Indicator B1. Who participates in education?

Highlights
  • On average across OECD countries, around 70% of 17-18 year-olds are enrolled in upper secondary education (more than 40% in general programmes and around 30% in vocational programmes). In most countries, students in this age group are not typically enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary programs.

  • More than 40% of 19-20 year-olds are enrolled in tertiary programmes in almost half of OECD countries. Enrolment in tertiary education peaks among those aged 21-22 in about one-third of countries, while only in Denmark does enrolment reach its highest level at the age of 23-24.

  • Enrolment in bachelor's programmes is more prevalent than enrolment in other programmes at the tertiary level. The average enrolment rate across OECD countries in bachelor’s programmes reaches 32% among 20-21 year-olds.

Figure B1.1. Tertiary enrolment rates from age 19 to age 28 (2017)
Students in full-time and part-time programmes in both public and private institutions
Figure B1.1. Tertiary enrolment rates from age 19 to age 28 (2017)

1. Year of reference 2016.

2. Underestimated due to many resident students enrolled in neighbouring countries.

Countries are ranked in descending order of enrolment rates at ages 19 to 20.

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787888933977695

Context

Pathways through education can be diverse, both across countries and for different individuals within the same country. Experiences in primary and secondary education are probably the most similar across countries. Compulsory education is usually relatively homogeneous as pupils progress through primary and lower secondary education, but as people have different abilities, needs and preferences, most education systems try to offer different types of education programmes and modes of participation, especially at the more advanced levels of education, including upper secondary and tertiary education.

Ensuring that people have suitable opportunities to attain adequate levels of education is a critical challenge and depends on their ability to progress through the different levels of an educational system. Developing and strengthening both general and vocational education at upper secondary level can make education more inclusive and appealing to individuals with different preferences and aptitudes. Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are an attractive option for youth who are more interested in practical occupations and for those who want to enter the labour market earlier (OECD, 2019[1]). In many education systems, VET enables some adults to reintegrate into a learning environment and develop skills that will increase their employability.

To some extent, the type of upper secondary programme students attended conditions their educational tracks. Successful completion of upper secondary programmes gives students access to post-secondary non-tertiary education programmes, where available, or to tertiary education. Upper secondary vocational education and post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are mostly vocational in nature, can allow students to enter the labour market earlier, but higher levels of education often lead to higher earnings and better employment opportunities (see Indicators A3 and A4). Tertiary education has become a key driver of today’s economic and societal development. The deep changes that have occurred in the labour market over the past decades suggest that better-educated individuals have (and will continue to have) an advantage as the labour market becomes increasingly knowledge-based. As a result, ensuring that a large share of the population has access to a high-quality tertiary education capable of adapting to a fast-changing labour market are some of the main challenges tertiary educational institutions, and educational systems more generally, face today.

Other findings

  • There are various types of bachelor’s and master’s programmes. Three-to-four-year bachelor’s degrees account for 72% of students at bachelor’s and master’s level on average across the OECD.

  • Part-time enrolment in tertiary education varies across levels: on average across OECD countries in 2017, 16% of students in bachelor’s programmes were part time, compared to 21% in master’s and doctoral programmes, and 26% in short-cycle tertiary programmes.

  • Across the 23 countries that are both members of the European Union and the OECD, enrolment of tertiary students in public institutions (77%) is higher than the average across OECD countries (71%). Among all OECD countries, only Belgium, Chile, Estonia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Latvia and the United Kingdom had less than half of students enrolled in public institutions in 2017, compared to 95% or more in Canada, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg and Saudi Arabia.

Analysis

Compulsory education

In OECD countries, compulsory education typically begins with primary education, starting at the age of 6. However, in about one-third of OECD and partner countries, compulsory education begins earlier while in Estonia, Finland, Indonesia, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and South Africa, compulsory education does not begin until the age of 7. Compulsory education ends with the completion or partial completion of upper secondary education at 16 on average across OECD countries, ranging from 14 in Korea and Slovenia to 18 in Belgium, Chile, Germany and Portugal. In the Netherlands, there is a partial compulsory education (i.e. pupils must attend some form of education for at least two days a week) from age 16 to 18 or until when they complete a diploma. However, high enrolment rates extend beyond the end of compulsory education in a number of countries. On average across OECD countries, full enrolment (the age range when at least 90% of the population are enrolled in education) lasts 14 years from the age of 4 to the age of 17. For most countries the period of full enrolment lasts 11-16 years in most countries and reaches 17 years in Norway. Full enrolment is shorter in Costa Rica, Indonesia and Turkey and can be as short as four years in Colombia.

