Slovenia

  • Educational attainment has been increasing throughout the OECD, in particular at tertiary level. Between 2000 and 2021, the share of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary attainment increased on average by 21 percentage points. In Slovenia, the share increased at an even faster pace, by 29 percentage points (from 19% in 2000 to 48% in 2021) (Figure 1). Slovenia is one of the 24 OECD countries where tertiary education is the most common highest level of attainment among 25-34 year-olds.

  • Upper secondary attainment is often seen as a minimum qualification for successful labour market participation. Although the general increase in educational attainment has seen a parallel decline in the share of 25-34 year-olds without upper secondary attainment, 14% of young adults across the OECD still left school without an upper secondary qualification. In Slovenia, the share is 4%, which is lower than the OECD average.

  • Higher educational attainment is often associated with better employment prospects and Slovenia is no exception. In 2021 the employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education in Slovenia was 30 percentage points higher than among those with below upper secondary attainment and 5 percentage points higher than among those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment. On average across OECD countries, the employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a tertiary qualification was 26 percentage points higher than among those with below upper secondary attainment and 8 percentage points higher than among those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment. While the positive link between educational attainment and employment rates holds for both men and for women across the OECD, it is particularly strong for women. In Slovenia, 41% of women with below upper secondary attainment were employed in 2021, compared to 87% of those with tertiary attainment. In contrast, the figures were 68% and 90% for men.

  • Across the OECD, the labour market benefits of tertiary attainment have proved especially strong during economic crises. This was also the case during the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovenia. Between 2019 and 2020, unemployment for 25-34 year-old workers with below upper secondary attainment increased by 3.8 percentage points, by 1.1 percentage points for workers with upper secondary attainment and decreased by 0.2 percentage points for workers with tertiary attainment. In 2021, unemployment for workers with below upper secondary attainment fell by 2.1 percentage points, compared to 2020, by 0.4 percentage points for workers with upper secondary attainment and increased by 0.6 percentage points for workers with tertiary attainment.

  • National averages provide only an incomplete picture of the situation in any given country. In most OECD countries, there are large differences in educational attainment across subnational regions. This is also the case in Slovenia. In 2021, the difference between the region with the highest share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary attainment (Western Slovenia, at 46%) and that with the lowest share (Eastern Slovenia, at 35%) was 11 percentage points. These subnational variations do not only reflect differences in education opportunities. To a large degree, they are due to economic conditions and internal migration patterns.

  • Compulsory education begins at the age of 6 and ends at the age of 14 in Slovenia. The range of ages for which at least 90% of the population are enrolled is longer than the period of compulsory education and goes from the age of 4 to the age of 18. This is similar to most other OECD countries, where more than 90% of the population are also enrolled for longer than the period of compulsory education.

  • The age at which children enter early childhood education differs widely across countries. In Slovenia, early childhood education starts offering intentional education objectives for children younger than 1 and 46% of children under 3 are enrolled in early childhood education. Across OECD countries, the average enrolment rate among children below the age of 3 is 27%, but the rates range from less than 1% to 63%. The enrolment rate among 3-5 year-olds increases substantially in all OECD countries. In Slovenia, 93% of all children of this age are enrolled in early childhood education, which is above the OECD average.

  • The average age of graduation from general upper secondary programmes varies from 17 to 21 years across OECD countries and is 18 years in Slovenia. Differences in the average age of graduation from vocational upper secondary education are much larger and vary from 16 to 34 years across the OECD. These differences largely depend on whether vocational upper secondary students usually enrol in these programmes towards the end of their compulsory education or in mid-career. In Slovenia, the average age of graduation from vocational upper secondary education is 19 years, which is below the OECD average at 22 years (Figure 2).

  • In almost all OECD countries, women make up the majority of those graduating from general upper secondary education. In Slovenia, the share is 62% (OECD average 55%). In contrast, men are overrepresented among graduates of vocational upper secondary programmes in most OECD countries, as is the case in Slovenia where they make up 57% of all vocational upper secondary graduates, slightly above the OECD average (55%).

  • In Slovenia, 73% of 18-24 year-olds are still in full- or part-time education or training at either upper secondary or tertiary level (significantly above the OECD average of 54%). A subset of these students (10% of 18-24 year-olds) combine their education or training with some form of employment in Slovenia, compared to 17% on average across the OECD.

  • One significant difference across countries’ education systems is on whether or not vocational upper secondary programmes provide access to tertiary education. In 12 OECD countries and other participants, all vocational upper secondary graduates have direct access to tertiary education. In Slovenia only 68% of graduates from vocational upper secondary programme have direct access to tertiary education.

