1. Japan's global efforts for sustainable development

Japan’s global engagement is centred on the themes of peace, stability and prosperity. As a peace-loving nation it seeks a stable and secure international environment where the free movement of people and goods enables prosperity. This is exemplified by Japan’s recent articulation of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (MFA, 2019[1]), which seeks to establish a rules-based international order by promoting fundamental principles such as the rule of law, freedom of navigation and free trade, pursuing economic prosperity with connectivity and building commitment to peace and stability linking the economic powerhouse of Asia to the vast African market.

Japan draws attention to regional opportunities and challenges through regular, high-level summits. Japan’s 47-year co-operation with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) through the ASEAN-Japan Forum has contributed significantly to regional peace, stability and prosperity (Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 2013[2]).1 Since 1993 based on the principles of African ownership and international partnership, the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD)2 has highlighted the importance of Africa’s development. The tri-annual Pacific Islands Leaders Meeting (PALM)3 has turned attention to the challenges faced by small island developing states (SIDS). Japan’s vision of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific was announced at TICAD VI and is premised on a commitment to peace and stability, promotion of the rule of law, freedom of navigation and free trade, and pursuit of economic prosperity (MFA, 2019[3]) (Chapter 7).

Japan used its G7 and G20 presidencies to advance sustainable development globally, with its active participation in these global groupings providing a platform to advance a more peaceful world from which all nations might benefit. Under Japan’s G7 presidency, the Ise-Shima Summit in 2016 affirmed G7 members’ commitment to implementing the SDGs, and to take action to reduce their national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.4 Japan’s priorities as G7 president covered health and education, quality infrastructure, innovation, gender equality, climate change, and the marine environment (MFA, 2019[4]). Japan used its first G20 presidency in 2019 to gain support from all G20 members for a number of important areas affecting sustainable development, including:5

Japan also increased its emphasis on quality infrastructure (Box 1.1) (G20, 2019[5]), and achieved agreement amongst some of the world’s largest polluters to reduce additional marine plastic litter to zero by 2050 (MFA, 2019[6]).

Japan’s long-standing commitment to human security informs diplomatic, peace and development efforts. Initially conceived of as a counterpart to military responses to conflict (United Nations, 2012[8]; Steiner, 2019[9]),11 Japan’s understanding of the concept of human security has developed over time (Harnisch, 2019[10]). The concept pursues the right of individuals to live happily and in dignity, free from fear and want, through their protection and empowerment, focusing on individuals, especially the most vulnerable. The 2013 National Security Strategy (Government of Japan, 2013[11]) lists challenges to human security as one of six challenges in the global security environment,12 akin to other issues that know no boundaries – such as poverty and widening inequality, environmental issues including climate change, infectious diseases, and humanitarian crises. Promoting human security is one of three basic policies for the 2015 Development Cooperation Charter (Government of Japan, 2015[12]).

Universal values – the rule of law, good governance, democracy, freedom and respect for basic human rights – are critical elements of Japan’s foreign policy. These values underpin Japan’s commitment to addressing challenges facing the international community (MFA, 2019[13]), and its approach to security (Government of Japan, 2013[11]) and development co-operation (Government of Japan, 2015[12]).

Japan is promoting a broad-based, whole-of-society approach to implementing the SDGs. The SDGs Promotion Headquarters13 was established in May 2016 and is headed by the Prime Minister with participation of all members of Cabinet. The SDGs Implementation Guiding Principles, agreed in December 2016, list domestic and international actions to deliver Japan’s eight priorities, which are centred around the themes of people, prosperity, planet, peace and partnership (MFA, 2017[14]).14 The SDGs Action Plan was agreed in 2018 and subsequently updated in December 2018 and June 2019.

Japan focuses on a broad range of global public goods and challenges. Japan has listed eight priorities for engagement in sustainable development (MFA, 2017[14]). Examples of Japan’s global leadership on these include:

  1. 1. Empowerment of all people: the World Assembly for Women, which commenced in 2014, seeks to achieve “a society where women shine”. It discusses how to promote empowerment of women in Japan and globally.15

  2. 2. Achievement of good health and longevity: Japan is a staunch advocate for UHC, including in the United Nations, the World Health Organisation, the G7, the G20 and TICAD. The UHC Forum 2017, hosted in Tokyo, drew heads of state, ministers and the heads of the main multilateral actors.16 Japan has also raised the importance of strengthening global responses to public health emergencies.

