Chapter 4. Building and attracting talent for the digital transformation of the public sector

This chapter discussess the efforts the Argentinian government has implmented to date to transform the digital capacity of its public sector. It addresses how leading public sector organisations have played a key role in building compentencies and addressing legacy challenges to better inform public sector employment policies. It explores how updated and standardised competency frameworks and agile talent procurement models can help to reinforce the capacity of the Argentinian public sector to go digital and respond to citizens’ needs.



Reinforcing the public sector’s digital skills and overall competencies is required to increase its capacity (OECD, 2014) to tackle new policy challenges, drawing upon the contribution of technology, data and innovative approaches for public sector transformation.

While the discussion on legacy issues is not foreign to the digital government discourse, it can often be restricted to challenges in terms of “hard” infrastructure (e.g. IT or data infrastructures). Such an approach can oversee the “soft” elements of infrastructure (e.g. skills, competences), or, more importantly, ignore the relevance of building a “value-driven culture” in the public sector (OECD, 2018e) to enable digital transformation.

There is also a risk of perpetuating legacy challenges by focusing on the development of hard basic or more advanced skills (e.g. computation, database management, data analytics). Such an approach ignores that a digital government, together with its accompanying public sector employment policies, is responsive and adaptive (OECD, 2018e), and, as such, goes beyond technology, requiring balancing the aforementioned skills with softer abilities (e.g. creativity and curiosity as skills for innovation competency). In this light, revising competency frameworks and job profiles, reassessing how to develop new skills, or bringing external talent on board to tackle specific skill gaps (e.g. through ad hoc collaboration and partnerships), can help governments to stay relevant vis-à-vis changing citizens’ expectations.

Skill frameworks that respond to analogue and paper-based or e-government models are key to help transition from analogue to digitised governments, but a strong approach on the latter can represent significant blockages to the digital transformation. Balancing these approaches with additional transformational efforts can increasingly contribute to building public sector capacities and the foundations for a sustainable and mature digital public sector (digitilisation).

The analysis presented in this chapter underlines that Argentina is facing a complex scenario in terms of building, retaining and attracting digital talent in the public sector in a macroeconomic context that favours public sector austerity. This is the result of an overall context where, since June 2018, policies have been put in place to reduce public sector employment and expenditure.

Building transformational competencies and digital skills: Key institutional players and initiatives

There are clear efforts in terms of the development of skills in the Argentinian public sector. These initiatives are often led by two key players:

  1. 1. The Secretariat of Public Employment (Secretaría de Empleo Público, SEP), a body within the Government Secretariat of Modernisation (Secretaría de Gobierno de Modernización, SGM), has made great strides to enable a culture of change in the public sector by developing competencies with a multi-level approach, i.e. from politicians to high-level managers and public officials. Skill development programmes like Líderes en Acción (focused on young officials), Construyendo Nuestro Futuro (focused on high-level public managers) and Protagonistas de Recursos Humanos (focused on human resource management officials) illustrate the multi-faceted nature of the efforts implemented by this body.

  2. 2. The National Institute of Public Administration (Instituto Nacional de la Administración Pública, INAP) stands as a long-term government ally in terms of building public sector capability, even as it benefits from support and credibility from other government institutions and external actors. INAP, created in 1973, has a progressive approach to capacity building, with a clearly defined strategy in terms of reach, scalability, relevance, digital transformation and training quality. The fact that various actors interviewed for this review mentioned INAP’s role in providing key support to build capacities points to the fact that the institute is well recognised as a key resource to build a modern public sector in Argentina.

The current administration has established the development of the public sector’s competencies as a priority, drawing upon their value as enablers of a stronger organisational culture within the public sector. The SEP’s strategy is clear in terms of how the development of specific competencies at different levels (Figure 4.1) can help build a culture that supports transformational change. The initiatives implemented by the SEP aim to put this framework into action.

The focus of the SEP’s work is therefore on enabling a culture that can then be adequate to attract and build the required talent that can support the transformation of the public sector. The location of the SEP within the SGM provides an invaluable opportunity to ensure the connection between policies and initiatives on public sector employment, modernisation, digital government, open government, and innovation.

Figure 4.1. Secretariat of Public Employment: Competencies framework
Figure 4.1. Secretariat of Public Employment: Competencies framework

Source: Based on SEP (2018), “Plan Integral de RRHH de la Secretaría de Empleo Público (SEP)”.

