The OECD Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) has produced Fragile States publications since 2005. These publications explore trends and financial resource flows in fragile and conflict-affected countries and economies. They respond to increasing concerns about the implications of fragility for stability and development, especially in the context of Agenda 2030 and the international promise to leave no one behind. The OECD is one of only a handful of sources of aggregate data and analysis for fragile contexts as a group.

The purpose of the States of Fragility series is to provide compelling evidence and perspectives that can inform donor policies and underpin international debates. States of Fragility 2020 marks the beginning of a new approach. This much shorter report is supported by an online platform and ten working papers that provide the substantive content underpinning the findings set forth in this document. The new approach is tailored to meet the needs of our audience of political decision makers, policy makers and practitioners to i) monitor levels and compositions of resource flows to fragile contexts, ii) understand qualitative trends related to these flows, and iii) gain an outlook on the key issues and countries to watch over the coming years.

This report is organised into three chapters. The first chapter identifies the most fragile contexts in 2020, considers their progress on the Sustainable Development Goals, and reviews official and other sources of finance available to support them. It also highlights the foundational importance of understanding and resourcing human capital for building resilient societies. The second chapter provides a comprehensive overview of approaches to peace in fragile contexts, proposes new analysis on conflict prevention and peacebuilding, and emphasises the complementary value and potential of diplomatic and security actors. The final chapter bridges policy to practice, drawing on lessons learned in case studies to maximise the effectiveness of planning and operating in fragile contexts.

The data captured by the framework do not reflect the full impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. However, given the magnitude and significance of the shock, data are referenced when available to add detail and context to recent trends on fragility.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2020

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at