Lithuania

In 2018, Lithuania introduced changes to its school funding formula, previously based on funding per student, with a new ‘class basket’. The funding formula takes account of student characteristics such as SEN, migrant status or national minority-language status. Mainstream schools receive a funding premium to finance specialist support for students with SEN, based on their determined level of individual need. This is also the case in ECEC, where funding provides for children with SEN to receive ECEC services from birth. Access to specialised teachers and physical therapy or speech therapy are also possible, in order to help SEN children enrol in mainstream education. According to national data, in 2013, 13% of Lithuanian children in preschool and pre-primary education had some sort of special need (OECD, 2017[6]). OECD reports have found that the differentiated funding scheme has provided target students with access to appropriate services, and the mechanism ensures significantly less strain on budgets for these schools.

Further reading: OECD (2021[7]), OECD Skills Strategy Lithuania: Assessment and Recommendations, OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/14deb088-en; OECD (2016[8]), “School funding in Lithuania”, in OECD Reviews of School Resources: Lithuania 2016, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264252547-7-en; OECD (2017[6]), Education in Lithuania, Reviews of National Policies for Education, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264281486-en.

In 2020, Lithuania began the renewal of its general curriculum framework for primary, basic, and secondary education, focusing on the development of relevant competencies for the 21st century, such as social and emotional skills, healthy lifestyle, citizenship, culture, creativity and communication. As part of this process, Lithuania has developed the 4K model to supplement the former social and civics curriculum. The model recommends students to take part in 60 hours of non-formal learning activities per school year based on the four Ks present in the name of the model in Lithuanian (which translates as “I create, I change, I am with others, I am for others”). These could include volunteering, sports, personal development, social activities or all of these combined. The 4K model aims to promote student agency, reflection, and self-assessment through a three-step process. First, the student chooses activities that interest them and sets goals. Secondly, the student carries out their activities, collecting evidence of the competencies they have gained. Finally, the student assesses whether they have achieved their goals, reflects on lessons learnt and identifies how they could improve. A co-ordinator guides students through these steps, helping them to improve, reflect, and learn from mistakes. The OECD has highlighted the model’s potential to strengthen formative assessment practices in Lithuania at the same time as recognising the broader competencies that learners can gain in non-formal contexts (OECD, 2021[7]).

The 4K model was approved in December 2020, following a public consultation process. Municipalities are due to participate in a pilot project in 2022. The Ministry of Education Science and Sport has developed methodological materials to support the pilot phase, which schools can adapt to their context. During the post-pandemic recovery, the 4K model’s focus on building student agency and co-agency could be particularly useful in helping students build resilience to future change and potential disruption.

Further reading: OECD (2021[7]), OECD Skills Strategy Lithuania: Assessment and Recommendations, OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/14deb088-en; Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of Lithuania, (2020[9]), 4K modelis: aš kuriu, aš keičiu, aš su kitais, aš kitiems [4K model: I create, I change, I with others, I with others], https://www.smm.lt/web/lt/pranesimai_spaudai/naujienos_1/4k-modelis-as-kuriu-as-keiciu-as-su-kitais-as-kitiems- (accessed on 24 June 2021).

References

Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of Lithuania (2020), 4K modelis: aš kuriu, aš keičiu, aš su kitais, aš kitiems [4K model: I create, I change, I with others, I with others], https://www.smm.lt/web/lt/pranesimai_spaudai/naujienos_1/4k-modelis-as-kuriu-as-keiciu-as-su-kitais-as-kitiems- (accessed on 24 June 2021). [9]

OECD (2021), OECD Skills Strategy Lithuania: Assessment and Recommendations, OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/14deb088-en. [7]

OECD (2020), Learning remotely when schools close: How well are students and schools prepared? Insights from PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/3bfda1f7-en. [2]

OECD (2020), TALIS 2018 Results (Volume II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/19cf08df-en. [1]

OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/b5fd1b8f-en. [4]

OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/acd78851-en. [5]

OECD (2019), TALIS 2018 Results (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/1d0bc92a-en. [3]

OECD (2017), Education in Lithuania, Reviews of National Policies for Education, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264281486-en. [6]

OECD (2016), “School funding in Lithuania”, in OECD Reviews of School Resources: Lithuania 2016, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264252547-7-en. [8]

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