Box 4.1. Secretariat of Public Employment: Key initiatives

The skills development programmes of the Secretariat of Public Employment are in line with the government’s ambition to promote a cultural change within the public sector in terms of values, beliefs and competencies. This change is based on four main strategic axes (Figure 4.2).

Based on these axes, the following skill development programmes were developed by the Secretariat of Public Employment:

  • Líderes en Acción: This programme focuses on the process of cultural transformation through the formation of a network of young leaders, training them as agents of change and promoters of innovative initiatives in their teams. The programme concerns young people with more than two years’ experience in the public administration and offers a series of modules, promoting values such as teamwork, innovation and a result-driven approach.

  • Construyendo Nuestro Futuro: This programme aims to provide senior public management officials with tools and best practices that promote effective leadership of their teams, aligned with the vision and values of the government.

  • Protagonistas de Recursos Humanos: This programme targets human resource management officials and aims to enhance their role as agents of transformation, motivation and collaboration in work environments within the public sector.

  • Liderazgo Transformacional: This programme aims to develop leaders that foster trust and collaboration and that are focused on sustained superior performance, while sharing the same focus, impulse and direction.

Figure 4.2. Secretariat of Public Employment: Strategy
Figure 4.2. Secretariat of Public Employment: Strategy

Source: Based on Ministry of Modernisation (2018), “Plan Integral de RRHH de la Secretaría de Empleo Público – Ministerio de Modernización”.

Public sector stakeholders acknowledge these efforts. Out of the 32 public sector organisations, 30 expressed that the current administration has placed either high or medium priority to the improvement of digital skills and competencies among civil servants as part of the national digital agenda (see Chapter 2) (OECD, 2018b).1 Some of these institutions also report putting in place their own capacity-building initiatives in line with their own programmes and responsibilities (e.g. the National Contracting Office [Chapter 3], the National Direction of Digital Services [see Chapter 5] or the Undersecretary of Public Innovation and Open Government [see Section 4.4]) (OECD, 2018b).2

Stressing the need for public sector employment data

The above-mentioned efforts have been built on a heritage of inaccurate data on public sector employment, therefore highlighting the need of (re)constructing the basics in terms of good quality data in this realm, which would be useful for taking evidence-based policy decisions.

During the OECD peer review mission to Argentina (in March 2018), stakeholders expressed that the provision of data on public sector employment by the Under-secretariat of Planning of Public Employment (for instance, data on the current profile of the public service) would enable comparisons and improve understanding of the current context and forecasting capacities. This would help appraise future needs and develop a forward-looking approach towards skills in the public service for the next five to ten years. In July 2018, stakeholders also expressed their concerns related to the lack of knowledge in terms of the current skills deficit in the public sector.

In order to address these issues, the SEP launched the BIEP initiative in 2019 with the goal of unifying and improving the quality of information and data sources on public sector employment in order to support decision making, and avoid duplication of tasks and data inconsistencies. The project consists of the development of software solutions that can serve as an interface to share public sector employment information, and inform other human capital management systems.

Skill frameworks

There is also a lack of clarity in terms of how the SEP’s competencies framework describes what hard and soft digital skills are needed to enable digital transformational change across the whole government. Clarity and granularity in this respect could, for instance, guide action at the organisational level to build, attract or procure specific talent with a strategic mindset.

So far, the activities or initiatives related to building digital and/or innovation skills seem to be fully under the mandate of specific bodies within the SGM (e.g. the National Direction of Digital Services or the Undersecretary of Public Innovation and Open Government through its Lab’s Design Academy of Public Policy). Somehow they appear disconnected from the SEP’s overall public employment competencies strategy.

Such a digital capability framework would also help shed further light in terms of:

  • which hard and soft skills are more foundational (e.g. computing, text processing, data analytics, artificial intelligence), than digital and transformational (e.g. service delivery, focus on users, user and community engagement)

  • at what levels (high-level officials, civil servants as per the SEP’s classification), those specific skills and competencies are required

  • identifying those skills that should be built in-house to develop a public sector digital core and those that can be commissioned.

This holistic approach would help to build skill layers that altogether avoid that digital is sustainably understood as an isolated tech-oriented task specific to technicians (as was expressed by stakeholders in July 2018), rather than a value-oriented strategy, and thus contributing to the delivery of policy goals and the achievement of the Digital Agenda as a whole. This would also be essential to lay a stronger skill base to set the foundations for a more mature digital government.

