9. Finland

  • In Finland as in other Nordic countries, the governance of the education system is shared between the central government, supported by various education agencies, municipalities, and education providers. In Finland the central government is thus only partially responsible for providing access to, supporting the uptake of, and regulating the use of, digital technology in education. Providing schools across all levels of education with access to digital tools designed for system management is its responsibility; but providing access to tools designed for institutional management or for teaching and learning purposes is devolved to municipalities (supported with central funding) and to schools themselves.

  • A cornerstone of Finland’s digital infrastructure in education is its student information system, KOSKI. It centralises the functionalities of a student register and of a platform for transferring, storing, and sharing education data, collected from schools. Along with the digital exam and its administration system, there are only a few digital tools that the central government mandates the use of; choices of additional tools (e.g. learning management system, digital teaching and learning resources) are left to municipalities and schools’ discretion, sometimes under regulation and guidance of the government’s agencies.

  • Finland has long invested in its digital hardware infrastructure which now ensures that all education stakeholders can at least have access to the ecosystem of digital tools on an equal basis. Further policies are now in place to support equal use of those tools: adapting curriculum requirements, providing professional learning opportunities, guiding procurements towards interoperability, etc.

In Finland, the Ministry of Education and Culture (hereinafter “the ministry”) is responsible for determining the policies and direction of the Finnish education system. It outlines the general education strategy, manages all operations financed with state budget, and prepares legislation and governmental decisions regarding education. The Finnish National Agency for Education oversees the development and execution of education policy. However, in Finland as in the other Nordic countries, the central government devolves certain responsibilities to municipalities (sometimes groups of municipalities in upper secondary education) that it guides with central legislation.1 Schools in Finland operate partly with central government funding but draw the majority of their budget (about two-thirds, depending on educational levels) from local taxes. This share is slightly lower than it is Sweden or Norway.

Public responsibilities for providing access to, supporting the uptake of, and regulating the use of digital technologies in education follow this devolved context, with part of the digital education infrastructure provided centrally and large bits acquired locally. The ministry provides schools across all levels of education with access to digital tools designed for system management, whose use is often compulsory; but providing access to tools designed for institutional management or for teaching and learning purposes is devolved to the municipalities and to schools themselves – resources that they can acquire, use and complement at their discretion.

The regulation around the access to and use of digital tools and resources in education in Finland is more centralised than their provision, as it revolves around a curriculum set at the national level. In general, the Finnish ministry is the authority that sets the national rules and guidelines in a more top-down manner than in neighbouring countries. Finnish municipalities and schools have a large degree of autonomy in decision-making (see their agency as regards teacher-training requirements below), and further guidelines may exist at the local level, but their power of governance is limited.

Finland published a digital education roadmap in 2015, when the ministry undertook the “digital leap” programme. The “digital leap” programme was the seventh and latest component of a long sustained digital education reform effort that started in the 1980s. It aimed to modernise further schools’ ICT infrastructure, allocate funding to increase teachers’ and students’ digital skills, develop teachers’ pre-service training and a digital champions’ model, and support the use of ICT for special education needs.

In 2023, the ministry published the Policies for the Digitalisation of Education and Training until 2027.2 It aims at making Finland the world's leading developer and user of sustainable digitalisation in teaching, education and training by 2027. As per this plan, digitalisation should promote equal opportunities for everyone to learn and develop; and support co-operation between actors and learning at different stages of life. The ministry has also launched a Framework for Digitalisation in Early Childhood Education and Care, Comprehensive School Education and Liberal Adult Education in 2023.3 The framework aims to develop the steering and co-ordination of digitalisation by defining the principles, targets and measures for seven different areas of digitalisation. The Policies for Digitalisation in Early Childhood Education and Care, Pre-primary and Comprehensive Education will be published in at the end of 2023.

Although it was not part of a formal digital education strategy, Finnish municipalities have significantly increased their expenditure on hardware infrastructure after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, to improve broadband and Wi-Fi connections in schools, and to distribute digital equipment to teachers and students (laptops or tablets for instance). Again, funding for this came from the central government and was available to public and private schools alike, as they are all government-dependent in Finland. Maintaining widespread and quality access to physical digital infrastructure (hardware) is set to remain one of the government’s priorities in the future.