  • As is the case in all OECD countries, a majority of students enrolled at tertiary level in Slovenia are bachelor’s students (55%). However, the next commonest enrolment level varies from country to country. In Slovenia, master's students make up the second largest group of tertiary students at 27%. This is also the case in 25 other OECD countries, while in the remaining 14 countries with available data, short-cycle tertiary students form the second largest group.

  • At 20%, business, administration and law was the most popular field of study among new entrants into tertiary education in Slovenia, which is the case in most OECD countries. Despite the growing need for digital skills and the good employment prospects of students with degrees in information and communication technologies (ICT), only a small fraction of entrants into tertiary education choose this field. In Slovenia, 94% of 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary ICT qualification are employed, but ICT students make up 6% of new entrants into tertiary education. This is the same level as the OECD average.

  • All OECD countries devote a substantial share of national output to educational institutions. In 2019, OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions. In Slovenia, the corresponding share was 4.2%. Between 2008 and 2019, funding for educational institutions from all sources fell by 1% in Slovenia. However, over the same period of time, the increase in GDP was higher with 12%. As a consequence, expenditure on educational institutions as a share of GDP fell by 0.5 percentage points over the same time period.

  • Public spending on primary to tertiary education was 9.5% of total government expenditure in Slovenia (Figure 3), lower than the OECD average (10.6%). Also, relative to GDP, public spending on primary to tertiary education (4.1%) is lower than the OECD average (4.4%).

  • Spending on educational institutions as share of GDP or public budgets are important measures of the importance that countries place on education in their budgeting decisions. However, they do not show the total amount of funding per student because GDP levels, public budgets and student numbers vary from country to country. Across primary to tertiary education, OECD countries spend an average of USD 11 990 per student (in equivalent USD converted using PPPs for GDP) on educational institutions each year. In comparison, Slovenia spent USD 10 829 per student in 2019. Its cumulative expenditure on educating a student from the age of 6 to 15 was USD 102 336, which was slightly below the OECD average of USD 105 502.

  • Across OECD countries, the provision of education at primary and secondary levels in terms of curricula, teaching styles and organisational management leads, on average, to similar patterns of expenditure per student from primary to post-secondary non-tertiary levels. OECD countries as a whole spend on average around USD 9 923 per student at primary and USD 11 400 per student at secondary level. In Slovenia, the values are USD 9 562 at primary and USD 10 160 per student at secondary level.

  • In contrast to lower levels of education, spending on tertiary education varies widely across OECD countries. Expenditure per student at tertiary level in Slovenia is higher than at other levels of education, as is the case in almost all other OECD countries. The average expenditure per student in Slovenia is USD 15 267 per year, which is about USD 5 700 higher than that of the primary level and USD 5 100 higher than that of the secondary level. It is below the OECD average, but similar to many other countries. The average expenditure at tertiary level (USD 17 559) is driven up by high values in a few countries. At 22%, the share of research and development (R&D) expenditure makes up a smaller fraction of expenditure on tertiary education in Slovenia than on average across OECD countries (29%).

  • Public funding dominates non-tertiary education (primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary) in all OECD countries, even after transfers to the private sector. On average across the OECD, private funding accounts for 10% of expenditure at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels, while this share was 9% in Slovenia in 2019. In contrast, private expenditure at tertiary level was higher in all OECD countries. In Slovenia, the share of private expenditure at tertiary level reached 11%, which was significantly below the OECD average of 31%.

  • The salaries of teachers and school heads are an important determinant of the attractiveness of the teaching profession, but they also represent the single largest expenditure item in formal education. In most OECD countries, the statutory salaries of teachers (and school heads) in public educational institutions increase with the level of education they teach, and also with experience. Actual salaries also increase with the level of education. On average across OECD countries, actual salaries range from USD 41 941 at the pre-primary level to USD 53 682 at the upper secondary level. In Slovenia, actual salaries average USD 34 952 at pre-primary level and USD 46 098 at upper secondary level.

  • Between 2015 and 2021, on average across OECD countries, the statutory salaries of teachers at lower secondary level (general programmes) with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 6% in real terms. In Slovenia, salaries increased more than the OECD average, by 14%.

  • Teachers’ average actual salaries remain lower than earnings of tertiary-educated workers in almost all OECD countries, and at almost all levels of education. This is also the case in Slovenia. Lower secondary (general programme) teachers in Slovenia earn 10.3% less than other tertiary-educated workers. In contrast school head actual salaries in Slovenia are much higher than the earnings of other tertiary educated workers. This is similar to most OECD countries, where school heads tend to earn well above the average earnings of tertiary educated workers.

