028862

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Table I.A2.4. Exclusions

Student exclusions (unweighted)

Student exclusions (weighted)

Number of excluded students with functional disability

Number of excluded students with intellectual disability

Number of excluded students because of language

Number of excluded students for other reasons

Number of excluded students because of no materials available in the language of instruction

Total number of excluded students

Number of excluded students with functional disability

Number of excluded students with intellectual disability

Number of excluded students because of language

Number of excluded students for other reasons

Number of excluded students

because of no materials available in the language of instruction

Total number of excluded students

(Code 1)

(Code 2)

(Code 3)

(Code 4)

(Code 5)

(Code 1)

(Code 2)

(Code 3)

(Code 4)

(Code 5)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

OECD

Australia

69

555

92

0

0

716

1 054

7 895

1 300

0

0

10 249

Austria

7

49

61

0

0

117

77

531

771

0

0

1 379

Belgium

8

19

18

0

0

45

87

211

196

0

0

494

Canada

125

1 040

316

0

0

1 481

1 611

11 744

4 141

0

0

17 496

Chile

6

58

4

0

0

68

173

1 727

129

0

0

2 029

Colombia

4

24

0

0

0

28

346

1 466

0

0

0

1 812

Czech Republic

1

0

0

0

0

1

11

0

0

0

0

11

Denmark

15

179

88

162

0

444

98

1 453

427

1 032

0

3 009

Estonia

3

85

8

0

0

96

8

174

13

0

0

195

Finland

6

100

22

17

12

157

55

966

204

155

111

1 491

France

8

28

20

0

0

56

776

3 397

2 471

0

0

6 644

Germany

2

18

22

0

0

42

199

1 859

2 789

0

0

4 847

Greece

2

39

11

0

0

52

29

590

179

0

0

798

Hungary

5

20

4

46

0

75

77

432

67

777

0

1 353

Iceland

5

133

61

10

0

209

5

135

62

10

0

212

Ireland

39

90

45

83

0

257

367

831

420

752

0

2 370

Israel

25

87

40

0

0

152

406

1 382

611

0

0

2 399

Italy

0

0

0

93

0

93

0

0

0

3 219

0

3 219

Japan

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Korea

5

1

1

0

0

7

302

74

2

0

0

378

Latvia

2

20

1

0

0

23

5

54

2

0

0

62

Lithuania

4

91

0

0

0

95

16

344

0

0

0

360

Luxembourg

5

233

77

0

0

315

5

233

77

0

0

315

Mexico

13

28

3

0

0

44

2 609

7 301

1 547

0

0

11 457

Netherlands

7

58

9

4

0

78

236

1 813

224

134

0

2 407

New Zealand

42

279

119

0

3

443

278

1 905

812

0

21

3 016

Norway

17

327

108

0

0

452

147

2 814

944

0

0

3 906

Poland

21

87

8

0

0

116

964

4 190

481

0

0

5 635

Portugal

10

139

9

0

0

158

126

1 551

73

0

0

1 749

Slovak Republic

1

8

0

3

0

12

5

50

0

18

0

72

Slovenia

13

36

75

0

0

124

20

85

193

0

0

298

Spain

39

481

227

0

0

747

423

5 400

3 128

0

0

8 951

Sweden

0

0

0

681

0

681

0

0

0

10 163

0

10 163

Switzerland

8

71

73

0

0

152

86

813

1 056

0

0

1 955

Turkey

10

46

39

0

0

95

1 248

6 389

5 825

0

0

13 463

United Kingdom

75

573

40

0

0

688

2 448

16 592

1 522

0

0

20 562

United States

38

106

39

11

0

194

25 164

62 555

24 972

6 367

0

119 057

Student exclusions (unweighted)

Student exclusions (weighted)

Number of excluded students with functional disability

Number of excluded students with intellectual disability

Number of excluded students

because of language

Number of excluded students

for other reasons

Number of excluded students because of no materials available in the language of instruction

Total number of excluded students

Number of excluded students with functional disability

Number of excluded students with intellectual disability

Number of excluded students because of language

Number of excluded students for other reasons

Number of excluded students because of no materials available in the language of instruction

Total number of excluded students

(Code 1)

(Code 2)

(Code 3)

(Code 4)

(Code 5)

(Code 1)

(Code 2)

(Code 3)

(Code 4)