In almost all OECD countries, the enrolment rate among 4-5 year-olds in education exceeded 90% in 2017. Enrolment at an early age is relatively common in the OECD area, with about one-third of countries achieving full enrolment for 3-year-olds. In Iceland and Norway, full enrolment is also achieved for 2-year-olds (see Indicator B2). In other countries, full enrolment is achieved for children at the age of 5, except in Finland, the Slovak Republic and Turkey where full enrolment is achieved at age 6, and in Colombia at age 9.

In all OECD countries, compulsory education comprises primary and lower secondary programmes. In most countries, compulsory education also covers, at least partially, upper secondary education, depending on the theoretical age range associated with the different levels of education in each country. In OECD countries, there is nearly universal coverage of basic education, as enrolment rates among 6-14 year-olds attained or exceeded 95% in all OECD and partner countries except Colombia (88%).

Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education pathways

Upper secondary education is typically designed to prepare students for tertiary education, to provide them with the skills to enter the labour market, or both. Programmes at this level offer students more varied, specialised and in-depth instruction than at lower secondary level. Students typically enter this level between 14 and 16 years of age, and these programmes usually end 12 or 13 years after the beginning of primary school. Therefore, this educational level accounts for most of the enrolment of 15-19 year-olds. The duration of upper secondary education varies from two years in Australia, Ireland, Lithuania and the Russian Federation to five years in Italy.

While general education is designed to develop learners’ general knowledge and competencies, often to prepare them for more advanced education programmes, vocational education and training programmes are considered effective at developing skills directly applicable to the labour market. Upper secondary vocational education tracks prepare participants for direct entry into specific occupations and attract a diverse range of students, including youths seeking technical skills to start work, adults wishing to increase their employability and students who may pursue higher education at a later stage (OECD, 2019[1]). Countries with well-established VET and apprenticeship programmes have been more effective in holding the line on youth unemployment (OECD, 2018[2]). However, some countries consider vocational education a less attractive option than academic education, and some research suggests that participation in vocational education increases the risk of unemployment at later ages (Hanushek, Woessmann and Zhang, 2011[3]).

Figure B1.2. OECD average enrolment rates by level of study (2017)
Students in full-time and part-time programmes in both public and private institutions
Figure B1.2. OECD average enrolment rates by level of study (2017)

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933977714

On average across OECD countries, 42% of students in upper secondary education were enrolled in vocational upper secondary programmes. The distribution of upper secondary students by programme orientation largely depends on the education programmes available, as well as the labour-market outcomes of these programmes. In about one-third of countries with available data, more upper secondary students are enrolled in vocational than in general programmes, reaching at least 70% in the Czech Republic, Finland and Slovenia.

Participation in upper secondary vocational education is highest between the ages of 15 to 19, reaching its peak among 17 year-olds (31% enrolment on average across OECD countries), but it is less concentrated than in general programmes. Participation in general programmes is generally higher and covers a narrower age range, between 15 and 18 years of age (Figure B1.2).

Enrolment in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes is much more spread out over a wider age range. Post-secondary non-tertiary education provides knowledge, skills and competencies with less complexity than those characteristic of tertiary education, but building on secondary education. Programmes at this level prepare students for labour-market entry as well as tertiary education (UNESCO-UIS, 2012[4]). The majority of students enrol in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes between the ages of 18 and 22, although enrolment typically remains low (Figure B1.2).

Transition to tertiary education

Tertiary programmes account for most of the participation in education between the ages of 20 and 29, including short-cycle, bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral programmes. Tertiary education builds on secondary education, providing learning activities in specialised fields of education. It aims at learning with a high level of complexity and specialisation. Tertiary education includes what is commonly understood as academic education but also includes advanced vocational or professional education.