  3. 3. Creating growth markets, revitalising rural areas and promoting science technology and innovation: the Industrial Human Resource Development Cooperation Initiative17 and the African Business Education Initiative18 are fostering the development of skills to support industrial development in Asia and Africa.

  4. 4. Sustainable and resilient land use, and promoting quality infrastructure: after hosting the 3rd UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2015, Japan turned its focus to implementing the Sendai Cooperation Initiative for Disaster Risk Reduction (MFA, 2015[15]) and promoting resilience (Chapter 7). See Box 1.1 for details of Japan’s efforts in quality infrastructure.

  5. 5. Energy conservation, renewable energy, climate change countermeasures and a sound material-cycle society: Japan recognises the need for decarbonisation and transition in energy systems globally. Its ‘global vision for a shared future’ (MFA, 2018[16]) focuses on: free trade in energy and resources; accelerating efforts to achieve energy access; reducing environmental costs and improving energy efficiency, in which Japan is a global leader (IEA, 2016[17]) (IEA, 2019[18]); development and deployment of renewable energy, particularly in ASEAN countries (Government of Japan, 2015[19]); and strengthening global energy governance and preparedness for oil and gas supply emergencies.

  6. 6. Conservation of the environment, including biodiversity, forests and the oceans: Japan is supporting SIDS and least developed countries (LDCs) to assess climate change impacts, formulate adaptation plans and build resilience. It mobilises public and private finance to disseminate low-carbon and decarbonisation technologies and enhances transparency by monitoring whole-atmosphere CO2 and methane concentrations (Ministry of the Environment, 2018[20]).

  7. 7. Achieving peaceful, safe and secure societies: Japan is a regular contributor to United Nations (UN) peace-keeping operations, international humanitarian relief operations and international election observation operations (Chapter 7). It also supports efforts to combat crime, including human trafficking, terrorism and piracy.

  8. 8. Strengthening the means and frameworks for the implementation of the SDGs: Japan participates in the Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development, assuming its presidency for a second time in 2019. This informal network is dedicated to the eradication of poverty and the preservation of global public goods.19

Japan has no formal mechanism for analysing potential clashes between domestic policies and sustainable development objectives, identifying action to be taken to resolve such instances, or monitoring implementation progress. While the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) maintains a watching brief over the coherence between domestic policies and development objectives, it has no power to arbitrate alone; if MOFA is unable to resolve an issue with one or more relevant ministries or agencies, the matter is referred to Cabinet.

The SDGs Promotion Headquarters provides an example of an effective governance mechanism that could address issues of policy coherence for sustainable development. It co-ordinates overall policy directions, however, co-ordination on individual policy issues is conducted more frequently and at diverse levels, with inter-agency consultations addressing specific issues and policies. Japan recognises the importance of frequent inter-agency co-ordination to advance transboundary elements of policy coherence for sustainable development and does so regularly. It is important for relevant ministries to conduct more regular and systematic analysis of potential clashes between domestic policies and sustainable development objectives and for responsible ministries or agencies to be more deliberate in resolving them. Japan has shown that it is possible to organise action across government to resolve specific issues undermining sustainable development, including in developing countries. The whole-of-government approach taken by the SDG Promotion Headquarters in preparing the SDGs Implementation Guiding Principles (MFA, 2017[14]) includes analysis of efforts to date; assessment of the current situation; identification of priority areas for action, including a strong focus on domestic actions; assignment of measures for ministries and agencies to implement; and follow-up and review. It is important to note, however, that the approach to implementing the SDGs has a strong domestic focus and the overseas measures relate mostly to development co-operation support rather than analysis and policy action to address incoherence between domestic policies and sustainable development objectives. This structure might be emulated in addressing policy coherence for sustainable development.