The above-mentioned findings were also confirmed by the concerns expressed by stakeholders during the workshops organised for the purpose of this review (July and December 2018), namely:

  • A clear and strong agreement of the need to define clear digital profiles which can standardise shared roles across the public sector, and describe what hard and soft skills are needed in each specific role, including the need of building a more empathic and citizen-oriented culture.

  • Asymmetries in terms of skills’ availability and competencies among public officials.

  • The need of understanding that digital efforts are multi-faceted and, as such, a multi-disciplinary team with different sets of skills is needed to respond to specific challenges.

  • The need of focusing the training strategy on those skills that are needed the most (demand-driven) instead of sustaining the current “ready-made” training approach that does not respond to the actual needs or interests of the trainee.

  • The lack of external incentives and low intrinsic motivation necessary to make public officials engage in training activities.

For instance, in the United Kingdom, the Digital, Data and Technology (DDaT) Profession Capability Framework defined a set of job profiles for the public sector in an effort to standardise job descriptions and skills. This model has helped to bring clarity in terms of what skills are needed; for instance, to follow a determined career path in government and to better attract talent into the public sector.3

The DDaT, led by the UK Government Digital Service is not a stand-alone exercise, it is integrated into the broader UK Civil Service Foundational Model, specifically into the specific core function on digital of this model. Other initiatives, such as the Data Science Campus of the UK Office for National Statistics, and the collaboration between the Office for National Statistics, the Government Digital Service and the Government Office for Science, also deliver on this specific function through joint efforts to build data science capability in the government (UK GDS, 2017).

In New Zealand, the central government undertook a Digital Skills Survey in 2016 to understand the state of digital skills in the public sector and identify future needs. It used this information to develop an evidence-based baseline and identify specific actions required within sectors (OECD, 2018d). This approach helped to move from a top-down approach in terms of capacity building to one that took more into consideration the real needs of public officials. Results from this survey show that, according to data collected in 2016, the biggest potential skills shortages for the government were related to “digital leadership, cybersecurity and delivery using a user-centred service delivery approach”. Data analytics stood out as one of the most sought-after profiles by government institutions (New Zealand Digital Skills Forum, 2018).

The challenge of sustainability: Retaining and attracting talent

As in many other countries, the Argentinian public sector is not fully protected from political transitions, and it faces sustainability challenges to attract external talent and retain the one internally available. Political changes have a direct implication on the permanence of public officials in high-level positions. In this light, the sustainability of capacity-building efforts of key bodies within the public sector, such as INAP, require taking action to further build up public sector digital competence, and reinforce the civil service skill base in the broad public sector. INAP has already started addressing this challenge by developing a specific programme to build digital competencies within the public sector that will cover areas such as management, communication and innovation. To develop this programme, INAP started with a diagnosis of the current digital capacities of the public sector in Argentina, and the training demands in this area.

Public officials at director level and above, are normally replaced following political elections and subsequent transitions. In this light, public officials interviewed for this review expressed concerns on how these changes could cause instability in terms of the long-term sustainability of actions and results. This poses a policy challenge particularly for digital government considering that in Argentina several key initiatives are decided at the director or top management level. It also creates a problem in terms of human capital losses and long-term effectiveness of skill-building programmes (e.g. such as the SEP’s Construyendo Nuestro Futuro and the Design Academy of Public Policy’s executive programmes).

In addition, during the OECD peer review mission to Buenos Aires (March 2018), public officials indicated that roughly 75% of ICT professionals stay less than two years in the public sector, and in general terms lack formal tertiary education (e.g. university-level degrees). Key bodies within the SGM in charge of digital and innovation efforts have faced employee turnover, as job opportunities and salaries in the private sector4 (OECD, 2018c), together with a more agile and innovation-driven mindset and culture, are simply more attractive to skilled employees – a context which is not endemic only to the Argentinian case.

During the OECD workshops organised in July 2018, stakeholders confirmed that retaining talent is one of the most relevant challenges in the current public sector context. Findings from the OECD survey indicate that the most common factor affecting human capital mobility from the public to the private sector is higher salaries (Figure 4.3).

Figure 4.3. Mobility of ICT professionals from the public sector to the private sector
Figure 4.3. Mobility of ICT professionals from the public sector to the private sector

Note: Number of public sector organisations providing a response to Question 28: What is the most common scenario for ICT and digital government-related employment in your institution? And Question 28a: In your view, for option 1 (public officials/government employees move to the private sector), what are the main reasons for this happening? Results are indicative.

