• Upper secondary attainment is often seen as a minimum qualification for successful labour market participation. Although the general increase in educational attainment has seen a parallel decline in the share of 25-34 year-olds without upper secondary attainment, 14% of young adults across the OECD still left school without an upper secondary qualification. In Israel, the share is 9%, which is lower than the OECD average.

  • Higher educational attainment is often associated with better employment prospects and Israel is no exception. In 2021 the employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education in Israel was 34 percentage points higher than among those with below upper secondary attainment and 19 percentage points higher than among those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment. On average across OECD countries, the employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a tertiary qualification was 26 percentage points higher than among those with below upper secondary attainment and 8 percentage points higher than among those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment. While the positive link between educational attainment and employment rates holds for both men and for women across the OECD, it is particularly strong for women. In Israel, 41% of women with below upper secondary attainment were employed in 2021, compared to 83% of those with tertiary attainment. In contrast, the figures were 58% and 86% for men.

  • Across the OECD, the labour market benefits of tertiary attainment have proved especially strong during economic crises. This was also the case during the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel. Between 2019 and 2020, unemployment for 25-34 year-old workers with below upper secondary attainment increased by 2 percentage points, by 1.2 percentage points for workers with upper secondary attainment and by 0.8 percentage points for workers with tertiary attainment. In 2021, unemployment for workers with below upper secondary attainment increased by 1.4 percentage points, compared to 2020, by 0.7 percentage points for workers with upper secondary attainment and by 0.2 percentage points for workers with tertiary attainment.

  • Educational attainment affects not just employment prospects, but also wage levels. On average across the OECD, 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 29% more than workers with below upper secondary attainment, while those with tertiary attainment earn about twice as much. In Israel, the earnings advantage of tertiary-educated workers was slightly smaller than the OECD average. In 2019, workers with upper secondary attainment earned 27% more than those with below upper secondary attainment and those with tertiary attainment earned also about twice as much.

  • National averages provide only an incomplete picture of the situation in any given country. In most OECD countries, there are large differences in educational attainment across subnational regions. This is also the case in Israel. In 2017, the difference between the region with the highest share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary attainment (Tel Aviv District, at 49%) and that with the lowest share (Northern District, at 32%) was 17 percentage points. These subnational variations do not only reflect differences in education opportunities. To a large degree, they are due to economic conditions and internal migration patterns.

  • Compulsory education begins at the age of 3 and ends at the age of 17 in Israel. The range of ages for which at least 90% of the population are enrolled is identical to the period of compulsory education and goes from the age of 3 to the age of 17. This differs from most other OECD countries, where more than 90% of the population are enrolled for longer than the period of compulsory education.

  • The age at which children enter early childhood education differs widely across countries. In Israel, early childhood education starts offering intentional education objectives for children younger than 1 and 57% of children under 3 are enrolled in early childhood education. Across OECD countries, the average enrolment rate among children below the age of 3 is 27%, but the rates range from less than 1% to 63%. The enrolment rate among 3-5 year-olds increases substantially in all OECD countries. In Israel, 100% of all children of this age are enrolled in early childhood education, which is above the OECD average.

  • The average age of graduation from general upper secondary programmes varies from 17 to 21 years across OECD countries and is 17 years in Israel. Differences in the average age of graduation from vocational upper secondary education are much larger and vary from 16 to 34 years across the OECD. These differences largely depend on whether vocational upper secondary students usually enrol in these programmes towards the end of their compulsory education or in mid-career. In Israel, the average age of graduation from vocational upper secondary education is 17 years, which is below the OECD average at 22 years (Figure 1).

  • In almost all OECD countries, women make up the majority of those graduating from general upper secondary education. In Israel, the share is 51% (OECD average 55%). In contrast, men are overrepresented among graduates of vocational upper secondary programmes in most OECD countries, but not in Israel where they make up 50% of all vocational upper secondary graduates, below the OECD average (55%).