Japan is achieving greater coherence between domestic policies and development objectives. This includes participating in G7 and G20 work streams and its adherence to a number of OECD recommendations and guidelines. As G20 president, Japan promoted efforts to reduce additional pollution by marine plastic litter to zero by 2050. Japan’s MARINE Initiative was launched to support developing country efforts to combat marine plastic litter, focusing on management of waste; recovery of marine litter; innovation; and empowerment. It is taking a comprehensive life-cycle approach, including improved waste management practices to reduce littering, and reduction in consumption of single-use plastics.20 Domestic efforts focus on similar measures including development of, and conversion to using, alternative materials (Ministry of the Environment, 2019[21]).

Nevertheless, like many Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members Japan faces a number of significant coherence dilemmas, especially in the following areas:21

  • Responsible business conduct: Business operations, supply chains and business relationships can negatively impact on economic, environmental and social progress and the rights of workers and consumers. Japan adheres to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and has a National Contact Point (NCP) to promote the guidelines and handle cases of misconduct.22 It participates in a joint ILO-OECD-EU programme on promoting responsible supply chains in Asia, has translated into Japanese generic due diligence guidance for responsible business conduct, specific guidance for the garment and footwear sector, and the third edition of guidance for minerals from conflict-affected areas. The NCP has also organised training workshops about the guidelines for business. However, limited resources mean that the NCP is constrained in delivering its mandate. Between 2016-19 it only organised three promotional events and participated in seven events organised by others, which is low by G7 standards. In February 2020, the NCP revised its procedural guidance to include rules for mediation, reinforcing this with training on mediation in March 2020. The NCP training programme by the OECD Secretariat will be an opportunity to build additional capacity. The NCP could do more to promote responsible business conduct with businesses and engage with government colleagues on its potential to contribute to the SDGs. The development of a National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights has facilitated more regular contact with development professionals across government. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to increase engagement, either in the NCP’s decision-making structure or via an advisory body gathering representatives of other government departments. Such actions could increase coherence in the way businesses conduct themselves and Japan’s commitment to sustainable development.

  • Anti-corruption: No government or market economy can function effectively if it is riddled by bribery, and corruption entails costs that no country can afford. Japan has taken action to implement the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention,23 including legislative amendments on confiscation and criminalising laundering. It has also included due diligence considerations and invested in strengthening governance capacity in partner countries. Nevertheless, Japan could have greater impact, such as by stepping up enforcement of its foreign bribery laws and strengthening the capacity of law enforcement agencies. It could also increase sanctions and the limitation period for foreign bribery, broaden the nationality jurisdiction framework to include bribes paid by non-Japanese employees of companies operating abroad, encourage agencies to be more proactive, and reduce delays in opening and conducting investigations, which should also be independent of the executive (OECD, 2019[22]). Japan might also work with the Japan External Trade Organisation (JETRO) to clarify the definition and scope of small facilitation payments as recommended in the convention.

  • Aligning with the Paris Agreement on climate change: Japan is supporting the adaptation and emission reduction efforts of developing countries, and promotes reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) initiatives, renewable energy systems and energy efficient smart cities. It participates in the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases and is the largest donor to the Green Climate Fund (Ministry of the Environment, 2018[20]). Japan has promoted the concept of a virtuous cycle of environment and growth and this was endorsed by members at the G20 Osaka Summit in 2019. As part of its long-term strategy under the Paris Agreement of achieving a decarbonised society as close as possible to 2050, Japan has committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 by 26% compared with 2013, and by 80% in 2050. However, Japan’s greenhouse gas emissions are the second highest in the OECD and G724 (OECD, 2019[23]). It continues to invest in new coal-burning power plants at home and abroad (Tabuchi, 2020[24]), but as part of a new government strategy recently tightened the criteria for supporting exports of coal-fired power plants.25 While Japan and its partners have adhered to the Paris Agreement, it could do more to promote the transition to low-emissions, climate-resilient pathways in line with the agreement’s central goal of limiting global warming to well below 2°C and pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5°C.26