Source: OECD (2018b), “Digital Government Review of Argentina: Survey for Public Sector Organisations”.

However, while relevant, monetary compensation is not the only factor determining the mobility of skilled workforce from the public sector to the private sector. Cultural factors (such as the possibility of working in agile environments) and clear career development paths can also determine the willingness of staff to stay.

Retaining and attracting skilled human capital to the public sector would also require moving from monetary incentives to creating the needed environment and culture to attract talent to the administration (e.g. creating profiles, harnessing civic passion, good working environment), and incentivise human capital to stay through clear career development paths.

For instance, during the workshops in July and December 2018, stakeholders expressed that the professionalisation of the civil service and the definition of clear career development paths, supported by the right training programmes, can facilitate policy sustainability, by increasing motivation, retaining talent, and equipping the state with the needed competencies and skills. This reinforces the need to secure and retain an adequately skilled public sector workforce at all levels in order to address instability and human capital turnover, decrease the negative impact of political transitions, increase organisational resilience, and build up long-term public sector collective knowledge.

In Denmark, some public organisations are developing standardised career paths for digital specialists in order to bring further clarity in terms of career development paths. The Danish Agency for Digitisation, for instance, has moved from a general career path to four career paths: for specialists, generalists, programme managers and general managers. For such a purpose, the agency encourages staff to meet with their immediate superiors every six months to discuss skills and competency development and how staff can lever internal or external training for this purpose (OECD, 2018d). In the United Kingdom, the internship programmes offered by the Government Digital Service Digital Academy also aim to show the potential for a career in digital, data and technology in government. The traineeship programme comprises an eight-week programme, which includes training, a four-week placement in a digital service and a two-week discovery project (OECD, 2018d).

The Argentinian government also faces challenges, as do many OECD countries, in terms of the difficulties faced to bring new talent into the government, as expressed by stakeholders during the OECD workshops organised in July and December 2018.

Results from the central survey indicate that attracting and recruiting new talent is the top priority for the central government, followed by improving the digital skills and competencies of current staff5 (OECD, 2018c). However, the search for and recruitment of new talent is mostly left to the recruiting body, thus there is no central strategy for the public sector (contrary to the SEP’s and INAP’s work focused on providing training to current public officials).

Yet, data collected through the survey administered across public sector in Argentina point to the fact that public sector organisations favour improving the skills and competencies of current staff (which adds to the value of the activities of the SEP and INAP), instead of attracting new talent (Figure 4.4).

While these data are just indicative, they might suggest the need for investing more resources on the strategic training of current staff, investing in their talent and supporting their career development, particularly in light of the current restrictions in place for the recruitment of new staff between July 2018 and December 2019, defined by Presidential Decree 632/2018.6

Figure 4.4. Public sector organisations favour improving the skills and competencies of current staff
Number of public sector organisations
Figure 4.4. Public sector organisations favour improving the skills and competencies of current staff

Source: OECD (2018b), “Digital Government Review of Argentina: Survey for Public Sector Organisations”.

Balancing public and private partnerships

There are also opportunities related to better levering the existing talent and communities outside the public sector.

The Argentinian government has opted for temporary employment models that provide higher compensation when compared to market costs as means to attract new talent, and counterbalance the salary gap between the public and private sectors. However, a window of opportunity exists to streamline government, in line with the current austerity measures, making it more agile by increasing collaboration with the private sector, and defining dynamic talent commissioning models that are appealing to external talent.

During the workshops organised by the OECD Secretariat in July and December 2018, stakeholders expressed the need for creating stronger bridges, partnerships and synergies between the public and private sectors; creating a digital community; and enabling the exchange of knowledge. Stakeholders suggested, for instance, the definition of public-private agreements and work groups as potential initiatives that could help in the definition of digital talents and profiles, build consensus and partnerships, enable collective solutions, and break down competitive asymmetries in terms of skills gaps.

Stakeholders also expressed concerns related to the current slow and cumbersome processes for commissioning external talent. The lack of agility hinders the possibility of attracting and bringing external talent on board on a temporary and project-based basis. For instance, joining forces with Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurs can help to address policy challenges and develop solutions in an agile fashion without the need of hiring them on a permanent basis.

The Argentinian government could learn from the experience of Canada which has been attempting to implement innovative recruiting models to better hire public servants for specific short-term projects (Box 4.2). The agility of this model could be explored in the procurement of external talent.