Programme orientation at the upper secondary level tends to influence enrolment patterns in tertiary education (see Indicator B5). Countries with a greater participation of 15-19 year-olds in upper secondary general programmes than in vocational tracks tend to have higher enrolment rates in tertiary education. This is the case for example in France, Greece, Ireland, Korea and the United States where participation in tertiary education is over 50% among 19-20 year-olds, and at least 40% of 15-19 year-olds (up to 100% in the United States) were enrolled in general upper secondary programmes in 2017. There are notable exceptions, however: in Belgium, the Netherlands and Slovenia more than half of all 15-19 year-old students were enrolled in vocational programmes but tertiary enrolment rates for 19-22 year-olds were above the OECD average in the same period.

Countries can be divided into three groups based on the age when students typically transition into tertiary education.

  • Transition to tertiary education occurs mostly at age 19-20: the OECD and partner countries with the highest participation in tertiary education are also the ones in which students’ transition into tertiary education tends to occur at a younger age. In about half of OECD and partner countries, participation in tertiary education among 19-20 year-olds is 40% or more and in France, Ireland, Korea, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States, enrolment rates for this age group are at least 10 percentage points higher than among 21-22 year-olds. Korea, with 71% of 19-20 year-olds in tertiary education is well above the other countries (Figure B1.1).

  • Transition to tertiary education occurs mostly at age 19-22: on average across OECD countries, 37% of 19-20 year-olds and 21-22 year-olds were enrolled in tertiary education in 2017. Enrolment rates in these two age groups are also very similar and close to the OECD average in a number of countries, including Argentina, Austria, Italy, Estonia and the Netherlands.

  • Transition to tertiary education occurs mostly at age 21-22: transition into tertiary education begins a bit later and tertiary enrolment rates peak among 21-22 year-olds in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland and the Slovak Republic, as well as in Norway, Poland and Turkey where enrolment exceeds 40%. In addition, in Finland, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland, participation in tertiary education among 21-22 year-olds is similar to the rate among 23-24 year-olds. Denmark is the only country where enrolment in tertiary education peaks among 23-24 year-olds. Various factors can influence a later entrance to tertiary education (see Indicator B4).

Tertiary education pathways

The share of students enrolled in each tertiary education level and at each age illustrates the different educational systems and pathways in countries. As students get older, they enrol in bachelor’s programmes and can then move on to higher educational levels, including master’s programmes from the age of 20 (or earlier in case of long first degrees, see Box B1.1), and doctoral programmes from the age of 25. Depending on the structure of the educational system, students across the OECD may also enrol in short-cycle tertiary programmes from the age of 17.

Short-cycle tertiary programmes are often designed to provide participants with professional knowledge, skills and competencies; these practically based programmes prepare students to enter the labour market, but may also provide a pathway to other tertiary education programmes. The OECD average enrolment rate for these programmes peaks at age 18-21, reaching between 4% and 5%. These programmes are not offered in some countries such as Estonia, Finland, Greece and Lithuania. However, enrolment rates in short-cycle tertiary programs are more similar to those in bachelor’s programmes in countries like Canada, Chile, France, Korea, the Russian Federation, Spain, Turkey and the United States. In these countries, enrolment of 19-20 year-olds in these programmes exceeds 10%. The typical enrolment period (for which at least 50% of students at this level are enrolled) lasts between two years (France) and seven years (Turkey).

Enrolment in bachelor's programmes is more prevalent than enrolment in other programmes at the tertiary level. They are designed to provide participants with intermediate academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies, leading to a first degree or equivalent qualification. In most OECD countries, the typical age range over which students enrol in bachelor’s programmes lasts 4-5 years, starting from age 18 or 19, although participation at this level may start later (at 21 or 22) in a number of countries like Denmark, Iceland and Israel. Only in Belgium, France, Ireland, Lithuania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia and the United Kingdom do the typical enrolment ages exactly reflect the typical duration of bachelor’s programmes, which is usually three years. The average enrolment rate across OECD countries in bachelor’s programmes peaks between the ages of 19 and 22, reaching 32% among 20-21 year-olds. Overall enrolment patterns at this level strongly mirror those at tertiary level more generally.(

Master’s programmes are designed to provide advanced academic or professional knowledge, skills and competencies and may have a substantial research component. They are less prevalent than bachelor’s in OECD countries, where the average enrolment rate remains below 10%: among 22-26 year-olds enrolment rates range between 5% and 9%, peaking at the age of 23. In 2017, at least 10% of the population aged 21-22 were enrolled in master’s programmes in Belgium, France, Italy, Poland Portugal, the Russian Federation and Sweden. The enrolment rate for 23-24 year-olds is higher than for 21-22 year-olds on average across OECD countries and it reached 15% in France and Italy and more in the Czech Republic (17%), Poland (20%), the Slovak Republic (17%) and Slovenia (20%).