(Code 5)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

Partners

Albania

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Argentina

21

96

1

0

0

118

871

3 199

13

0

0

4 083

Baku (Azerbaijan)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Belarus

30

1

0

0

0

31

449

13

0

0

0

462

Bosnia and Herzegovina

8

16

0

0

0

24

29

77

0

0

0

106

Brazil

4

36

1

0

0

41

693

7 100

386

0

0

8 180

Brunei Darussalam

9

44

0

0

0

53

9

44

0

0

0

53

B-S-J-Z (China)

2

24

8

0

0

34

49

1 194

209

0

0

1 452

Bulgaria

4

76

0

0

0

80

31

653

0

0

0

685

Costa Rica

22

12

5

0

0

39

139

78

31

0

0

249

Croatia

7

84

4

0

40

135

33

397

24

0

182

637

Cyprus

17

143

41

0

0

201

25

250

77

0

0

351

Dominican Republic

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Georgia

6

20

0

0

0

26

46

134

0

0

0

180

Hong Kong (China)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Indonesia

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Jordan

25

17

2

0

0

44

322

204

23

0

0

550

Kazakhstan

132

157

11

0

0

300

1 673

1 617

334

0

0

3 624

Kosovo

0

14

0

0

12

26

0

53

0

0

79

132

Lebanon

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

8

0

0

0

8

Macao (China)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Malaysia

15

22

0

0

0

37

968

1 451

0

0

0

2 419

Malta

6

48

2

0

0

56

6

48

2

0

0

56

Moldova

4

29

2

0

0

35

25

164

18

0

0

207

Montenegro

0

4

0

0

0

4

0

12

0

0

0

12

Morocco

4

0

0

0

0

4

220

0

0

0

0

220

North Macedonia

2

3

0

0

13

18

4

8

0

0

73

85

Panama

5

18

1

0

0

24

12

91

3

0

0

106

Peru

11

9

0

0

0

20

756

603

0

0

0

1 360

Philippines

2

8

0

0

0

10

376

1 663

0

0

0

2 039

Qatar

30

150

12

0

0

192

30

150

12

0

0

192

Romania

2

19

3

0

0

24

58

700

172

0

0

930

Russia

14

81

1

0

0

96

2 126

12 620

159

0

0

14 905

Saudi Arabia

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

53

0

0

0

53

Serbia

8

11

2

0

21

42

71

148

16

0

174

409

Singapore

4

22

9

0

0

35

25

145

62

0

0

232

Chinese Taipei

9

28

1

0

0

38

320

957

20

0

0

1 297

Thailand

1

16

0

0

0

17

75

927

0

0

0

1 002

Ukraine

28

6

0

0

0

34

1 389

315

0

0

0

1 704

United Arab Emirates

16

124

26

0

0

166

26

256

49

0

0

331

Uruguay

4

20

1

0

0

25

29

131

5

0

0

164

Viet Nam

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Note: For a full explanation of other details in this table please refer to the PISA 2018 Technical Report (OECD, forthcoming[1]).

Exclusion codes:

Code 1: Functional disability – student has a moderate to severe permanent physical disability.

Code 2: Intellectual disability – student has a mental or emotional disability and has either been tested as cognitively delayed or is considered in the professional opinion of qualified staff to be cognitively delayed.

Code 3: Limited assessment language proficiency – student is not a native speaker of any of the languages of the assessment in the country and has been resident in the country for less than one year.

Code 4: Other reasons defined by the national centres and approved by the international centre. Code 5: No materials available in the language of instruction.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934028862

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Table I.A2.6. Response rates

Initial sample – before school replacement

Final sample – after school replacement

Final sample – students within schools after school replacement

Weighted school participation rate before replacement (%)

Weighted number of responding schools (weighted also by enrolment)

Weighted number of schools sampled (responding and non-responding) (weighted also by enrolment)

Number of responding schools (unweighted)

Number of responding and non-responding schools (unweighted)

Weighted school participation rate before replacement (%)

Weighted number of responding schools (weighted also by enrolment)

Weighted number of schools sampled (responding and non-responding) (weighted also by enrolment)

Number of responding schools (unweighted)

Number of responding and non-responding schools (unweighted)

Weighted student participation rate before replacement (%)

Number of students assessed (weighted)

Number of students sampled (assessed and absent) (weighted)

Number of students assessed (unweighted)

Number of students sampled (assessed and absent) (unweighted)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