Since January 2020, the digitalisation of the Finnish society as a whole is promoted and overseen by the Digital and Population Data Services Agency. This agency ensures a coherent uptake and use of digital technologies across different policy areas, mainly pertaining to civic life but also to education activities.4 In 2022, Finland published the Digital Compass, a national strategic roadmap extending to 2030 that provides an overview of Finland's digital transformation and provides the direction for national development work.5 The digital compass sets national targets for the effective use of digital systems so that Finland can succeed in the ongoing transformation. It strengthens the shared understanding of the benefits, concepts and direction of digitalisation and the data economy. It also includes targets for the digital literacy skills.

As a result of the decentralisation of public responsibility in education, the digital tools and resources that Finnish schools have access to are not solely provided by the central government. Municipalities share public responsibilities for providing and maintaining a digital infrastructure for education; and schools can add to their digital ecosystem by acquiring tools from private EdTech companies and publishers (sometimes in a “freemium model” where basic features are provided free of charge while more advanced features must be paid for), or by using free materials from external stakeholders such as philanthropists, education publishers, universities, and teachers.

This section reviews two aspects of the public digital infrastructure in Finland: digital tools for system and school management, and digital learning resources for teaching and learning.

The cornerstone of the Finnish digital infrastructure for system management is KOSKI, the student information system owned and used at the national level. The National Agency for Education launched KOSKI in 2018 to serve both as a national registry for primary and secondary education (including VET), and as a platform for sharing student data.6 KOSKI centralises the collection of various types of information (student attendance, progress, diplomas, certificates, study records, teacher-given grades, etc.) in a single data warehouse. The database, fed with data from schools’ student admission registers and from the national registry of matriculation examination, assigns a unique and longitudinal identifier to every student.

KOSKI data inform the central government’s transfer of funding to municipalities, as school funding is primarily calculated based on the number of students enrolled in each school. In that sense, KOSKI also serves the functionalities of an administrative function system. Further to that, KOSKI data are aggregated and displayed on Vipunen, the government’s public dashboard of educational statistics, and made readily available for download or consultation to any interested party.7 In the coming years, the National Agency for Education plans on providing analytics dashboards to school principals across all levels of education, for instance to allow them to better forecast and adjust their operations in comparison with other schools.

Beyond making data available to education stakeholders, KOSKI displays a level of data portability that allows other government institutions to access and use the data, including Statistics Finland, the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, or the Finnish Centre for Pensions. It is also well connected with non-governmental services promoted in Finland, such as MyData, a third-party digital passport. Thanks to the portability of KOSKI data, users can give consent to the National Agency for Education to transfer some of their personal information to MyData so that they can, for instance, attest that they are currently studying and benefit from student discount when they purchase a public transport card.8

Schools are required to transfer their student data to KOSKI twice a year – although there are plans to make the data transfer continuous in the future. Schools are offered two options: a manual transfer through KOSKI’s user interface; or an automatic transfer through the application programming interface (API) of their learning management system (LMS). However, learning management systems are not publicly provided by the central government in Finland; instead, the National Agency for Education – together with LocalFinland, the association of Finnish municipalities, provide guidance to schools and instructions to LMS providers so that they can ensure the interoperability of their tool with the KOSKI environment. For instance, most schools in Helsinki use Wilma, a learning management system provided by the municipality and licenced from a commercial provider.9 WILMA, as most other learning management systems used in Finland, is a web interface where students (and their parents, until students turn 18) can access information on their learning and their studies; and that school staff use to interact with other system-level administrative systems, especially KOSKI. In addition to Wilma, the ministry has subsidised the development of DigiOne, at national platform for the education ecosystem. DigiOne will enter the market in 2024 and some municipalities already envisioned to make it their learning management system.10

In addition to student information systems,11 the central government also maintains a platform called StudyInfo that acts both as a student admission management system and as a career and study guidance website for students applying to upper secondary education and VET.12 On the platform, students can find study programme information updated by schools and higher education institutions. They can then submit joint or separate applications online that Finnish institutions can review according to their pre-set admission criteria.

StudyInfo also hosts a range of other services such as eHOKS, a digital tool for planning professional studies dedicated to vocational education students and teachers; or Valpas, a monitoring and tracking service fed by data from KOSKI and StudyInfo that provides learners with a record of their enrolments and applications and facilitates their registration when relocating to a new school or returning to unfinished studies.