Box B1.1. Types of bachelor’s and master’s programmes

There are various types of bachelor’s and master’s programmes. First short degrees at bachelor’s level (i.e. with a cumulative theoretical duration of three to four years) are the most popular type of programme in OECD and partner countries and account for 72% of students at bachelor’s and master’s level on average across the OECD and at least 90% of students at these levels in Brazil, Korea and Mexico (Figure B1.a). Across OECD countries, only 13% of all students at bachelor’s and master’s level are enrolled in a first short master’s programme following a bachelor’s degree. Enrolling in these programmes is particularly uncommon in Brazil, Colombia, Japan, Mexico and New Zealand, accounting for less than 10% of all bachelor’s and master’s students (Figure B1.a).

First degrees may take longer than four years and may award qualifications either at bachelor’s or, more often, at master’s level, depending on the field of study and the setup of the tertiary education system in each country. Their longer duration is due to the greater complexity of content. Long first degrees, especially at master’s level, cover highly specialised professional studies of greater cumulative duration (e.g. medicine, dentistry, architecture, law or engineering). All first degrees in Colombia are long and 91% of all bachelor’s and master’s students were enrolled in this type of programme in 2017. Other than Colombia, these programmes are popular in France, Italy, Portugal and Sweden where the share of students enrolled at these levels equalled or exceeded 19% in the same year.

In addition to first bachelor’s and master’s programmes, students in tertiary education may enrol in second or further degree programmes, which are typically 1-2 years long at bachelor’s level and 1-4 years of (often professionally oriented) full-time study at master’s level (UNESCO-UIS, 2012[4]). Second or further degrees are more uncommon in OECD countries, although they equal or exceed 10% of bachelor’s and master’s students in New Zealand and Poland at bachelor’s level and in Luxembourg at master’s level. In New Zealand, for example, these generally relate to professionally oriented one-year post-bachelor’s programmes in a specific field.

Recognised intermediate qualifications from the successful completion of stages of programmes (prior to completing a first degree) which are insufficient for full completion of a level may be classified at a lower attainment level or simply classified as insufficient for level completion. An example of the latter are the classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (higher school preparatory classes) in France, which are not recognised as degrees but rather prepare students for a degree programmes (e.g. in the fields of business or engineering).

Figure B1.a. Share of bachelor's and master's students by educational programme (2017)
Students in full-time and part-time programmes in both public and private institutions
Figure B1.a. Share of bachelor's and master's students by educational programme (2017)

Note: Long first degrees and programmes insufficient for level completion include programmes classified at both bachelor's and master's levels.

1. Excludes private institutions at short-cycle tertiary level.

2. Master's following a bachelor's programme include second or further bachelor's degrees.

Countries are ranked in descending order of the share of students enrolled in first bachelor's degrees or equivalent programmes.

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933977752

Profile of tertiary students

Public institutions tend to dominate enrolments across tertiary education levels. In general across OECD countries, while the relative share of enrolment in public institutions tends to fall with higher educational levels from primary to tertiary education (OECD, 2018[2]), the opposite is true within tertiary education, where enrolment in public institutions increases with each higher level.

On average across OECD countries in 2017, 71% of students in tertiary education were enrolled in public institutions, compared to 77% on average across the EU23. Among all OECD and partner countries, only Belgium, Estonia, Israel, Latvia and the United Kingdom have more than 50% of students enrolled in government-dependent private institutions and only Brazil, Chile, Japan and Korea have more than 50% of students in independent private institutions. In contrast, 95% of tertiary students or more were enrolled in public institutions in 2017 in Canada, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg and Saudi Arabia (Figure B1.3).

The share of students enrolled in public institutions varies by level of education. On average across the OECD, 60% of students in short-cycle tertiary programmes are enrolled in public institutions compared to 69% for bachelor’s programmes. In some countries, the share of students enrolled in public institutions is much larger in short-cycle tertiary programmes than at bachelor’s level. This is the case in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Israel, Latvia and Mexico, where the difference between these levels is equal to or exceeds 30 percentage points.