Box 4.2. The GC Talent platform in Canada

The Government of Canada (GC) Talent Cloud, standing as its first attempt, aims to become a digital repository of pre-qualified talents, with a competency validation process and easy searchability. The repository is intended to allow public sector organisations to select public servants that have the appropriate skills in line with their project while reducing and improving the hiring time procedure, and ensuring the protection of workers’ rights.

As a pilot version of the GC Talent Cloud, the government implemented the Free Agents programme. This programme examined and chose public servants based on a set of attributes and behaviours that were considered essential for innovation and problem-solving in project-based work. Upon approval, candidates were assigned to different positions in a special unit of the Natural Resources Canada Innovation Hub. The programme stood as a first test to assess the potential long-term sustainability of the GC Talent Cloud at the federal level, and in particular to draw out potential risks and benefits.

Results from the programme indicated that the Free Agents programme was in general terms successful. Hiring managers and free agents were both satisfied with the programme, and most projects were successfully accomplished in shorter time spans. Furthermore, due to the success of the project, the specific department of Natural Resources Canada that was responsible for implementing the programme had to be scaled up to another department.

Source: OECD (2018a), “Case study: Free agents and GC Talent Cloud – Canada”,

Skills for public sector innovation

The LABgobar7 – a multi-disciplinary team which depends on the Undersecretariat of Public Innovation and Open Government of the SGM - provides project-specific assistance to ministries, provinces, decentralised agencies and municipalities to foster public sector innovation and bolster a culture of experimentation8 (Box 4.3). Indeed, the SGM’s leadership in this area was widely acknowledged by public sector organisations, as shown in the data collected through the institutional survey9 (OECD, 2018b).

Box 4.3. LABgobar

LABgobar is Argentina’s first innovation laboratory at the national level. The lab:

  • Aims to equip public servants with the appropriate skills to develop and implement public policies in innovative ways. The aim is for public sector organisations to adopt agile design and prototyping approaches for public policies and promote more open, digital, user-driven and evidence-based policies. Different initiatives have been implemented to increase capabilities within different areas and events are also organised to co-create solutions to various public problems.

  • Co-creates public policy solutions with other government teams. The lab had provided assistance in 40 projects as of February 2019.

  • Promotes open innovation by helping other public entities to identify challenges and make them open in order to leverage collective intelligence to co-create solutions. The objective is to stimulate creativity and the search for innovative solutions between public organisations and citizens.

The following principles are core to the lab’s way of working to carry out research on user needs, advise public sector organisations or design solutions:

  • To design user-driven policies, the lab carries out ethnographic research focused on studying the habits and behaviour of citizens with the government.

  • To guarantee evidence-based policy making, the lab creates prototypes to test public interventions to then analyse and document their effect. It then examines potential causes of error as well as the enabling conditions of the successes.

  • To foster collaboration, the lab identifies and creates working communities in order to strengthen the relationship between public servants and connect them with their common purpose. The lab also provides a cross-sectional view and leverages the specific knowledge of the government teams to build consensus and promote new solutions.

  • To increase learning by doing, the lab shares and creates new methodologies, concepts and practices within public sector institutions and generates skills, knowledge and motivation that allow innovation processes to be developed within organisations.

As of February 2019, the lab reported the following results:

  • number of innovation processes carried out: 21

  • number of proposals surveyed: 2 522

  • number of people impacted: 47 627

  • other areas of government involved: 21

  • federal activations (workshops and discussions carried out in different cities to federalise the processes): 61.

Sources: (n.d.), “LABgobar: Laboratorio de Gobierno”, (accessed on 18 February 2019); OECD (2018d), “Digital Government Survey 1.0”.

The Lab’s Design Academy of Public Policy – managed in co-ordination with INAP – provides a learning environment to establish and scale up innovation skills and tools in order to drive and grow an innovation-prone culture in public sector organisations. The academy has the mission of finding the best way to promote these skills in order to accelerate the transformation of public entities in Argentina.

Roughly 32 000 public officials took training courses at the lab’s Design Academy of Public Policy between 2016 and 2019, thereby providing evidence of Argentina’s progress towards the construction of an innovation-prone public sector.

The value of the lab, however, is at the moment marginal, as it works at the edge, and its innovations remain isolated best practices considering that they are difficult to mainstream across the whole public sector.