  • The average number of teaching hours per year required from a typical teacher in public educational institutions in OECD countries tends to decrease as the level of education increases. This is also the case in Slovenia.

  • Based on official regulations or agreements, annual teaching hours in Slovenia are 1 344 hours per year at pre-primary level, 627 hours at primary level, 627 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 570 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes) (Figure 4).

  • The duration of initial teacher education for primary and lower secondary teachers ranges from 2.5 years to 6.5 years across OECD countries. In Slovenia, initial teacher education typically lasts 5 years for prospective lower secondary teachers (general programmes). It is the same length for prospective primary teachers. As is the case in almost all OECD countries, a tertiary degree is awarded to prospective teachers of all levels of education upon completion of their initial teacher training.

  • Continuing professional development is compulsory for all teachers of general programmes in most countries with data, and Slovenia is no exception. At secondary level, professional development activities are compulsory for all teachers.

  • Among 25-64 year-olds in Slovenia, master's degrees are the most common tertiary attainment at 18% of the population followed by bachelor's degrees at 9% and short-cycle tertiary qualifications with 8%. This is different from the OECD average, where bachelor’s degrees are most common (19%), followed by master’s degrees (14%) and short-cycle tertiary qualifications (7%) and can be in large part contributed to the fact that master's degrees in Slovenia also include pre-Bologna academic bachelor's degrees, which accounted for a large share of graduates until 2016. As in all OECD countries and other participants, only a small fraction of the population holds a doctoral degree: the share is 5% in Slovenia, which includes doctoral degrees as well as pre-Bologna master’s of science degrees.

  • On average, tertiary attainment generates a wide range of labour-market benefits, including high employment rates. Yet, there are significant differences depending on the field of study. In 2021, employment rates in Slovenia were highest among tertiary-educated individuals who studied information and communication technologies with 94% and lowest among those who studied arts at 84%. However, these differences need to be put into perspective. Even among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary attainment in the field with the lowest employment rate, this was 8.4 percentage points higher than among those with upper secondary attainment (all fields combined).

  • Wages also differ according to the field of study. In Slovenia, tertiary attainment in medical and dental fields generates the highest earnings. Full-time full-year workers aged 25-64 with a tertiary degree in this field earn on average more than twice as much as workers with upper secondary attainment (all fields combined). In contrast, tertiary attainment in the field of education leads to the lowest wages. Workers with this educational background earn on average 38% more than the wage of workers with upper secondary attainment (all fields combined).

  • Despite the labour market advantages of a tertiary degree, many tertiary students do not graduate on time or do not graduate at all. In Slovenia, 38% of bachelor’s students graduate within the theoretical programme duration. Across the OECD, the completion rate within the theoretical programme duration ranges from 12% to 69%. Completion rates three years after the theoretical programme duration are significantly higher in most countries and the differences between OECD countries somewhat narrower. In Slovenia, 56% of bachelor’s students have graduated within three years after the end of the theoretical programme duration, compared to 68% on average across the OECD.

  • In all OECD countries, tertiary completion rates are higher for women than for men. In Slovenia, 64% of women graduated within three years after the end of the theoretical programme duration at bachelor’s level, compared to 47% of men. On average across the OECD, there is little systematic difference between the completion rates of public and private institutions, but the figures differ from country to country. In Slovenia, 57% of bachelor's students graduate from public institutions within three years after the end of the theoretical programme duration, while the share is 38% for private institutions.

  • In most OECD countries including in Slovenia, tertiary-educated adults have higher rates of participation in non-formal education and training than those with a lower level of educational attainment. In 2021, 28% of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary attainment in Slovenia had participated in non-formal education and training in the four weeks prior to being surveyed, compared to 3% of their peers with below upper secondary attainment.

  • Over the decades, independent private institutions have been established to meet increased demand for tertiary education. On average across the OECD, 17% of students are enrolled in independent private institutions, but this figure masks large differences between countries. In Slovenia, 11% of tertiary students are enrolled in such institutions. Independent private institutions charge higher annual tuition fees on average than public institutions for master’s programmes in all OECD countries and other participants with available data, except in Chile and Lithuania.

  • Enabling students to enrol on a part-time basis is an important way to facilitate access to tertiary education. Many part-time students would not be able to study full time, for example because they have child-care responsibilities or have to work to fund their studies. The share of part-time students at the tertiary level in Slovenia is 23%, slightly above the OECD average (22%). Compared to 2013, it has increased by 1 percentage point.