OECD

Australia

95

264 304

278 765

734

779

96

267 078

278 765

740

779

85

210 665

247 433

14 081

16 756

Austria

100

78 872

78 946

291

293

100

78 872

78 946

291

293

93

69 426

75 019

6 802

7 555

Belgium

87

103 631

119 744

256

308

95

113 259

119 719

285

308

91

101 504

111 421

8 431

9 271

Canada

86

328 935

383 699

782

914

89

339 896

383 738

804

914

84

251 025

298 737

22 440

26 252

Chile

90

190 060

210 669

224

258

100

209 953

210 666

255

258

93

197 940

212 625

7 601

8 156

Colombia

95

596 406

629 729

238

250

97

610 211

629 088

244

250

93

475 820

512 614

7 480

8 036

Czech Republic

99

86 650

87 689

330

334

99

86 650

87 689

330

334

92

79 903

86 943

6 996

7 628

Denmark

88

52 392

59 459

328

371

93

55 170

59 109

344

371

86

48 473

56 078

7 607

8 891

Estonia

100

11 684

11 684

231

231

100

11 684

11 684

231

231

92

10 532

11 436

5 316

5 786

Finland

99

57 420

57 710

213

214

100

57 710

57 710

214

214

93

52 102

56 124

5 649

6 084

France

98

769 117

784 728

244

252

100

783 049

784 728

250

252

93

698 721

754 842

6 295

6 817

Germany

96

739 666

773 082

215

226

98

759 094

773 040

221

226

90

652 025

721 258

5 431

6 036

Greece

85

83 158

97 793

212

256

96

94 540

98 005

240

256

96

88 019

91 991

6 371

6 664

Hungary

98

89 754

91 208

235

245

99

90 303

91 208

236

245

94

80 693

85 878

5 129

5 458

Iceland

98

4 178

4 282

140

160

98

4 178

4 282

140

160

87

3 285

3 791

3 285

3 791

Ireland

100

63 179

63 179

157

157

100

63 179

63 179

157

157

86

51 575

59 639

5 577

6 445

Israel

95

109 810

115 015

164

174

100

114 896

115 108

173

174

91

99 978

110 459

6 614

7 306

Italy

93

505 813

541 477

510

550

98

529 552

541 672

531

550

86

437 219

506 762

11 679

13 540

Japan

89

995 577

1 114 316

175

196

93

1 041 540

1 114 316

183

196

96

971 454

1 008 286

6 109

6 338

Korea

100

514 768

514 768

188

188

100

514 768

514 768

188

188

97

443 719

455 544

6 650

6 810

Latvia

82

14 020

17 049

274

349

89

15 219

17 021

308

349

89

12 752

14 282

5 303

5 923

Lithuania

100

25 370

25 467

363

364

100

25 370

25 467

363

364

93

22 614

24 405

6 885

7 421

Luxembourg

100

5 796

5 796

44

44

100

5 796

5 796

44

44

95

5 230

5 478

5 230

5 478

Mexico

89

1 494 409

1 670 484

268

302

96

1 599 670

1 670 484

286

302

96

1 357 446

1 412 604

7 299

7 612

Netherlands

61

118 705

194 486

106

175

87

169 033

194 397

150

175

83

138 134

165 739

4 668

5 617

New Zealand

83

47 335

57 316

170

208

91

52 085

57 292

189

208

83

39 801

48 214

6 128

7 450

Norway

98

58 521

59 889

247

254

99

59 128

59 889

250

254

91

50 009

54 862

5 802

6 368

Poland

92

302 200

329 827

222

253

99

325 266

329 756

239

253

86

267 756

311 300

5 603

6 540

Portugal

85

92 797

108 948

233

280

91

99 760

109 168

255

280

76

68 659

90 208

5 690

7 431

Slovak Republic

92

45 799

49 713

348

388

96

48 391

50 361

373

388

93

39 730

42 628

5 947

6 406

Slovenia

99

17 702

17 900

337

350

99

17 744

17 900

340

350

91

15 409

16 994

6 374

7 021

Spain

99

427 230

432 969

1 079

1 102

99

427 899

432 969

1 082

1 102

90

368 767

410 820

35 849

39 772

Sweden

99

101 591

102 873

218

227

99

102 075

102 873

219

227

86

79 604

92 069

5 487

6 356

Switzerland

86

68 579

79 671

201

231

99

78 808

79 213

228

231

94

67 261

71 290

5 822

6 157

Turkey

97

947 428

975 317

181

186

100

975 317

975 317

186

186

99

873 992

884 971

6 890

6 980

United Kingdom

73

496 742

681 510

399

538

87

590 558

682 212

461

538

83

427 944

514 975

13 668

16 443

United States

65

2 516 631

3 874 298

136

215

76

2 960 088

3 873 842

162

215

85

2 301 006

2 713 513

4 811

5 686

Initial sample – before school replacement

Final sample – after school replacement

Final sample – students within schools after school replacement

Weighted school participation rate before replacement (%)