While the lab’s academy provides online courses and trainings aiming to democratise this knowledge and methodologies across the national territory, challenges remain in terms of scalability, to make innovation part of “business as usual”. Hence the need of reinforcing the role of the lab as a hub and incubator of ideas that can be mainstreamed, scaled up and measured in order to turn innovation capabilities into concrete actions and demonstrate real-world impact, beyond training activities.

For instance, there is a missed opportunity to further link the activities of the Undersecretary of Innovation and Open Government, including the lab, with the activities of the National Contracting Office to explore, adopt and implement design thinking approaches to the procurement and commissioning of digital services and products (see Chapter 3). So far, it seems that the lab is successful at developing innovation skills at the technical level, but challenges remain in relation to connecting the value of public sector innovation with other policy areas in a broader sense.

There might also be a need for revising what innovation skills are a priority for development. The prototyping of projects and policy solutions, continuous learning, and openness to new ideas are among those skills with either high and/or medium levels of priority for development. Yet, low-risk experimentation and testing on a larger scale could be further developed.

Also, while 18 out of 28 public sector organisations which provided a response to the institutional survey report their involvement on public sector innovation projects, only 2 report carrying out these projects in collaboration with an “innovation lab set up by the central/federal government” (LABgobar). Twelve of those organisations reported carrying out innovation activities in the context of “the innovation lab/department/centre of [their] own institution”10 (OECD, 2018b).

It is not clear, however, if the above-mentioned organisations make a clear distinction and understand the difference between digital public sector innovation and more traditional modernisation efforts (e.g. e-procurement, the digitisation of formalities, paperless government) as results from the survey suggest.

Figure 4.5. Level of priority given to the promotion and development of innovative approaches and skills
Figure 4.5. Level of priority given to the promotion and development of innovative approaches and skills

Source: OECD (2018b), “Digital Government Review of Argentina: Survey for Public Sector Organisations”.

References (n.d.), “LABgobar: Laboratorio de Gobierno”, (accessed on 18 February 2019).

Ministry of Modernisation (2018), “Plan Integral de RRHH de la Secretaría de Empleo Público – Ministerio de Modernización”, presentation during the OECD Peer Review Mission in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5-9 March 2018.

New Zealand Digital Skills Forum (2018), “Digital skills for a digital nation”, New Zealand Digital Skills Forum, (accessed on 14 February 2019).

OECD (2018a), “Case study: Free agents and GC Talent Cloud – Canada”, OECD, Paris,

OECD (2018b), “Digital Government Review of Argentina: Survey for Public Sector Organisations”, OECD, Paris.

OECD (2018c), “Digital Government Review of Argentina: Survey for the Policy Co-ordination Body”, OECD, Paris.

OECD (2018d), “Digital Government Survey 1.0”, OECD, Paris.

OECD (2018e), OECD Recommendation on Public Service Leadership and Capability, OECD, Paris,

OECD (2014), Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies, OECD, Paris,

SEP (2018), “Plan Integral de RRHH de la Secretaría de Empleo Público (SEP)”, presentation to the OECD peer review team in Buenos Aires, March.

UK GDS (2017), “Government Transformation Strategy: People, skills and culture”, policy paper, Government Digital Service, London, (accessed on 14 February 2019).


← 1. Question 30: How would you classify the level of priority given to the improvement of digital skills and competencies of civil servants in your country’s digital government agenda?

← 2. Question 31: Does your institution have specific policies in place to develop digital skills among public servants?

← 3. For more information see:

← 4. Questions 43: What is the most common scenario for ICT and digital government-related employment in your country’s public sector? Private sector employees move to the public sector/ private sector employees move to the public sector/inter-institutional movement from one public sector institution to another (intra-governmental); and Question 43a: In your view, for option 1 (public officials/government employees move to the private sector), what are the main reasons for this happening? There are more/better job opportunities in the private sector/private sector salaries are more competitive.

← 5. Questions 41, 41a and 42. Question 41/41a: How would you classify the level of priority given to the following actions as part of the digital agenda?. Question 42: Does your government have specific policies/strategies in place to pursue any of the following objectives?

← 6. For more information see:

← 7. For more information see:

← 8. See, for instance:

← 9. Question 32: Is there a public body (e.g. ministry, agency) in charge of promoting innovation inside the public sector?

← 10. Question 33: Is your institution involved in any projects for public sector innovation? and Question 33a: If yes, in what context(s) do the innovation projects take place?

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