  • In Israel, 31% of 18-24 year-olds are still in full- or part-time education or training at either upper secondary or tertiary level (significantly below the OECD average of 54%). A subset of these students (8% of 18-24 year-olds) combine their education or training with some form of employment in Israel, compared to 17% on average across the OECD.

  • One significant difference across countries’ education systems is on whether or not vocational upper secondary programmes provide access to tertiary education. In 12 OECD countries and other participants, all vocational upper secondary graduates have direct access to tertiary education. In Israel 95% of graduates from vocational upper secondary programme have direct access to tertiary education.

  • As is the case in all OECD countries, a majority of students enrolled at tertiary level in Israel are bachelor’s students (66%). However, the next commonest enrolment level varies from country to country. In Israel, master's students make up the second largest group of tertiary students at 16%. This is also the case in 25 other OECD countries, while in the remaining 14 countries with available data, short-cycle tertiary students form the second largest group.

  • All OECD countries devote a substantial share of national output to educational institutions. In 2019, OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions. In Israel, the corresponding share was 6.2%. Between 2008 and 2019, funding for educational institutions from all sources grew by 74% in Israel. Over the same period of time, the increase in GDP was lower with 52%. As a consequence, expenditure on educational institutions as a share of GDP grew by 0.8 percentage points over the same time period.

  • Public spending on primary to tertiary education was 13.1% of total government expenditure in Israel (Figure 2), higher than the OECD average (10.6%). Also, relative to GDP, public spending on primary to tertiary education (5.2%) is higher than the OECD average (4.4%).

  • Spending on educational institutions as share of GDP or public budgets are important measures of the importance that countries place on education in their budgeting decisions. However, they do not show the total amount of funding per student because GDP levels, public budgets and student numbers vary from country to country. Across primary to tertiary education, OECD countries spend an average of USD 11 990 per student (in equivalent USD converted using PPPs for GDP) on educational institutions each year. In comparison, Israel spent USD 9 972 per student in 2019. Its cumulative expenditure on educating a student from the age of 6 to 15 was USD 94 353, which was below the OECD average of USD 105 502.

  • Across OECD countries, the provision of education at primary and secondary levels in terms of curricula, teaching styles and organisational management leads, on average, to similar patterns of expenditure per student from primary to post-secondary non-tertiary levels. OECD countries as a whole spend on average around USD 9 923 per student at primary and USD 11 400 per student at secondary level. In Israel, the values are USD 9 452 at primary and USD 9 410 per student at secondary level.

  • In contrast to lower levels of education, spending on tertiary education varies widely across OECD countries. Expenditure per student at tertiary level in Israel is higher than at other levels of education, as is the case in almost all other OECD countries. The average expenditure per student in Israel is USD 12 683 per year, which is about USD 3 200 higher than that of the primary level and USD 3 300 higher than that of the secondary level. It is below the OECD average, but similar to many other countries. The average expenditure at tertiary level (USD 17 559) is driven up by high values in a few countries. At 29%, the share of research and development (R&D) expenditure makes up a similar fraction of expenditure on tertiary education in Israel to the average across OECD countries.

  • Public funding dominates non-tertiary education (primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary) in all OECD countries, even after transfers to the private sector. On average across the OECD, private funding accounts for 10% of expenditure at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels, while this share was 11% in Israel in 2019. In contrast, private expenditure at tertiary level was higher in all OECD countries. In Israel, the share of private expenditure at tertiary level reached 48%, which was above the OECD average of 31%.

  • The salaries of teachers and school heads are an important determinant of the attractiveness of the teaching profession, but they also represent the single largest expenditure item in formal education. In most OECD countries, the statutory salaries of teachers (and school heads) in public educational institutions increase with the level of education they teach, and also with experience. Actual salaries also increase with the level of education. On average across OECD countries, actual salaries range from USD 41 941 at the pre-primary level to USD 53 682 at the upper secondary level. In Israel, actual salaries average USD 40 704 at pre-primary level and USD 47 884 at upper secondary level.

  • Between 2015 and 2021, on average across OECD countries, the statutory salaries of teachers at lower secondary level (general programmes) with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 6% in real terms. In Israel, salaries increased similarly to the OECD average.