  • Agriculture: Policies that restrict trade or unnecessarily increase trade costs harm countries’ domestic economies as well as their trading partners, by constraining the development of the agro-food sector. Japan contributes to agro-food sector development in LDCs by providing duty-free, quota-free market access for agricultural products which originate there. It is active in its support for agricultural production in developing countries, announcing during TICAD7 that it would help double rice production in Africa by 2030 (MFA, 2019[25]). Its agricultural science research27 priorities include climate-smart technologies, and practices for sustainable agriculture (G20 Meeting of Agricultural Chief Scientists, 2019[26]). In 2020, Japan allocated some USD 24.3 million to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries to establish food value chains in developing countries, reduce hunger and take measures in response to challenges on a global scale. Support to agricultural producers in Japan averaged 47% of gross farm receipts in 2016-18, two and a half times the OECD average, approximately USD 34.6 billion, 86% of which was potentially most distorting (OECD, 2019[27]).28 As noted in a recent report, there is room for greater innovation in the domestic food and agriculture sector to become more productive and environmentally sustainable (OECD, 2019[28]).

Japan is building global development awareness through JICA’s Global Plazas and an active outreach programme. In 2006, Japan’s International Cooperation Agency (JICA) established its first global plaza in Hiroo, Tokyo, as an interactive venue to build awareness about global issues affecting sustainable development, and to provide support to citizens wanting to participate in international co-operation.29 Staff of MOFA, JICA, non-government organisations (NGOs) and Japanese volunteers dispatched by JICA are encouraged to speak on development issues at schools, universities and festivals. The Japan Global Festa, which promotes international development co-operation, is co-organised by MOFA, JICA and the Japan NGO Center for International Cooperation (JANIC) and celebrates its 30th year in 2020. Japan SDGs Awards are given to organisations – companies, local governments, schools, universities – who proactively promote the SDGs including domestic awareness-raising activities.30

Japan has developed some innovative ways of raising awareness. In 2018, Japan mobilised Hello Kitty to build understanding of, and support for, the SDGs amongst young and old in Japan, an approach which the UN subsequently took up in an effort to reach young people worldwide.31 Nevertheless, Japan acknowledges that public awareness of the SDGs remains insufficient (Government of Japan, 2017[29]). MOFA has increased its investment in public relations outreach, using the anime ODA-Man (Box 1.2). Since 1984 it has published an annual White Paper (MFA, 2019[30]) which reports to the public on Japanese development co-operation efforts and JICA has issued its annual report since 1975 (JICA, 2019[31]).

Disaster risk reduction and education activities draw on the Japanese public’s empathy with victims of natural disasters. For example, disaster risk awareness is embedded in Japan’s education system (Fukioka, T. and Y. Sakakibara, 2018[32]) and is part of Japan’s strategy to promote a nationwide commitment to disaster risk reduction. Japan uses its domestic knowledge abroad and disaster education is fully part of its partnership with disaster-prone countries (JICA, 2018[33]).

Public opinion surveys indicate that citizens’ support for ODA has risen from 10% to 30% in the past decade. While positive, this is well below the 80-90% found in European member states (European Commission, 2019[34]). Using surveys to understand Japanese attitudes to ODA is good practice and enables Japan to better target outreach – for example surveys have found that young people are interested in humanitarian assistance and gender issues. However, care is needed that this evidence does not result in a limited focus on popular elements of Japan’s development co-operation efforts or in solidifying public misperceptions. Rather, it should stimulate further analysis of areas where greater awareness is required among the public.

The concept of sustainable development will be incorporated into the school curriculum. From April 2020, the education curriculum will include sustainable development across a range of subjects. While Japan’s support for development awareness dropped from USD 2.78 million in 2014 to USD 1.24 million in 2018 (an average of USD 1.62 million over the period 2014-18), officials indicate that it will rise to USD 1.5 million in 2019 and 2020. This additional investment is needed to boost development education and global awareness in the school curriculum and in through other channels, including local government, civil society organisations, and small and medium enterprises. MOFA could, for example, include development education and global awareness efforts in its next five-year NGO-MOFA joint plan.

References

[2] Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2013), ASEAN-Japan Partnership - Thoughts Connected Future Connected, ASEAN Secretariat, Jakarta, https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/area/asean/j_asean/ja40/pdfs/pamph_en.pdf.