In 2012, Finland decided to digitise the matriculation exams taken at the end of secondary education to qualify for entry into higher education. The ministry collaborated procured the services of a private firm specialised in digital products to build a platform operating on the free and open access Linux operating system. After four years of research and development, in 2016 the first digital exams were held in subjects with a smaller number of candidates: geography, philosophy, and German language. By 2019, all matriculation exams were digitised.

Candidates can take the matriculation exams on their own laptop or borrow one from their schools. Whichever they opt for, all students have to access the Linux operating system from a thumb drive distributed by the matriculation board at the start of the exams. In this restrained, self-contained environment, candidates cannot access their local files or the Internet but only the pre-installed software and materials.13 There is no cloud-based architecture to minimise the risk of technical difficulties: both the assessments and students’ answers are saved on local severs, not connected to the Internet.

To support schools in this transition, the Matriculation Examination Board has developed Abitti, a digital system for exam administration.14 Abitti provides instructions and guidance on the administration of the digital exams and allows teachers and students to get accustomed to the digital environment before they take the exams. The exam digitalisation was accompanied by an extensive training programme, provided by the ministry in a waterfall approach: across the country, 50 teachers were trained on the platform during a series of workshops so that in turn they could champion this transition and disseminate their knowledge among their peers.

In addition to their high-stake, end-of-course exams, students in years 3 and 9 in Finland are also assessed on a random basis (at the school level) to monitor and evaluate the education system. The Finnish Education Evaluation Centre (FINEEC) is the independent agency responsible for evaluation, from early childhood education and care to higher education. It operates as an independent unit within the National Agency for Education. In 2014, FINEEC experimented with digitising the national evaluation of basic learning outcomes in primary education, traditionally held on paper. By 2017, it had fully digitalised all national evaluations that were taken on KODA, FINEEC’s own system for digital evaluation.15 As per its National Plan for Education Evaluation 2020-2023, plans are to develop new evaluation systems (to replace KODA) and methods to diversify tasks and allow for automated scoring.16

The majority of Finnish schools also have access to additional digital tools for system and school management that are not publicly provided by the central government. This is most notably the case of the customer relationship management system that schools use to communicate with parents, in those rare cases where they have no municipality-provided LMS to accommodate for that; or of the online library they have access to, as it is often the digital counterpart of a physical library in their geographical area (see Kiriasto (“Library”), a joint service available in four cities including Helsinki, or Koulukiriasto (“School library”), a programme to foster reading available in the city of Oulu).17 In both cases, the central government devolves the provision of those tools to municipalities, in collaboration with their libraries.

In Helsinki, AI-HOKS, an AI-based system has been developed and piloted to explore the use of an early warning system that may support VET students to graduate (and limit their risks of dropping out). It collects data and construct indicators based on personal competence development plans, login and use of various tools and learning environments, weekly mobile questionnaires sent to students’ cell phones, and students’ feedback, as a way to provide – after a couple of years of use and larger data sets are available – ethical learning analytics.

In Finland as in the other Nordic countries, the responsibility of the central government, in terms of the provision of digital tools and resources, generally stops at the door of the classroom. It is primarily the role of municipalities to provide their schools with teaching and learning resources (with central funding), and that role extends to digital resources. The central government steers the development from time to time with discretionary government grants that the education providers apply as they see fit.

In many municipalities, most textbooks are now provided in digital format. Both the printed and digital version are available, but schools tend to use either one or the other. According to the Finnish Publishers Association, nearly 80% of upper secondary education learning materials were digital as of 2023; and up to 82% in Helsinki, all education levels combined – but around 15% if considering all levels of education across the country. The Finnish Association for School Materials partners with the Finnish Publishers Association to bring together municipalities with commercial providers of resources. Most schools thus have access to static and interactive digital learning resources, including digital resources for students with special needs, as well as a variety of online assessment content.

Finnish teachers and students can also use digital teaching and learning resources that are openly available to the general public. Several of those are provided or curated by the central government. There are public TV education programmes for instance, although no longer aired on TV since schools reopened after the COVID-19 crisis, but available for replay on a web platform;18 as well as open education resources (OER), such as the ones curated by the newly established Finnish Library of OER, aoe.fi, jointly developed by the ministry and the National Agency for Education.19 The service is intended for all levels of education and seeks to support lifelong learning. The agency also maintains a website for teacher development, with examples of teaching practices, opportunities for training, blog posts, etc.20

Other, non-governmental actors make digital resources available for free. For instance, some Finnish universities provide MOOCs (e.g. MOOC.fi, hosted by the University of Helsinki MOOC Centre) that learners and teachers can use at their will, and organisations such as EdTech Finland (the Finnish association of education technology industries) and the Finnish Publishers Association provide teaching resources and social media channels for teachers.