Weighted number of responding schools (weighted also by enrolment)

Weighted number of schools sampled (responding and non-responding) (weighted also by enrolment)

Number of responding schools (unweighted)

Number of responding and non-responding schools (unweighted)

Weighted school participation rate before replacement (%)

Weighted number of responding schools (weighted also by enrolment)

Weighted number of schools sampled (responding and non-responding) (weighted also by enrolment)

Number of responding schools (unweighted)

Number of responding and non-responding schools (unweighted)

Weighted student participation rate before replacement (%)

Number of students assessed (weighted)

Number of students sampled (assessed and absent) (weighted)

Number of students assessed (unweighted)

Number of students sampled (assessed and absent) (unweighted)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

Partners

Albania

97

29 234

30 163

322

336

97

29 260

30 163

323

336

98

26 611

27 081

6 333

6 438

Argentina

95

626 740

658 143

439

458

96

629 651

658 143

445

458

86

467 613

541 981

11 836

13 532

Baku (Azerbaijan)

93

18 730

20 040

181

197

100

20 249

20 249

197

197

89

18 049

20 312

6 827

7 607

Belarus

100

79 623

79 623

234

234

100

79 623

79 623

234

234

97

76 321

78 333

5 803

5 963

Bosnia and Herzegovina

100

31 025

31 058

212

213

100

31 051

31 051

213

213

96

27 562

28 843

6 480

6 781

Brazil

87

2 483 766

2 862 749

547

638

93

2 649 165

2 858 009

586

638

89

1 683 080

1 894 398

10 606

11 956

Brunei Darussalam

100

6 681

6 681

55

55

100

6 681

6 681

55

55

99

6 828

6 899

6 828

6 899

B-S-J-Z (China)

96

1 030 427

1 068 463

355

362

99

1 062 001

1 068 486

361

362

99

978 803

986 556

12 058

12 156

Bulgaria

96

48 095

50 164

191

199

99

49 568

50 145

197

199

93

44 003

47 275

5 294

5 673

Costa Rica

100

58 843

58 843

205

205

100

58 843

58 843

205

205

97

44 179

45 522

7 221

7 433

Croatia

97

28 382

29 188

178

183

100

29 177

29 177

183

183

92

32 632

35 462

6 609

7 190

Cyprus

98

7 946

8 122

90

99

98

7 946

8 122

90

99

93

6 975

7 472

5 503

5 890

Dominican Republic

96

138 500

143 842

225

235

100

143 816

143 816

235

235

90

126 090

140 330

5 674

6 328

Georgia

99

40 450

40 814

321

326

99

40 542

40 810

322

326

95

36 366

38 226

5 572

5 874

Hong Kong (China)

69

34 976

50 371

120

174

79

39 765

50 608

136

174

85

34 219

40 108

5 706

6 692

Indonesia

99

3 623 573

3 647 226

398

399

99

3 623 573

3 647 226

398

399

96

3 570 441

3 733 024

12 098

12 570

Jordan

100

123 056

123 056

313

313

100

123 056

123 056

313

313

98

112 213

114 901

8 963

9 172

Kazakhstan

100

220 344

220 344

616

616

100

220 344

220 344

616

616

99

210 226

212 229

19 507

19 721

Kosovo

94

25 768

27 304

203

224

97

26 324

27 269

211

224

96

23 902

24 845

5 058

5 259

Lebanon

94

54 392

58 119

302

320

98

56 652

58 093

313

320

91

47 855

52 453

5 614

6 154

Macao (China)