[34] European Commission (2019), “EU citizens and development cooperation”, Special Eurobarometer 494, https://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/Survey/getSurveyDetail/instruments/SPECIAL/surveyKy/2252 (accessed on 10 March 2020).

[32] Fukioka, T. and Y. Sakakibara (2018), School Education for Disaster Risk Reduction in Japan after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (GEJET), pp. 313-319, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328522049_School_education_for_disaster_risk_reduction_in_Japan_after_the_2011_Great_East_Japan_Earthquake_and_Tsunami_GEJET (accessed on 4 February 2020).

[5] G20 (2019), G20 Compendium of Good Practices for Promoting Integrity and Transparency in Infrastructure Development, https://www.oecd.org/g20/summits/osaka/G20-Compendium-of-Good-Practices-in-Infrastructure-Development.pdf.

[26] G20 Meeting of Agricultural Chief Scientists (2019), Communiqué. 8th Meeting of Agricultural Chief Scientists (MACS), https://www.macs-g20.org/fileadmin/macs/Communiques/MACS-G20_2019_Communique_Final.pdf.

[29] Government of Japan (2017), Japan’s Voluntary National Review Report on the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs Promotion Headquarters, Tokyo, https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000287390.pdf.

[12] Government of Japan (2015), Cabinet Decision on the Development Cooperation Charter, February 10, 2015, Government of Japan, https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000067701.pdf.

[19] Government of Japan (2015), National Plan for Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change. Cabinet Decision on 27 November 2015, Government of Japan, Tokyo, https://www.env.go.jp/en/focus/docs/files/20151127-101.pdf.

[11] Government of Japan (2013), National Security Strategy, Government of Japan, http://japan.kantei.go.jp/96_abe/documents/2013/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2013/12/18/NSS.pdf.

[10] Harnisch, S. (2019), “Human security. More potential for cooperation?”, in Kirchner, E. (ed.), EU–Japan Security Cooperation, Routledge, First edition, Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429456114-7.

[18] IEA (2019), Energy Efficiency 2019, International Energy Agency, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/ef14df7a-en.

[17] IEA (2016), Energy Policies of IEA Countries. Japan 2016 Review, IEA Publications, Paris, https://webstore.iea.org/energy-policies-of-iea-countries-japan-2016-review.

[31] JICA (2019), JICA 2019 Japan International Cooperation Agency Annual Report, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo, https://www.jica.go.jp/english/publications/reports/annual/2019/c8h0vm0000f7nzvn-att/2019_all.pdf (accessed on 22 February 2020).

[33] JICA (2018), Disaster Risk Reduction Building a Foundation for Our Future, Japan International Cooperation Agency, https://www.jica.go.jp/english/publications/j-world/c8h0vm0000bws0t4-att/1801.pdf.

[6] MFA (2019), “MARINE Initiative” toward Realization of the Osaka Blue Ocean Vision, https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000493728.pdf (accessed on 10 February 2020).

[13] MFA (2019), Diplomatic Bluebook 2019. Japanese Diplomacy and International Situation in 2018, https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000527162.pdf (accessed on 5 February 2020).

[1] MFA (2019), Free and Open Indo-Pacific, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, https://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/page25e_000278.html (accessed on 4 February 2020).

[7] MFA (2019), G20 Osaka Summit (Summary of Outcome), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.japan.go.jp/sustainable_future/infrastructure/>; https://financialtribune.com/articles/world-economy/87974/abe-pledges-50b-for-infrastructure-in-indo-pacific-region.

[4] MFA (2019), Osaka Update on the G20 Action Plan on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, https://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/g20_summit/osaka19/pdf/documents/en/annex_11.pdf.

[3] MFA (2019), Sailing on the Indo-Pacific Ocean, finding opportunities for prosperity, https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000407643.pdf (accessed on 5 February 2020).

[25] MFA (2019), TICAD7: Japan’s contributions for Africa, https://www.mofa.go.jp/region/africa/ticad/ticad7/pdf/ticad7_torikumi_en.pdf (accessed on 14 February 2020).

[30] MFA (2019), White Paper on Japan’s Development Cooperation 2018, Ministry of Foreign Affais, https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000554934.pdf.