  • Staff at tertiary level tend to start their careers relatively late due to the length of the education they need to qualify. In Slovenia, only 4% of academic staff are aged under 30, below the OECD average (8%). In contrast, the share of academic staff aged 50 or over is 40%, which is the same as the OECD average.

  • The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted traditional schooling in 2020 and the first half of 2021, leading to school closures across all OECD countries. While most shut down their premises entirely in the wake of the pandemic in 2020, by 2021 the situation had improved and returned to normal in most countries in 2022. In Slovenia, primary and secondary schools were entirely closed for 39-44 days during the school year 2019/20, for 55-79 days in 2020/21 and stayed open in 2021/22 (Figure 5). Partial closures reached 7-27 days during the school year 2019/20 and up to 43 days in 2020/21.

  • National examinations have also been affected by the pandemic. At general upper secondary level, 18 OECD countries postponed their national examinations during the school year 2019/20, while 10 countries even cancelled them entirely. In 2020/21, national examinations were postponed in 9 countries and cancelled in 6 countries. Slovenia rescheduled its national examinations in 2019/20.

  • Most countries conducted assessments of the impact of school closures on learning outcomes at various levels of education and along several dimensions. Slovenia has conducted studies to evaluate the effects of the pandemic on the impact on primary, lower secondary, upper secondary general and vocational education. The assessments covered mathematics, reading and science. Like many other countries, Slovenia also evaluated dimensions such as the effectiveness of distance-learning strategies during school closures, non-cognitive skills the relations between parents and students during lockdowns as well as the mental health and well-being of students and teachers.

  • No national programmes to support students affected by the pandemic were implemented in Slovenia in contrast to many other OECD countries. At primary to upper secondary education, measures to address the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic included, referral systems for students in need of specialised services, psychosocial and mental health support to students and additional water, sanitation and hygiene services.

  • The increased digitalisation of education has been a major consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic in many OECD countries. At lower secondary level, Slovenia has responded to the pandemic with an enhanced provision of digitalised assessments/exams, digital tools at school, distance learning, hybrid learning, in-service and pre-service digital training to teachers and digital training to students.

  • The challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic have created additional costs for education systems. Preliminary budget estimates for 2021 suggest that, compared to 2020, the education budget at pre-primary to tertiary level in Slovenia increased slightly (by between 1% and 5%, in nominal terms).

  • The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on adult learning in most OECD countries. In 2020, the share of adults who participated in a formal or non-formal education and training activity in the four weeks prior to being surveyed decreased by 2 percentage points on average across OECD countries compared with 2019. However, in 2021, participation in non-formal education and training returned to pre-pandemic levels in most countries. In Slovenia, a similar pattern emerged. From 2019 to 2020, the share of adults participating in a formal or non-formal education and training activity fell by 3 percentage points. From 2020 to 2021, it increased by 11 percentage points and has thus increased above pre-pandemic levels.

  • Young adults who are not in employment, education or training (NEET) for prolonged periods are at risk of adverse economic and social outcomes in both the short and the long term. After increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the share of 18-24 year-olds who are NEET in Slovenia declined in 2021. The share of NEET among young adults was 8% in 2021, below pre-COVID levels.

References

OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/69096873-en.

OECD (2022), “Regional education”, OECD Regional Statistics (database), https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/213e806c-en.

For more information on Education at a Glance 2022 and to access the full set of Indicators, see: https://doi.org/10.1787/3197152b-en

For more information on the methodology used during the data collection for each indicator, the references to the sources and the specific notes for each country, See Annex 3 (https://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance/EAG2022_Annex3.pdf).

For general information on the methodology, please refer to the OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics: Concepts, Standards, Definitions and Classifications (https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264304444-en).

Updated data can be found on line at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-data-en and by following the StatLinks under the tables and charts in the publication.

Data on subnational regions for selected indicators are available in the OECD Regional Statistics (database) (OECD, 2022). When interpreting the results on subnational entities, readers should take into account that the population size of subnational entities can vary widely within countries. For example, regional variation in enrolment may be influenced by students attending school in a different region from their area of residence, particularly at higher levels of education. Also, regional disparities tend to be higher when more subnational entities are used in the analysis.

Explore, compare and visualise more data and analysis using the Education GPS:

https://gpseducation.oecd.org/

The data on educational responses during COVID-19 were collected and processed by the OECD based on the Joint Survey on National Responses to COVID-19 School Closures, a collaborative effort conducted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS); the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF); the World Bank; and the OECD.

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