  • Teachers’ average actual salaries remain lower than earnings of tertiary-educated workers in almost all OECD countries, and at almost all levels of education. However, Israel is one of the few exceptions to this rule. Lower secondary (general programme) teachers in Israel earn 7.7% less than other tertiary-educated workers. In contrast school head actual salaries in Israel are much higher than the earnings of other tertiary educated workers. This is similar to most OECD countries, where school heads tend to earn well above the average earnings of tertiary educated workers.

  • The average number of teaching hours per year required from a typical teacher in public educational institutions in OECD countries tends to decrease as the level of education increases. This is also the case in Israel.

  • Based on official regulations or agreements, annual teaching hours in Israel are 1 030 hours per year at pre-primary level, 846 hours at primary level, 704 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 650 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes) (Figure 3).

  • During their working hours, teachers also perform various non-teaching tasks such as lesson planning and preparation, marking students’ work and communicating or co-operating with parents or guardians. At the upper secondary level, 49% of teachers’ working time is formally dedicated to non-teaching activities in Israel, compared to an average of 56% across OECD countries.

  • The duration of initial teacher education for primary and lower secondary teachers ranges from 2.5 years to 6.5 years across OECD countries. In Israel, initial teacher education typically lasts 4 years for prospective lower secondary teachers (general programmes). It is the same length for prospective primary teachers. As is the case in almost all OECD countries, a tertiary degree is awarded to prospective teachers of all levels of education upon completion of their initial teacher training.

  • Continuing professional development is compulsory for all teachers of general programmes in most countries with data, but Israel is an exception. At secondary level, professional development activities are compulsory for teachers in some circumstances.

  • Among 25-64 year-olds in Israel, bachelor's degrees are the most common tertiary attainment at 24% of the population followed by master's degrees with 13% and short-cycle tertiary qualifications with 11%. This is similar to the OECD average, where bachelor’s degrees are most common (19%), followed by master’s degrees (14%) and short cycle tertiary qualifications (7%). As in all OECD countries and other participants, only a small fraction of the population holds a doctoral degree: the share is 1% in Israel.

  • Despite the labour market advantages of a tertiary degree, many tertiary students do not graduate on time or do not graduate at all. In Israel, 61% of bachelor’s students graduate within the theoretical programme duration. Across the OECD, the completion rate within the theoretical programme duration ranges from 12% to 69%. Completion rates three years after the theoretical programme duration are significantly higher in most countries and the differences between OECD countries somewhat narrower. In Israel, 80% of bachelor’s students have graduated within three years after the end of the theoretical programme duration, compared to 68% on average across the OECD.

  • In all OECD countries, tertiary completion rates are higher for women than for men. In Israel, 83% of women graduated within three years after the end of the theoretical programme duration at bachelor’s level, compared to 75% of men. On average across the OECD, there is little systematic difference between the completion rates of public and private institutions, but the figures differ from country to country. In Israel, 72% of bachelor's students graduate from public institutions within three years after the end of the theoretical programme duration, while the share is 81% for private institutions.

  • In most OECD countries including in Israel, tertiary-educated adults have higher rates of participation in non-formal education and training than those with a lower level of educational attainment. In 2015, 60% of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary attainment in Israel had participated in non-formal education and training in the twelve months prior to being surveyed, compared to 12% of their peers with below upper secondary attainment.

  • Over the decades, independent private institutions have been established to meet increased demand for tertiary education. On average across the OECD, 17% of students are enrolled in independent private institutions, but this figure masks large differences between countries. In Israel, 12% of tertiary students are enrolled in such institutions. Independent private institutions charge higher annual tuition fees on average than public institutions for master’s programmes in all OECD countries and other participants with available data, except in Chile and Lithuania.

  • Enabling students to enrol on a part-time basis is an important way to facilitate access to tertiary education. Many part-time students would not be able to study full time, for example because they have child-care responsibilities or have to work to fund their studies. The share of part-time students at the tertiary level in Israel is 13%, below the OECD average (22%). Compared to 2013, it has decreased by 1 percentage point.