[16] MFA (2018), Policy Speech by Foreign Minister Taro Kono ’Evolving Energy Diplomacy-Energy Transition and the Future of Japan’, https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000383102.pdf (accessed on 6 February 2020).

[14] MFA (2017), Japan: The SDGs Implementation Guiding Principles, https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/sdgs/pdf/000252819.pdf (accessed on 30 October 2019).

[15] MFA (2015), Sendai Cooperation Initiative for Disaster Risk Reduction, https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000070664.pdf (accessed on 4 February 2020).

[20] Ministry of the Environment (2018), Japan’s Assistance Initiatives to Address Climate Change 2018, Ministry of the Environment, https://www.env.go.jp/press/files/en/698.pdf (accessed on 6 February 2020).

[21] Ministry of the Environment, J. (2019), G20 Report on Actions against Marine Plastic Litter First Information Sharing based on the G20 Implementation Framework, Ministry of the Environment, https://www.env.go.jp/press/files/jp/112576.pdf (accessed on 25 February 2020).

[27] OECD (2019), Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2019, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/39bfef3-en.

[22] OECD (2019), Implementing the OECD Anti Bribery Convention Phase 4 Report: Japan, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, http://www.oecd.org/corruption/OECD-Japan-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed on 17 July 2019).

[28] OECD (2019), Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in Japan, OECD Food and Agricultural Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/92b8dff7-en.

[23] OECD (2019), OECD Statistics: Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Source, https://stats.oecd.org/ (accessed on 14 February 2020).

[9] Steiner, A. (2019), “Reflections on the past 25 years since the Human Development Report of 1994 and discuss the contribution the Human Security approach has made to the achievement of the SDGs”, Key note speech: 25th Anniversary of the Human Security concept, UNDP, https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/news-centre/speeches/2019/25th-anniversary-of-the-human-security-concept.html (accessed on 5 February 2020).

[24] Tabuchi, H. (2020), “Japan races to build new coal-burning power plants, despite the climate risks”, The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/03/climate/japan-coal-fukushima.html (accessed on 14 February 2020).

[8] United Nations (2012), Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 2012, 66/290. Follow-up to paragraph 143 on human security of the 2005 World Summit Outcome, https://undocs.org/A/RES/66/290 (accessed on 5 February 2020).

Notes

← 1. The first ASEAN-Japan Dialogue was held in 1973 and the relationship was formalised through the ASEAN-Japan Forum in 1977. Japan’s engagement has deepened significantly over the years including through Japan’s participation in regional fora such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (since 1994) and the East Asia Summit (since 2005).

← 2. The Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) is led by Japan and co-organised by the United Nations, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the African Union Commission. Held every five years from 1993-2013, it changed to three year intervals, meeting in 2016 and 2019. See www.mofa.go.jp/af/af1/page22e_000767.html and www.mofa.go.jp/region/africa/ticad/index.html.

← 3. Leaders of 14 Pacific Island countries, Australia, New Zealand and Japan participate in the Pacific Islands Leaders Meeting (PALM). See www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/palm/index.html.

← 4. Known as intended nationally determined contributions, these were submitted in advance of the Paris Climate Change Conference. See https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/nationally-determined-contributions-ndcs.

← 5. The G20 Osaka Leaders’ Declaration contains the full set of Ministerial Declarations and Communiqués, and other documents including from G20 Working Groups. See www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/g20_summit/osaka19/en/documents/final_g20_osaka_leaders_declaration.html.

← 6. For details of Japan’s Research and Development 20 initiative see https://rd20.jp/.

← 7. For details of the G20 Karuizawa Innovation Action Plan on Energy Transitions and Global Environment for Sustainable Growth see www.meti.go.jp/press/2019/06/20190618008/20190618008_02.pdf.

← 8. For details of the G20 Shared Understanding on the Importance of UHC Financing in Developing Countries see www.mof.go.jp/english/international_policy/convention/g20/annex8_1.pdf.

← 9. For details of the G20 Initiative on Human Capital Investment for Sustainable Development see www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/g20/osaka19/pdf/documents/en/annex_10.pdf.