100

3 830

3 830

45

45

100

3 830

3 830

45

45

99

3 775

3 799

3 775

3 799

Malaysia

99

445 667

450 371

189

191

100

450 371

450 371

191

191

97

378 791

388 638

6 111

6 264

Malta

100

3 997

3 999

50

51

100

3 997

3 999

50

51

86

3 363

3 923

3 363

3 923

Moldova

100

29 054

29 054

236

236

100

29 054

29 054

236

236

98

27 700

28 252

5 367

5 474

Montenegro

99

7 242

7 299

60

61

100

7 280

7 280

61

61

96

6 822

7 087

6 666

6 912

Morocco

99

404 138

406 348

178

179

100

406 348

406 348

179

179

97

375 677

386 408

6 814

7 011

North Macedonia

100

18 489

18 502

117

120

100

18 489

18 502

117

120

92

16 467

17 808

5 569

5 999

Panama

94

54 475

57 873

241

260

97

56 455

58 002

251

260

90

34 060

37 944

6 256

7 058

Peru

99

455 964

460 276

336

342

100

460 276

460 276

342

342

99

419 329

425 036

6 086

6 170

Philippines

99

1 551 977

1 560 748

186

187

100

1 560 748

1 560 748

187

187

97

1 359 350

1 400 584

7 233

7 457

Qatar

100

16 163

16 163

188

188

100

16 163

16 163

188

188

91

13 828

15 228

13 828

15 228

Romania

98

157 747

160 607

167

170

100

160 607

160 607

170

170

98

144 688

148 098

5 075

5 184

Russia

100

1 354 843

1 355 318

264

265

100

1 354 843

1 355 318

264

265

96

1 209 339

1 257 352

7 608

7 911

Saudi Arabia

99

362 426

364 675

233

235

100

364 291

364 620

234

235

97

343 747

353 702

6 136

6 320

Serbia

97

62 037

63 877

183

190

99

63 448

63 877

187

190

94

57 342

61 233

6 609

7 062

Singapore

97

43 138

44 691

161

167

98

43 738

44 569

164

167

95

40 960

43 290

6 646

7 019

Chinese Taipei

97

232 563

238 821

186

193

99

236 227

239 027

189

193

95

211 796

223 812

7 196

7 584

Thailand

100

691 460

691 460

290

290

100

691 460

691 460

290

290

99

568 456

575 713

8 633

8 739

Ukraine

98

301 552

308 245

244

250

100

308 163

308 163

250

250

96

291 850

304 855

5 998

6 263

United Arab Emirates

99

57 891

58 234

754

760

99

57 891

58 234

754

760

96

51 517

53 904

19 265

20 191

Uruguay

97

44 528

46 032

183

189

99

45 745

46 018

188

189

87

34 333

39 459

5 247

6 026

Viet Nam

100

1 116 404

1 116 404

151

151

100

1 116 404

1 116 404

151

151

99

914 874

926 260

5 377

5 445

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934028862

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Table I.A2.8. Percentage of students at each grade level

All students

7th grade

8th grade

9th grade

10th grade

11th grade

12th grade and above

Information unavailable

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

OECD

Australia

0.0

c

0.1

(0.0)

11.5

(0.4)

81.0

(0.5)

7.4

(0.4)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Austria

0.4

(0.1)

6.8

(0.4)

44.5

(0.7)

48.1

(0.8)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Belgium

0.3

(0.1)

6.1

(0.4)

26.7

(0.7)

63.3

(0.8)

1.3

(0.1)

0.0

c

2.3

(0.3)

Canada

0.3

(0.1)

1.0

(0.2)

9.7

(0.3)

87.7

(0.3)

1.1

(0.1)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

Chile

1.0

(0.2)

4.4

(0.5)

20.6

(0.7)

68.5

(0.9)

5.6

(0.3)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Colombia

4.4

(0.4)

11.3

(0.5)

22.8

(0.6)

43.0

(0.8)

18.5

(0.7)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Czech Republic

0.6

(0.2)

3.3

(0.4)

48.5

(1.2)

47.5

(1.3)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Denmark

0.1

(0.0)

16.3

(0.5)

81.7

(0.5)

1.7

(0.3)

0.0

c

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Estonia

0.4

(0.1)

21.8

(0.6)

76.4

(0.6)

1.3

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Finland

0.3

(0.1)

13.9

(0.4)

85.6

(0.5)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

France

0.0

(0.0)

0.5

(0.1)

16.9

(0.6)

79.2

(0.6)

3.2

(0.2)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

Germany

0.4

(0.1)

8.1

(0.4)

46.4

(1.0)

44.0

(1.1)

1.1

(0.3)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Greece

0.1

(0.0)

0.7

(0.2)

3.7

(0.5)

95.5

(0.6)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Hungary

1.7

(0.3)

8.3

(0.5)

71.1

(0.7)

18.9

(0.6)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Iceland

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

99.2

(0.1)

0.8

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Ireland

0.0

(0.0)

2.0

(0.2)

61.6

(0.7)

27.9

(0.9)

8.5

(0.7)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Israel

0.0

(0.0)

0.1

(0.1)

16.7

(0.9)

82.4

(0.9)