Furthermore, The National Library of Finland maintains and develops a national service, Finna.fi, which is a search service that collects material from hundreds of Finnish organisations under one roof, free of charge.21 The service includes material that is available online in a variety of formats and enables the search for information from library and archive material that has not been digitised or with limited access.

Providing a public digital education infrastructure or funding to use digital resources does not necessarily imply that stakeholders will use them. Different rules and policies can therefore ensure access to digital technologies in education, as well as support and govern their use.

In Finland, as in neighbouring Nordic countries, the government aims to provide equal access to education and educational resources – and no student groups are marked as a policy priority. Government funding for education (about 22% of schools budget) is proportional to the number of students enrolled in government-dependent schools (public or private), and municipalities generally provide all students with the same materials. For example, in upper secondary education, most municipalities buy all students a computer and make learning materials (most of which are digital) available for free, in line with the education legislation.22

However, having equitable access to hardware infrastructure does not necessarily lead to equity in its use. TALIS data found that teachers in Finnish private schools used ICT in their teaching more regularly than their peers in public schools (+7 percentage points) and felt better able to support student learning through the use of digital technology (+8 percentage points).23 One way to ensure a minimal use of digital technologies for teaching and learning across all country’s schools is to integrate the development of digital competences into the national curriculum, as is described in the sections below.

For the ministry, there exist direct and indirect means to support the use of digital tools at the system, school, and classroom levels. When it concerns tools for system management, the ministry simply imposes the use of many of the tools that it provides (e.g. the student information system, the student admission management system, the digital exam system). When it concerns tools for school management or for teacher and learning purposes, whose provision is mostly devolved to municipalities (e.g. learning management systems, digital learning resources), the ministry supports their procurement through several means. First, schools being partly state-funded, the ministry provides non-earmarked subsidies that municipalities can use for those procurements. Second, under the lead of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment (MEAE), the central government provides general guidance on procurement as enacted by the Acts on public contracts. The MEAE and the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities jointly maintain the Public Procurement Advisory Unit, whose role is to provide contracting authorities at a lower level of government (e.g. municipalities in education) with information and advice on the application of procurement legislation. Third, the ministry incentivises the interoperability of the various tools procured by municipalities, for instance by encouraging Finnish EdTech companies to sell tools that accepts MPASSid, the national single sign-on (SSO) service. There is no formal or regulatory criterion but it has become a standard practice in procurement, as well as in the development of new digital tools such as the DigiOne LMS mentioned above.

In addition, the ministry provides guidance on the use of centrally provided tools (for instance through the National Agency for Education’s platform for teacher development mentioned above), as well as professional learning opportunities and training to teachers. On a yearly basis, the agency allocates around EUR 15 million for this, to cover for the compensation of school staff and incentivise schools with grants. At a more local level, the agency offered guidance by providing funding to municipalities so that they can hire digital tutors whose role is to champion and share advice with their peers on the use of digital resources for teaching and learning. Funding for this was limited and subject to a competitive funding programme. It ended in 2022, but many municipalities continue to fund this activity.

Finally, Finland conducts monitoring and evaluation studies to quantify and map the use of digital technologies across the country and identify shortages or inadequacies, but they are not specific to education hence not undertaken by the ministry or the National Agency for Education.

Finland aims to engage all education actors in the digital transformation of the system and developing teachers’ digital literacy is one way to achieve this. However, the central government does not decide what competencies teachers must acquire in their preservice training as this falls within the remit of universities that set their own curricula. TALIS data from 2018 show that using ICT for teaching featured in just over half (56%) of lower secondary teachers’ formal training – a proportion on par with the OECD average, and evenly distributed across city and rural areas, or private and public schools. Similarly, the central government does not decide what competencies teachers must develop as part of their in-service training as this is only stipulated in the contract they sign with their employers and the municipalities. Therefore, Finnish municipalities hold a key policy lever for cultivating teachers’ digital literacy as they can provide incentives towards certain types of training, such as training in teaching with digital technology. In the year 2017, 74% of teachers reported that they took part in professional development in ICT skills, way above the OECD average (60%). Municipalities are also the preferred interlocutors of parents in the public conversation around the use of data and digital technology in school, although the National Agency for Education can also assume at the central level. this role in the form of online Q&A.