  • Staff at tertiary level tend to start their careers relatively late due to the length of the education they need to qualify. In Israel, only 10% of academic staff are aged under 30, slightly above the OECD average (8%). In contrast, the share of academic staff aged 50 or over is 42%, which is slightly above the OECD average by 2 percentage points.

  • The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted traditional schooling in 2020 and the first half of 2021, leading to school closures across all OECD countries. While most shut down their premises entirely in the wake of the pandemic in 2020, by 2021 the situation had improved and returned to normal in most countries in 2022. In Israel, primary and secondary schools were entirely closed for 52-93 days during the school year 2019/20, for 28-46 days in 2020/21 and stayed open in 2021/22 (Figure 4). Partial closures reached up to 23 days during the school year 2019/20 and up to 18 days in 2020/21.

  • National examinations have also been affected by the pandemic. At general upper secondary level, 18 OECD countries postponed their national examinations during the school year 2019/20, while 10 countries even cancelled them entirely. In 2020/21, national examinations were postponed in 9 countries and cancelled in 6 countries. Israel rescheduled or cancelled its national examinations in 2019/20 and in 2020/21.

  • Most countries conducted assessments of the impact of school closures on learning outcomes at various levels of education and along several dimensions. Israel has conducted studies to evaluate the effects of the pandemic on the impact on primary, lower secondary education. The assessments covered reading. Like many other countries, Israel also evaluated dimensions such as the effectiveness of distance-learning strategies during school closures as well as the mental health and well-being of students and teachers.

  • In school year 2022, national programmes to support students affected by the pandemic were implemented in Israel at pre-primary, primary, lower secondary, upper secondary general and vocational level. At primary to upper secondary education, measures to address the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic included, adjustments to subject curricula, referral systems for students in need of specialised services, psychosocial and mental health support to students, automatic re-enrolment of students in school, individualised self-learning programmes, increased instruction time through summer schools, extended school days or the school week or academic year, tutoring programmes or financial support for tutoring. The government has already assessed the effectiveness of these programmes.

  • The increased digitalisation of education has been a major consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic in many OECD countries. At lower secondary level, Israel has responded to the pandemic with an enhanced provision of digitalised assessments/exams, digital tools at school, distance learning, hybrid learning, in-service and pre-service digital training to teachers and digital training to students.

  • The challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic have created additional costs for education systems. Preliminary budget estimates for 2021 suggest that, compared to 2020, the education budget at pre-primary to tertiary level in Israel increased slightly (by between 1% and 5%, in nominal terms).

  • Young adults who are not in employment, education or training (NEET) for prolonged periods are at risk of adverse economic and social outcomes in both the short and the long term. After increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the share of 18-24 year-olds who are NEET in Israel stagnated in 2021. The share of NEET among young adults was 22% in 2021, above pre-COVID levels.


OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2022), “Regional education”, OECD Regional Statistics (database),

For more information on Education at a Glance 2022 and to access the full set of Indicators, see:

For more information on the methodology used during the data collection for each indicator, the references to the sources and the specific notes for each country, See Annex 3 (

For general information on the methodology, please refer to the OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics: Concepts, Standards, Definitions and Classifications (

Updated data can be found on line at and by following the StatLinks under the tables and charts in the publication.

Data on subnational regions for selected indicators are available in the OECD Regional Statistics (database) (OECD, 2022). When interpreting the results on subnational entities, readers should take into account that the population size of subnational entities can vary widely within countries. For example, regional variation in enrolment may be influenced by students attending school in a different region from their area of residence, particularly at higher levels of education. Also, regional disparities tend to be higher when more subnational entities are used in the analysis.

Explore, compare and visualise more data and analysis using the Education GPS:

The data on educational responses during COVID-19 were collected and processed by the OECD based on the Joint Survey on National Responses to COVID-19 School Closures, a collaborative effort conducted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS); the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF); the World Bank; and the OECD.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2022

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at