← 10. For details of the G20 Guiding Principles for the Development of Science, Technology, and Innovation for SDGs Roadmaps see http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/g20_summit/osaka19/pdf/documents/en/annex_12.pdf.

← 11. Defined as “an approach to assist Member States in identifying and addressing widespread and cross-cutting challenges to the survival, livelihood and dignity of their people”, https://undocs.org/A/RES/66/290. It has been characterised as reflecting the humanitarian-development-peace nexus where “sustainable development and sustaining peace are two sides of the same coin,” www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/news-centre/speeches/2019/25th-anniversary-of-the-human-security-concept.html. For more information see www.un.org/humansecurity/what-is-human-security/. The concept was championed in Japan by Ms. Sadako Ogata, who passed away recently. See www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201910300023.html.

← 12. The other five challenges are: shift in the balance of power; proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; international terrorism; risks to the global commons – the sea, outer space and cyberspace; and global economic risks.

← 13. For details of Japan’s SDG Promotion Headquarters see www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/sdgs/effort/index.html.

← 14. The guiding principles emphasise the importance of universality, inclusiveness, participatory and integrated approaches, and transparency and accountability.

← 15. The theme of the 5th WAW in March 2019 was WAW! For Diversity. For details see www.mofa.go.jp/fp/hr_ha/page22e_000859.html.

← 16. For details of the forum see www.mofa.go.jp/ic/ghp/page11e_000014.html.

← 17. See www.mofa.go.jp/files/000112833.pdf.

← 18. See www.jica.go.jp/english/countries/africa/internship.html.

← 19. For information about the Leading Group see www.leadinggroup.org/rubrique20.html.

← 20. Japan’s global efforts are outlined here www.mofa.go.jp/ic/ge/page25e_000317.html.

← 21. Japan ranks 24th out of 27 countries on the Commitment to Development Index 2018, suggesting that it could do more to address areas of potential incoherence. This includes ratifying all protocols of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, reducing subsidies to the fishing industry and imports of tropical wood, and requiring country-by-country reporting from extractive industries. For further information see www.cgdev.org/cdi-2018/country/JPN.

← 22. For further information about responsible business conduct see https://mneguidelines.oecd.org/.

← 23. The OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (the Anti-Bribery Convention) establishes legally binding standards to criminalise bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions. For further information see www.oecd.org/corruption/oecdantibriberyconvention.htm.

← 24. Japan has the fourth highest CO2 emissions per capita in the G7, see https://stats.oecd.org. Visualisations of a range of greenhouse gas emissions data can be found at: https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-greenhouse-gas-emissions.

← 25. For details of the announcement see https://english.kyodonews.net/news/2020/07/b9a5c7a1b980-update2-japan-to-tighten-export-criteria-for-coal-fired-power-plants.html.

← 26. Japan’s 2030 target falls within the 10-30% interquartile range for limiting global warming by reducing CO2 emissions to below 2°C (for an explanation see www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2018/07/sr15_headline_statements.pdf). However, developing countries have energy growth needs, and as a result of continued use of fossil fuels their emissions are due to peak later. Japan’s current commitments have been criticised as not being consistent with holding warming to below 2°C, nor with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. See https://climateactiontracker.org/countries/japan/.

← 27. Japan Intellectual Support Network in Agricultural Sciences promotes co-operation among Japan-based universities, international agricultural research institutions, and international co-operation agencies involved in agricultural sciences and international agricultural co-operation. It works closely with JICA. See http://jisnas.com/en/index.html.

← 28. While rice farm income support has ended, border measures remain in place for rice, pork and milk. Reducing trade barriers would bring lower prices for consumers and provide more flexibility for farmers. See https://doi.org/10.1787/92b8dff7-en.

← 29. There are also global plazas in Nagoya and Sapporo cities (www.jica.go.jp/hiroba/english/index.html) and in JICA Country Offices such as Cambodia (www.jica.go.jp/cambodia/english/office/about/ngodesk/about.html).

← 30. For information about the Japan SDGs Awards see www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/sdgs/award/index.html.

← 31. Hello Kitty”s work with the UN to promote the SDGs can be found here: www.moshimoshi-nippon.jp/259178.

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