The central government uses another lever to foster students’ and – indirectly – teachers’ digital literacy: it updates the national curricula. In 2016, a transversal “ICT competence” was integrated as a learning outcome into the curriculum of primary and lower secondary education. Fostering ICT competence is not taught as a subject on its own, but rather as a cross-curricular activity taught as part of other subjects. Typically, this has often translated into adding programming exercises in mathematics (starting from year 1) and crafts (from year 3), up to algorithmic computing in years 7 to 9. Practical descriptions of what those curriculum changes imply are not normative, but they work as a framework to support municipalities in their planning and guide hiring and in-service training.

In addition, the Finnish National Agency for Education’s national framework for digital competence steers the digital ecosystem in teaching and learning by describing competence as well as good pedagogical practices in media literacy, computational thinking and digital competence in early childhood education and care, primary and lower secondary education.24 The descriptions have been widely adopted by educators.

Since 2012, Finland also has a public authority with a statutory duty to promote media education nationally: the Finnish National Audio-visual Institute (KAVI).25 KAVI develops media education practices and models as well as supports the media education readiness of the educators, for example by maintaining an online Media Literacy School.26 The site provides information on media education, the media culture of children as well as materials for media education. Furthermore, KAVI supports the provision of versatile and safe media content meant for children, and work in active co-operation with the actors in the media field.

As is the case across European Union countries, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (EU GDPR) and its translation and supplementation as a national Data Protection Act defines the largest part of Finland’s regulation around the protection of data and privacy, in education as well as in other sectors.27 In education, the ministry additionally shares guidelines that are specific to the protection of students’ and teachers’ personal data and their privacy, and the National Agency for Education has released a “privacy guide” to support stakeholders in personal data processing.28 Conversely, the ministry has also set up rules and guidelines to ensure that authorised researchers can access and use education data under similar conditions, and to allow public or private research and development (R-D) agencies to access and use educational administrative data – providing that data re-identification is impossible.

Finland’s regulation of digital education places a strong emphasis on interoperability with a view to connecting the different tools that compose the Finnish digital education infrastructure, whether they are publicly provided or not. When the student information system KOSKI was set up and rolled out across the country, its implementation was supported by rules and guidelines on the use of open standards for educational data to improve data transfer between schools (e.g. from learning management systems procured from private providers by municipalities) and the central government. Similarly, in upper secondary education the ministry accompanied the digitalisation of the matriculation exams with a number of rules and guidelines about the use of specific technical standards, ensuring that everyone could take the exams from their own or rented devices through a common, open operating software (Linux) accessible via a simple flash drive. Finally, as most other OECD countries have done recently, Finland developed its own single sign-on service (MPASSid) to facilitate teachers and students’ access to education and service providers’ tools. Finland also engages in or promotes international initiatives to facilitate interoperability, in particular with the European Union.

The 2019 Act on Information Management in Public Administration embodies the objectives that the central government pursues in the governance of its own data. It establishes the need for harmonised, open, secure and efficient data processing and use across various public authorities, and for interoperability across information systems and datasets.

Developing a national education technology ecosystem presents challenges both to develop appropriate local tools and to incentivise relevant innovation by external stakeholders. Providing incentives, supporting R-D, funding education technology start-ups are part of the typical innovation portfolio countries could consider.

The Finnish ministry supports academic research on digital technology in education. To facilitate the use of education data (within the legal framework discussed above), researchers have access to documented datasets collected by Statistics Finland, by the ministry and by the National Agency for Education (in large part via KOSKI) which are publicly available on Education Statistics Finland’s dashboard.29 The 2023 Policies for the Digitalisation of Education and Training until 2027 call for the national register data base to be up-to-date and of high quality. All data resources are set to form an information infrastructure, which will enable digital tools for research and data utilisation to be developed accordingly. Going forward, the data sets and results are to be described in a compiled, comprehensive and uniform manner, as well as easily available and actionable.