Figure B1.3. Share of tertiary students enrolled by type of institution (2017)
Students in full-time and part-time programmes
Figure B1.3. Share of tertiary students enrolled by type of institution (2017)

1. Excludes private institutions at short-cycle tertiary level.

2. Year of reference 2016.

Countries are ranked in descending order of share of tertiary students enrolled in public institutions.

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933977733

The share of master’s students in public institutions is 1 percentage point higher than at bachelor’s level on average across OECD countries. However, the difference equals or exceeds 25 percentage points or more in Brazil, Finland and Japan. In contrast, in some countries a smaller share of students is enrolled in public institutions in master’s programmes than at bachelor’s level: in Estonia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and the United States, the share of students in public institutions at master’s programmes is at least 15 percentage points lower than at bachelor’s level. In doctoral programmes, the average share of enrolment in public institutions increases by 8 percentage points compared to master’s programmes, reaching 78% in 2017 on average across OECD countries and 100% in 15 OECD and partner countries. Only in Costa Rica, Estonia, Israel and Latvia are the majority of doctoral students enrolled in private institutions (in Estonia, Israel and Latvia more than 9 out of 10 doctoral students enrolled in government-dependent private institutions).

The share of part-time enrolment increases with higher levels of education and with the average age of students enrolled (OECD, 2018[2]). However, this varies across different tertiary education levels: on average across OECD countries in 2017, 16% of students in bachelor’s programmes were part time, 21% in master’s and doctoral programmes and 26% in short-cycle tertiary programmes (Table B1.3). However, there are stark disparities between countries. The share of part-time students in bachelor programmes ranges from 2% or less in the Czech Republic and Luxembourg as well as in countries where bachelor’s programmes do not allow part-time study at this level (Austria, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, France, Greece, Italy, Mexico and Turkey), to 49% in the Russian Federation and 53% in Sweden. The share of part-time students reaches its peak for master’s programmes in New Zealand (63%) and for doctorates in Finland, Germany, Norway and Slovenia, where at least 75% of doctoral students are enrolled part time.

Subnational variations in enrolment

Subnational variation in enrolment patterns reveal the equality of access to education across a country, as well as labour-market opportunities and perceptions of lifelong learning for levels beyond compulsory education. Between the ages of 6 and 14 (corresponding to compulsory education in many countries) and 15 to 19 (when students transition to the labour market or to tertiary education), subnational differences are lower than for other ages, with coefficients of variation across regions lower than 20% in all countries with subnational data.

On average across all countries with subnational data and across age groups from the age of 6, the largest variation in enrolment at subnational level can be observed for older age groups. While regional differences in enrolment levels for 20-29 year-olds are relatively low in Estonia, Germany and Sweden, the coefficient of variation shows considerable variation and exceeds 80% in the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania and the Slovak Republic. Latvia also has the highest ratio between the highest and lowest enrolment rates at subnational level for this age group.

Subnational disparities in enrolment increase among 30-39 year-olds. The variation is especially high in Greece, Latvia and the Slovak Republic, where the coefficient of regional variation exceeds 70%. The enrolment rate for older adults (40-64 year-olds) are relatively low, reaching 2% on average across OECD countries. Regional differences at this age are still observed across countries with available data, particularly in Greece and Latvia, where the ratio between the highest and lowest enrolment rates across regions increases the most for this age group compared to the one for 30-39 year-olds (OECD, 2019[5]).

Definitions

The data in this indicator cover formal education programmes that represent at least the equivalent of one semester (or half of a school/academic year) of full-time study and take place entirely in educational institutions or are delivered as combined school- and work-based programmes.

Full enrolment, for the purposes of this indicator, is defined as enrolment rates exceeding 90%.

General education programmes are designed to develop learners’ general knowledge, skills and competencies, often to prepare them for other general or vocational education programmes at the same or a higher education level. General education does not prepare people for employment in a particular occupation, trade or class of occupations or trades.

Vocational education and training (VET) programmes prepare participants for direct entry into specific occupations without further training. Successful completion of such programmes leads to a vocational or technical qualification that is relevant to the labour market.