0.7

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Italy

0.0

c

1.0

(0.2)

13.5

(0.5)

77.8

(0.5)

7.7

(0.3)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Japan

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

100.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Korea

0.0

c

0.0

c

16.1

(0.7)

83.8

(0.7)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Latvia

0.7

(0.1)

9.8

(0.5)

86.0

(0.5)

2.5

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

1.1

(0.2)

Lithuania

0.1

(0.1)

2.4

(0.2)

90.2

(0.5)

7.3

(0.4)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Luxembourg

0.3

(0.1)

10.0

(0.1)

48.3

(0.1)

40.3

(0.1)

1.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Mexico

0.9

(0.2)

2.9

(0.4)

17.6

(1.1)

77.8

(1.0)

0.6

(0.1)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Netherlands

0.1

(0.0)

2.6

(0.3)

36.8

(0.8)

59.3

(0.8)

1.2

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

New Zealand

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.1

(0.0)

6.6

(0.5)

89.0

(0.4)

4.2

(0.2)

0.0

c

Norway

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.3

(0.1)

99.3

(0.3)

0.4

(0.2)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Poland

0.3

(0.1)

3.1

(0.3)

95.1

(0.5)

1.4

(0.4)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Portugal

2.4

(0.2)

7.2

(0.4)

17.2

(0.9)

57.4

(1.3)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

c

15.7

(1.5)

Slovak Republic

1.9

(0.2)

4.3

(0.4)

40.8

(1.1)

51.3

(1.0)

1.7

(0.5)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Slovenia

0.3

(0.0)

0.7

(0.2)

6.2

(0.4)

92.4

(0.4)

0.4

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Spain

0.0

(0.0)

5.9

(0.2)

24.1

(0.4)

69.9

(0.5)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Sweden

0.0

c

2.1

(0.3)

96.3

(0.6)

1.6

(0.5)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Switzerland

0.5

(0.1)

10.2

(0.6)

60.8

(1.4)

27.8

(1.4)

0.7

(0.3)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Turkey

0.1

(0.1)

0.4

(0.2)

17.7

(1.1)

78.8

(1.1)

2.9

(0.3)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

United Kingdom

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

(0.0)

1.0

(0.6)

93.4

(0.6)

5.6

(0.2)

0.0

c

United States

0.0

c

0.1

(0.1)

7.5

(0.5)

73.6

(0.8)

18.7

(0.7)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

All students

7th grade

8th grade

9th grade

10th grade

11th grade

12th grade and above

Information unavailable

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

%

S.E.

Partners

Albania

0.2

(0.1)

1.2

(0.3)

36.6

(1.4)

61.5

(1.4)

0.5

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Argentina

2.1

(0.5)

9.8

(0.7)

22.1

(0.8)

63.8

(1.4)

1.8

(1.0)

0.0

(0.0)

0.4

(0.4)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

0.2

(0.1)

2.8

(0.9)

34.7

(0.7)

61.5

(1.2)

0.7

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Belarus

0.1

(0.0)

0.9

(0.2)

42.8

(0.9)

56.2

(0.9)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0.0

(0.0)

0.2

(0.1)

16.2

(1.1)

83.4

(1.1)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Brazil

4.1

(0.2)

8.1

(0.5)

13.5

(0.6)

33.5

(0.8)

39.3

(0.8)

1.5

(0.1)

0.0

c

Brunei Darussalam

0.0

(0.0)

0.5

(0.1)

6.5

(0.1)

59.7

(0.1)

29.2

(0.1)

4.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

B-S-J-Z (China)

0.3

(0.1)

1.5

(0.2)

38.7

(1.7)

58.2

(1.6)

1.3

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Bulgaria

0.2

(0.1)

2.7

(0.4)

92.8

(0.5)

4.2

(0.3)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Costa Rica

4.8

(0.5)

13.8

(0.7)

36.5

(1.1)

44.7

(1.5)

0.2

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Croatia

0.0

(0.0)

0.3

(0.2)

78.9

(0.4)

20.8

(0.4)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Cyprus

0.0

c

0.1

(0.1)

4.4

(0.4)

94.4

(0.4)

1.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Dominican Republic

6.4

(0.6)

12.5

(0.8)

23.6

(0.8)

43.8

(1.2)

12.6

(0.7)

1.2

(0.1)

0.0

c

Georgia

0.1

(0.0)

0.5

(0.1)

14.3

(0.6)

84.2

(0.6)

1.0

(0.2)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Hong Kong (China)

1.2

(0.2)

