[38] Anticorruption Alliance of Chile (n.d.), Participanting entities, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[28] Anti-corruption System of Mexico (2020), Anti-corruption National Policy, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[5] CEDATOS (2020), Political and Electoral Panorama, (accessed on 25 March 2021).

[32] Charron, N. et al. (2017), “Careers, Connections, and Corruption Risks: Investigating the Impact of Bureaucratic Meritocracy on Public Procurement Processes”, The Journal of Politics, Vol. 79/1, pp. 89-104,

[17] Council for Citizen Participation and Social Control of Ecuador (2016), Model for Transparent and Participatory Territories. Guide for Implementation., (accessed on 27 March 2021).

[33] Dahlström, C., V. Lapuente and J. Teorell (2012), The Merit of Meritocratization: Politics, Bureaucracy, and the Institutional Deterrents of Corruption, Sage Publications, Inc.University of Utah,

[44] Ecuadorian Standardization Service (n.d.), The adoption of the ISO 37001 standard will help define anti-corruption strategies, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[16] El Comercio (2020), Secretaría Anticorrupción se suprimió con Decreto 1065, (accessed on 25 March 2021).

[14] Front for Transparency and the Fight against Corruption (2017), Proposals, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[27] Government of Argentina (2019), Anti-corruption National Plan 2019-2023, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[29] Government of Paraguay (2020), National Integrity, Transparency and Anti-corruption Plan 2021-2025, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[30] Government of Peru (2017), National Integrity and Anti-corruption Policy, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[36] Maesschalck, J. and J. Bertok (2009), “Towards a Sound Integrity Framework: Instruments, Processes, Structures and Conditions for Implementation”, SSRN Electronic Journal,

[34] Meyer-Sahling, J. and K. Mikkelsen (2016), “Civil Service Laws, merit, politicization, and corruption: The perspective of public officials from five East European countries”, Public Administration, Vol. 94/4, pp. 1105-1123,

[39] Ministerial Advisory Commission for Administrative Probity and Transparency in the Civil Service of Chile; National Directorate of the Civil Service of Chile; (2018), Ordinance 2305 of 2018, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[45] Ministry of Economy and Finance of Ecuador (2019), Standards on the Fight against Corruption and the Anti-bribery Management System in the Ministry of Economy and Finance, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[49] Ministry of Education of Ecuador (2014), General Coordination for Strategic Management, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[42] Ministry of Health of Ecuador (2012), Code of Ethics for Good Living of the Executive branch, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[48] Ministry of Health of Ecuador (n.d.), What does the National Directorate for Organizational Culture Change do?.

[35] Ministry of Labour of Ecuador (2018), Process-based Organic Statute, (accessed on 26 March 2021).

[3] Moncagatta, P. et al. (2020), The Political Culture of Democracy in Ecuador and in the Americas, 2018/2019: Taking the Pulse of Democracy, (accessed on 25 March 2021).

[47] Murphy, J. (2019), “The ISO 37001 Anti-Corruption Compliance Program Standard: What’s Good, What’s Bad, and Why It Matters”, SSRN Electronic Journal,

[7] Murtin, F. et al. (2018), “Trust and its determinants: Evidence from the Trustlab experiment”, OECD Statistics Working Papers, No. 2,

[18] National Assembly of Ecuador (2018), Organic Law for the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[22] National Assembly of Ecuador (2010), Planning and Public Finance Organic Code, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[13] National Assembly of Ecuador (2008), Constitution of Ecuador, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[19] National Assembly of Ecuador (2008), Organic Law of the National Public Procurement System, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[41] National Directorate of the Civil Service of Chile (n.d.), Integrity Systems and Code of Ethics, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[40] National Directorate of the Civil Service of Chile; Comptroller General Office of Chile (2017), Probity and Public Ethics. Legal Framework, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[12] OECD (2020), OECD Public Integrity Handbook, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[1] OECD (2019), La Integridad Pública en América Latina y el Caribe 2018-2019, OECD, Paris, (accessed on 25 February 2020).

[50] OECD (2019), Offices of Institutional Integrity in Peru: Implementing the Integrity System, OECD, Paris,

[46] OECD (2017), OECD Integrity Review of Peru: Enhancing Public Sector Integrity for Inclusive Growth, OECD Public Governance Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[6] OECD (2017), OECD Recommendation on Public Integrity, OECD, Paris, (accessed on 6 July 2017).

[9] OECD (2010), Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying, OECD, Paris,

[8] OECD (2004), “OECD Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest in the Public Service”, in Managing Conflict of Interest in the Public Service: OECD Guidelines and Country Experiences, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[11] OECD (n.d.), About the OECD, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[4] OECD (forthcoming), Multi-Dimensional Review of Ecuador.

[10] OECD (n.d.), “Public Integrity in Latin America and the Caribbean”, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[2] OECD et al. (2019), Latin American Economic Outlook 2019: Development in Transition, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[26] Open Government Ecuador (2019), Open Government Action Plan of Ecuador 2019-2022, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[15] PADF; FCD; CSIS (2020), Diagnóstico sobre áreas prioritarias para la cooperación contra la corrupción en Ecuador, (accessed on 12 February 2021).

[43] Presidency of the Republic of Ecuador (2019), 2019 Annual Address of the President to the Nation, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[37] Presidency of the Republic of Ecuador (2016), Decree 1067 of 8 June 2016, (accessed on 12 April 2021).

[24] Pyman, M., S. Eastwood and J. Elliott (2017), Research comparing 41 national anti-corruption strategies: Insights and guidance for leaders, Norton Rose Fulbright,

[31] Technical Secretariat Planifica Ecuador (2019), Technical Standard of the National System for Participative Planning, (accessed on 27 March 2021).

[21] Transparency and Social Control Function of Ecuador (2019), National Public Integrity and Anticorruption Plan 2019-2023, (accessed on 19 February 2021).

[20] UNDOC (2020), Second Review Cycle of the UNCAC: Answers from autoevaluation questionnaire of Ecuador.

[25] UNDP (2014), Anti-corruption Strategies: Understanding what works, what doesn’t and why? Lessons learned from the Asia-Pacific Region, United Nations Development Programme, New York, (accessed on 27 March 2021).

[23] UNODC (2015), National Anti-Corruption Strategies: A Practical Guide for Development and Implementation, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, New York, (accessed on 7 January 2018).

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2021

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at