Private institutions are those controlled and managed by a non-governmental organisation (e.g. a church, a trade union or a business enterprise, foreign or international agency), or their governing board consists mostly of members not selected by a public agency. Private institutions are considered government-dependent if they receive more than 50% of their core funding from government agencies or if their teaching personnel are paid by a government agency. Independent private institutions receive less than 50% of their core funding from government agencies and their teaching personnel are not paid by a government agency.

A full-time student is someone who is enrolled in an education programme whose intended study load amounts to at least 75% of the normal full-time annual study load. A part-time student is one who is enrolled in an education programme whose intended study load is less than 75% of the normal full-time annual study load.

Methodology

Except where otherwise noted, figures are based on head counts, because of the difficulty for some countries to quantify part-time study. Net enrolment rates are calculated by dividing the number of students of a particular age group enrolled in all levels of education by the size of the population of that age group. While enrolment and population figures refer to the same period in most cases, mismatches may occur due to data availability in some countries resulting in enrolment rates exceeding 100%.

For more information, please see the OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics 2018: Concepts, Standards, Definitions and Classifications (OECD, 2018[6]) and Annex 3 for country-specific notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Source

Data refer to the academic year 2016/17 and are based on the UNESCO-UIS/OECD/EUROSTAT data collection on education statistics administered by the OECD in 2018 (for details, see Annex 3 at https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en). Data from Argentina, the People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia and South Africa are from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics (UIS).

Data on subnational regions for selected indicators are available in the OECD Regional database (OECD, 2019[5]).

Note regarding data from Israel

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and are under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

References

[3] Hanushek, E., L. Woessmann and L. Zhang (2011), “General education, vocational education, and labor-market outcomes over the life-cycle”, IZA Discussion Paper No. 6083, http://ftp.iza.org/dp6083.pdf (accessed on 27 April 2018).

[5] OECD (2019), OECD Regional Statistics Database - Enrolment rate by age, http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=REGION_EDUCAT.

[1] OECD (2019), “What characterises upper secondary vocational education and training?”, Education Indicators in Focus, No. 68, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/a1a7e2f1-en.

[2] OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2018-en.

[6] OECD (2018), OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics 2018: Concepts, Standards, Definitions and Classifications, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264304444-en.

[4] UNESCO-UIS (2012), International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 2011, http://www.uis.unesco.org (accessed on 23 May 2019).

Indicator B1. Tables

Table B1.1 Enrolment rates by age group (2005, 2010 and 2017)

Table B1.2 Enrolment rates in tertiary education, by age group and level of education (2017)

Table B1.3 Profile of students enrolled in tertiary education (2017)

Cut-off date for the data: 19 July 2019. Any updates on data can be found on line at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-data-en. More breakdowns can also be found at http://stats.oecd.org/, Education at a Glance Database.

StatLink: https://doi.org/10.1787/888933980925

Table B1.1. Enrolment rates by age group (2005, 2010 and 2017)
Students in full-time and part-time programmes in both public and private institutions
Table B1.1. Enrolment rates by age group (2005, 2010 and 2017)

1. Excludes post-secondary non-tertiary education.

2. Breakdown by age not available after 15 years old.

3. The 6 to 14 age group includes a number of students aged over 14 who are enrolled in primary education.

4. Year of reference 2016.

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933977638

Table B1.2. Enrolment rates in tertiary education, by age group and level of education (2017)
Students enrolled in full-time and part-time programmes in both public and private institutions
Table B1.2. Enrolment rates in tertiary education, by age group and level of education (2017)

1. Excludes private institutions at short-cycle tertiary level.

2. Underestimated due to many resident students enrolled in neighbouring countries.

3. Short-cycle tertiary programmes include a small number of bachelor's professional programmes.

4. Short-cycle tertiary programmes include part of upper secondary vocational programmes.

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933977657

Table B1.3. Profile of students enrolled in tertiary education (2017)
Table B1.3. Profile of students enrolled in tertiary education (2017)

1. Typical enrolment ages correspond to the shortest age interval which covers at least 50% of students at that level.

2. Private institutions at short-cycle tertiary level are excluded.

3. Year of reference 2016.

Source: OECD/UIS/Eurostat (2019). See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en).

Please refer to the Reader's Guide for information concerning symbols for missing data and abbreviations.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888933977676

End of the section – Back to iLibrary publication page