5.9

(0.5)

26.1

(0.9)

66.0

(1.1)

0.8

(0.5)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Indonesia

3.4

(1.1)

8.1

(1.0)

33.7

(2.0)

49.2

(2.2)

4.2

(0.7)

1.4

(0.9)

0.0

c

Jordan

0.2

(0.1)

1.6

(0.2)

11.2

(0.6)

87.0

(0.7)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Kazakhstan

0.1

(0.0)

1.7

(0.1)

44.0

(0.7)

53.4

(0.7)

0.8

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Kosovo

0.0

c

0.4

(0.1)

23.2

(0.9)

74.6

(0.9)

1.7

(0.2)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Lebanon

5.3

(0.5)

8.5

(0.5)

16.3

(0.9)

58.2

(1.0)

11.7

(0.5)

0.1

(0.1)

0.0

c

Macao (China)

1.9

(0.1)

9.4

(0.2)

29.7

(0.2)

57.9

(0.2)

1.0

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Malaysia

0.0

c

0.0

c

5.5

(0.6)

94.2

(0.6)

0.3

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Malta

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.1

(0.0)

5.4

(0.2)

94.4

(0.1)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

Moldova

0.2

(0.1)

6.2

(0.5)

83.2

(0.8)

10.4

(0.8)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Montenegro

0.0

c

0.0

c

3.3

(0.3)

93.8

(0.3)

2.9

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Morocco

8.0

(0.7)

13.9

(1.1)

32.1

(1.9)

38.4

(2.7)

7.7

(0.8)

0.0

c

0.0

c

North Macedonia

0.0

c

0.2

(0.1)

95.8

(0.1)

4.0

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Panama

3.2

(0.5)

6.9

(0.6)

20.6

(1.0)

65.4

(1.4)

3.8

(0.4)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Peru

1.8

(0.3)

5.7

(0.4)

14.3

(0.5)

54.5

(0.7)

23.6

(0.6)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Philippines

4.5

(0.4)

12.8

(0.6)

51.1

(0.7)

30.9

(0.7)

0.6

(0.3)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Qatar

1.3

(0.1)

4.5

(0.1)

18.0

(0.1)

63.4

(0.1)

12.9

(0.1)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

Romania

0.9

(0.3)

6.0

(0.9)

77.9

(0.9)

15.1

(0.5)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Russia

0.4

(0.0)

7.7

(0.4)

81.1

(0.9)

10.7

(1.1)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Saudi Arabia

1.2

(0.2)

3.6

(0.6)

14.0

(1.8)

77.5

(2.4)

3.6

(0.3)

0.1

(0.0)

0.0

c

Serbia

0.1

(0.1)

0.8

(0.2)

87.7

(0.4)

11.4

(0.4)

0.0

c

0.0

c

0.0

c

Singapore

0.0

(0.0)

1.1

(0.1)

7.6

(0.3)

90.8

(0.5)

0.4

(0.2)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Chinese Taipei

0.0

c

0.1

(0.0)

35.7

(0.9)

64.2

(0.9)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Thailand

0.2

(0.1)

0.7

(0.2)

19.9

(0.9)

76.6

(0.9)

2.5

(0.3)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Ukraine

0.0

c

0.4

(0.1)

29.8

(1.3)

41.3

(1.8)

0.5

(0.1)

0.0

c

28.0

(2.4)

United Arab Emirates

0.3

(0.1)

1.5

(0.1)

9.6

(0.3)

56.8

(0.6)

29.9

(0.5)

1.9

(0.2)

0.0

c

Uruguay

4.2

(0.5)

11.2

(0.5)

20.5

(0.7)

63.4

(1.1)

0.6

(0.1)

0.0

c

0.0

c

Viet Nam

0.2

(0.1)

0.8

(0.3)

4.0

(1.2)

92.3

(2.5)

0.0

(0.0)

0.0

c

2.7

(2.0)

Note: The large number of students with missing grade-level information in Ukraine can be attributed to missing data from students in the first and second year of vocational colleges. Most of these 15-year-old students would have been in the first year of vocational college, which is equivalent to grade 10.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934028862

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https://doi.org/10.1787/888934028862

  • Table I.A2.3 PISA target populations and samples, by adjudicated regions

  • Table I.A2.5 Exclusions, by adjudicated regions

  • Table I.A2.7 Response rates, by adjudicated regions

  • Table I.A2.9 Percentage of students at each grade level, excluding students with missing grade information

  • Table I.A2.10 Percentage of students at each grade level, by adjudicated regions

  • Table I.A2.11 Percentage of students at each grade level, by adjudicated regions, excluding students with missing grade information

  • Table I.A2.12 Percentage of students at each grade level, by gender

  • Table I.A2.13 Percentage of students at each grade level, by gender, excluding students with missing grade information

  • Table I.A2.14 Percentage of students at each grade level, by gender and adjudicated regions

  • Table I.A2.15 Percentage of students at each grade level, by gender and adjudicated regions, excluding students with missing grade information

References

[3] OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/b5fd1b8f-en.

