List of abbreviations

ADB

Asian Development Bank

AOP

Ambient Ozone Pollution

APMP

Ambient Particular Matter Pollution

AQS

Air Quality Standards

BAT

Best Available Techniques

BAT-AEL

Emission Levels Associated with Best Available Techniques

BREF

BAT reference document

BREF-PP

BREF for Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

CAA

Clean Air Act

CERC

Committee on Environmental Regulation and Control

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

CVM

Contingent Valuation Method

CWA

Clean Water Act

EC

European Commission

ECJ

European Court of Justice

EEA

European Environment Agency

EECCA

Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia

ELD

Environmental Liability Directive (2004/35/EC)

ELV

Emission Limit Values

EMAS

EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme

EMEP CEIP

European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections

EMS

Environmental Management System

ESG

Environmental, Social and Governance

EU

European Union

EU ETS

EU Emissions Trading System

EUR

Euro

EPOC

OECD Environment Policy Committee

EQS

Environmental Ambient Quality Standards

GGI

Green Growth Indicators

GHG

Greenhouse Gas Emission

GMO

Genetically Modified Organism

HEA

Habitat Equivalency Analysis

IED

Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU)

IEP

Integrated Environmental Permit

IGTIC

International Green Technologies and Investment Centre

IMPEL

European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law

INECE

International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement

IPPC

Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

IPPCD

Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (2008/1/EC)

JRC

Joint Research Centre (of the European Commission)

KPI

Key Performance Indicators

LCP

Large Combustion Plant

MAC

Maximum Allowed Concentrations

MBI

Market-Based Instruments

MCI

Monthly Calculation Index

MDCR

Multi-dimensional Country Review

MNE

Ministry of National Economy of Kazakhstan

MOE

Ministry of Energy

MPD

Maximum Permissible Discharges for a project

MPE

Maximum Permissible Emissions for an operator

NGO

Non-Governmental Organisation

NH3

Ammonia

NOX

Nitrogen Oxides

NO2

Nitrogen Dioxide

NMVOC

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds

NRDA

Natural Resource Damage Assessment

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OPA

Oil Production Act

PM

Particulate Matter

PM2.5

Particulate Matter – fraction of particles having an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm

PM10

Particulate Matter – fraction of particles having an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 µm

PPP

Polluter-Pays Principle

PRTR

Pollutant Release and Transfer Register

REA

Resource Equivalency Analysis

R&D

Research and Development

SCR

Selective Catalytic Reduction

SEEA

System of Integrated Environmental-Economic Accounting

SEPA

Scottish Environment Protection Agency

SEP

Supplemental Environmental Projects

SME

Small and Medium Enterprises

SNCR

Selective Non-catalytic Reduction

SOE

State-Owned Enterprises

SOx

Sulphur Oxides

SO2

Sulphur Dioxide

TEV

Total Economic Value

TSP

Total Suspended Particles

TWG

Technical Working Group

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

US

United States

USD

US Dollar

US EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

VEA

Value Equivalency Analysis

VOLY

Value of a Life Year

VSL

Value of Statistical Life

WFD

Water Framework Directive

WHO

World Health Organization

WTAC

Willingness-to-Accept Compensation

WTP

Willingness-to-Pay

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