Universities or public research agencies conduct research on education, sometimes with the support of government’s funding programmes; however, they do not focus solely on digital education. Instead, the government prefers to commission academic research papers on digital education on an ad-hoc basis. This includes research on the use of digital technologies to improve learning outcomes and teaching, to support students with special needs, to improve assessment and to better predict school dropout with early warning systems.30

The ministry of economic affairs and employment provides public funding for R-D. Business Finland, the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation, channels this funding to undertake transformative projects in the Finnish economy. One of these funds (EUR 5 million) was aimed to develop to create a national digital service platform and education ecosystem (DigiOne). The central government either develops EdTech tools in its own public agencies (e.g. the digital exams and its administration system, developed by the matriculation examination board) or it gives autonomy to municipalities and schools themselves to collaborate with EdTech companies and their association, EdTech Finland.

In its future activities, the central government does not envision to provide – or support the provision of – new types of digital tools. Instead, it aims to further develop KOSKI, the student information system, and Abitti, the digital system for administrating the matriculation exam. As is the case in other OECD countries where the public responsibility for providing digital education infrastructure is largely devolved to lower level of governments (except for system management tools), the central government will focus on setting up policies that connect the different tools of the digital ecosystem and support their use in a digitally skilled population.

Notes

← 1. Upper secondary education and VET can also be organised by (private) registered communities or by foundations. In some cases, VET is also offered by the government or state-owned enterprises.

← 2. Policies for the digitalisation of education and training until 2027: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-263-963-9

← 3. Framework for Digitalisation in Early Childhood Education and Care, Comprehensive School Education and Liberal Adult Education: https://okm.fi/en/project?tunnus=OKM013:00/2022

← 4. Digital and Population Data Services Agency: https://dvv.fi/en/-/digi-ja-vaestotietovirasto-aloittaa-1-1-2020-yhteiskunnan-digitalisaation-uusi-suunnannayttaja-helpottaa-kansalaisten-arkea

← 5. Government report: Digital Compass: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-383-609-9

← 6. KOSKI: https://www.oph.fi/sites/default/files/documents/Mikkonen_koski_en_25012021.pdf

← 7. Vinunen: https://vipunen.fi/fi-fi

← 8. MyData: https://oldwww.mydata.org/portfolio/mydata-breaking-through-in-political-level/

← 9. Wilma: https://www.wilma.fi/

← 10. DigiOne: https://www.digione.fi/digione-eng/

← 11. Finland also uses a student information system in early childhood education and care (VARDA) and in higher education (VIRTA).

← 12. StudyInfo: https://opintopolku.fi/konfo/en/

← 13. Digital Matriculation Exams: https://www.ylioppilastutkinto.fi/en/matriculation-examination/digital-matriculation-examination

← 14. Abitti: https://www.abitti.fi/

← 15. KODA: https://karvi.fi/esi-ja-perusopetus/digitaalinen-oppimistulosten-arviointi/

← 16. National Education Evaluation Plan 2020-2023: https://karvi.fi/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/National-Education-Plan_2022-2023_updated-S2022_web.pdf

← 17. Kiriasto in Helsinki: https://www.helmet.fi/fi-FI; Koulukirjasto in Oulu: https://www.ouka.fi/oulu/kirjastoreitti/oulun-koulukirjasto

← 18. TV Education: https://areena.yle.fi/tv/ohjelmat/57-6AXjXXPdl

← 19. Library of Open Educational Resources: https://aoe.fi/#/etusivu

← 20. Website for teacher development: https://www.oph.fi/fi/opettajille

← 21. Finna.fi: https://www.finna.fi/

← 22. Law: https://finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2020/20201214#L4P16

← 23. TALIS : Mending the Education Divide: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/d8a3978a-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/d8a3978a-en#section-d1e11602. In Finland, no data were collected to measure possible gaps between socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged students.

← 24. The Framework for Digital Competence: https://eperusteet.opintopolku.fi/#/en/digiosaaminen/8706410/tekstikappale/8709071

← 25. KAVI: https://kavi.fi/en/

← 26. Media Literacy School: https://www.mediataitokoulu.fi/en/

← 27. Data Protection Act: https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2018/20181050

← 28. Privacy Guide: https://www.oph.fi/fi/tietosuojaopas

← 29. Data documentation on Education Statistics Finland : https://vipunen.fi/en-gb/Pages/Tietosis%C3%A4lt%C3%B6.aspx

← 30. See for instance the work of the Research Group for Education, Assessment and Learning (REAL): https://www.researchreal.fi/en/projects/digivoo-project/; or the research conducted by the University of Oulu: https://www.oulu.fi/en/research/digitalization-and-smart-society

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