To help governments spur fossil fuel subsidy reforms, the OECD produces and maintains an online Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels, which systematically identifies, documents, and estimates the value of individual policy measures encouraging the production or consumption of fossil fuels.

The OECD’s 2023 Inventory documents over 1 600 government budgetary transfers and tax expenditures providing support for fossil fuel producers and consumers in 51 OECD, G20, European Union (EU), and Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries.

These country notes complement the country-level data contained in the Inventory. For each country, they provide an overview of energy resources and market structure, a short description of energy prices and taxes, and a discussion of recent trends and developments in support measures, including a description of the main measures.

Interactive graphics enable data visualisation, in national currency, by beneficiary and by energy product.


This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Member countries of the OECD.

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area.

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

Note by the Republic of Türkiye
The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Türkiye recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of the United Nations, Türkiye shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”.

Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union
The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Türkiye. The information in this document relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.

Photo credits: Cover © klikk -, © iamtheking33 -, © umabatata -, © Anzelm -, © Ghost -

Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at:

© OECD 2023

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at