[2] OECD (forthcoming), PISA 2018 Results (Volume IV): Are Students Smart about Money?, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris.

[1] OECD (forthcoming), PISA 2018 Technical Report, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Notes

← 1. More precisely, PISA assessed students who were at least 15 years and 3 complete months old and who were at most 16 years and 3 complete months old (i.e. younger than 16 years, 2 months and roughly 30 days old), with a tolerance of one month on each side of this age window. If the PISA assessment was conducted in April 2018, as was the case in most countries, all students born in 2002 would have been eligible.

← 2. Educational institutions are generally referred to as schools in this publication, although some educational institutions (in particular, some types of vocational education establishments) may not be referred to as schools in certain countries.

← 3. As might be expected from this definition, the average age of students across OECD countries was 15 years and 9 months. The range in country means was 2 months and 13 days (0.20 year), from the minimum country mean of 15 years and 8 months to the maximum country mean of 15 years and 10 months (OECD, 2019[3]).

← 4. Such a comparison is complicated by first-generation immigrant students, who received part of their education in a country other than the one in which they were assessed. Mean scores in any country/economy should be interpreted in the context of student demographics within that country/economy.

← 5. Details for countries that applied different sampling designs are documented in the PISA 2018 Technical Report (OECD, forthcoming[1]).

← 6. Due to the small size of these education systems, all schools and all eligible students within these schools were included in the samples of Brunei Darussalam, Cyprus (see note 8), Iceland, Luxembourg, Macao (China), Malta, Montenegro and Qatar.

← 7. The threshold for an acceptable participation rate after replacement varies between 85 % and 100 %, depending on the participation rate before replacement.

← 8. In particular, in the case of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, non-response bias analyses relied on direct measures of school performance external to PISA, typically from national assessments. More indirect correlates of school performance were analysed in Hong Kong (China) and the United States, due to the absence of national assessments. The non-response problem in Hong Kong (China) can be attributed to two causes: lack of initiative amongst schools and teachers to participate in PISA, and a large number of schools that were considered to be non-responding schools, as less than 50 % of sampled students in these schools sat the assessment.

← 9. These exclusions refer only to those students with limited proficiency in the language of instruction/assessment. Exclusions related to the unavailability of test material in the language of instruction are not considered in this analysis.

← 10. The preliminary attribution of school codes in the process of selecting, and then excluding, students and schools may have resulted in the double exclusion (at both the school and student levels) of some of the students with special education needs in Sweden. As a result, the overall exclusion rate in Sweden may have been overestimated by (at most) 0.5 of a percentage point. In this scenario, the overall exclusion rate would still be over 10 % and the highest amongst PISA-participating countries/economies.

← 11. The overall exclusion rate includes those students who were excluded at the school level (Column 6) and those students who were excluded within schools (Column 11); however, only students enrolled in non-excluded schools were affected by within-school exclusions, hence the presence of the term equivalent to 1 minus Column 6 (expressed as a decimal).

← 12. If the correlation between the propensity of exclusions and student performance were 0.3, then resulting mean scores would likely have been overestimated by 1 score point if the exclusion rate were 1 %; by 3 score points if the exclusion rate were 5 %; and by 6 score points if the exclusion rate were 10 %. If the correlation between the propensity of exclusions and student performance were 0.5, then resulting mean scores would likely have been overestimated by 1 score point if the exclusion rate were 1 %; by 5 score points if the exclusion rate were 5 %; and by 10 score points if the exclusion rate were 10 %. For this calculation, a model was used that assumed a bivariate normal distribution for performance and the propensity to participate.

← 13. Testing material was adapted to each country. Versions in the same language thus differed across countries, and students in Luxembourg who were not instructed in one of the three languages in which testing material was available (English, French and German) were unable to sit the PISA assessment, even if such material were available in their language of instruction in a different country.

Disclaimer

This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries.

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Note by Turkey
The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of the United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”.

Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union
The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this document relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.

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