3. Policy levers, talent and skills for digital government in Luxembourg

Analysing Luxembourg’s contextual factors and institutional models (in Chapter 2) is important as the foundation and framework for governing the public sector digital transformation process. Equally essential is taking stock of the public sector capacity for digital transformation, manifested through policy tools, talent and skills that the organisation-in-charge, the leadership and other stakeholders can leverage and engage with to ensure a coherent, effective and sustainable digital transformation. This chapter covers a preliminary analysis of Luxembourg’s existing policy levers on the one hand, and approach to talent and skills fit for the digital age on the other hand – in order to identify areas to improve public sector capacity for digital transformation.

Under the OECD Framework on the Governance of Digital Government, policy levers are “hard or soft instruments that policy makers can leverage to enable system-wide change in the public sector from strategy to implementation and delivery” (OECD, 2021[1]). They range from the development and implementation of the strategy and plan to tools and mechanisms for project and financial management, and regulations and standards as the legal and normative basis for guiding change and actions in line with fundamental values and rights (see Figure 3.1).

This framing of policy levers draws on Pillar 3 of the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies (2014[2]) “Capacities to Support Implementation” in which the provisions call for clear business cases, capacities to manage and monitor projects, procurement of digital technologies based on an assessment of existing assets, and general and sector-specific legal and regulatory frameworks that allow digital opportunities to be seized. The provisions of Pillar 1 “Openness and Engagement” are taken into consideration where applicable to allow the participation of stakeholders in the strategy development, management, financing and regulatory processes.

Policy levers set the foundation on which key enablers for digital government and data are built on and realised, such as interoperability, digital identity and digital signatures. Using policy levers strategically can improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness in policy design, implementation and transformation, by ensuring alignment, streamlining efforts and fostering synergies of digital government projects across the public sector and ecosystem.

The digital transformation of the public sector is a cross-cutting, intensive, complex, long and continuous journey that involves the whole-of-government and support from the private sector and civil society. The government of Luxembourg demonstrates that it understands what is required to mobilise resources towards the goal of having a public administration that “[makes] people’s lives easier” (The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2021[3]) and has the political will to achieve this goal as it created a specific line ministry for this purpose in December 2018, the Ministry for Digitalisation (MDIGI).

From the outset, what is needed to support the governance of this process in any country is a national digital government strategy and its accompanying plans for a specified time frame, a specific vision, goals and objectives that have corresponding delineated actions that should be implemented by different parts of the public administration and broader public sector. This strategy should also be well aligned with other policy strategies (e.g. technology, innovation, openness, integrity, green transition, education, and well-being) yet prominent to the extent that it is still seen as a priority on the political and policy agenda of the government. Given the nature of digitalisation touching on all policy areas, this systemic thinking and culture is crucial to foster policy coherence and cohesion. One way to do so is to involve stakeholders in the development of the strategy, plans and their implementation. Collaboration across the public sector, with the participation of the private sector and civil society builds shared responsibility and ownership for this pivotal agenda.

With this regard, the mission and initiatives of the MDIGI are framed through four strategic axes (see Box 3.1). In alignment with these axes, the priorities and strategic actions needed to materialise this vision are reflected in the Electronic Governance Strategy 2021-2025 (The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2021[4]) that was drawn up by the Ministry for Digitalisation and the State Information Technology (IT) Centre (CTIE), and adopted by the Government Council in February 2021 (see Box 3.2). After the adoption, the MDIGI and CTIE established a roadmap with concrete actions for its implementation as well as within and with the Inter-ministerial Committee for Digitalisation.

This strategy and the mission of the MDIGI follow a path of top political priority awarded to digitalisation in Luxembourg. For example, the “Digital Luxembourg” Initiative that was launched further back in June 2014 by the Government Council. The “Digital Luxembourg” is an overarching digitalisation project for Luxembourg with the aim of promoting the IT, information and communication technology (ICT) and high-technology sectors in the government, economy and society. “E-administration”, “e-government services” and “e-skills” were among many of the focus areas in the Strategy (The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2014[6]).

Digital Luxembourg was created in October 2014 as a multi-disciplinary government initiative through which various ministries and administrations could work with public, private and academic players to consolidate the work in IT and ICT, and drive digitalisation across various policy domains (The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2021[7]). With the creation of the MDIGI as the entity responsible for policy on digitalisation across sectors in Luxembourg, this initiative shifted its focus to communicating initiatives and activities with the wider digital ecosystem in the country. Today, Digital Luxembourg sits in the Department of Media, Connectivity and Digital Policy (SMC), and co-ordinated by the Minister of Communications and Media (The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2018[8]).

During the 2021 European Semester and in the context of recovery from the COVID-19 crisis, the government of Luxembourg created the National Plan for a Green, Digital and Inclusive Transition as part of its National Reform Programme. In Section 3.4.3 on “digitalisation”, the Plan took stock of Luxembourg’s transition to e-government and digital government in recent years and showcased various initiatives taken over the COVID-19 period to further spur digitalisation in the public sector and in different policy areas (The Luxembourg Government, 2021[9]). As part of the Recovery and Resilience Plan, the government of Luxembourg has placed the development of ultra-secure connectivity solutions based on quantum technology within public and private sector, increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of public administrations and digital public services, and improved supervision of the financial market and tax system for a more transparent and equitable economy as three priorities in the third pillar “Digitalisation, Innovation and Governance” (The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2021[10]).

Similarly, the development of digital government is framed within a set of different strategies that aim to advance the digital competencies of the public sector, namely: the 5G Strategy for Luxembourg published in November 2018, the Public Sector Blockchain created in 2019, the National Interoperability Framework adopted in March 2019, Artificial Intelligence: a strategic vision for Luxembourg created in May 2019, the Data-Driven Innovation Strategy adopted in May 2019 (see Chapter 4), the National Cybersecurity Strategy IV 2021-2025 published in October 2021, and the forthcoming Internet of Things (IoT) plan. It is important to communicate how the national digital government strategy ties in with the other digitalisation strategies or programmes that are technology- or domain-specific listed below. In some cases, such as the National Interoperability Framework, this link is more evident as it is included within the national digital strategy.

In this line, it would be beneficial to illustrate how the Electronic Governance Strategy 2021-2025 is linked with, fits within or exists alongside the AI Vision, the National Plan for a Green, Digital and Inclusive Transition, the Recovery and Resilience Plan and National Plan for Digital Inclusion. This is an important part of the policy making process, to demonstrate how digital government specifically contributes to the broader digitalisation agenda of the country. With the COVID-19 crisis, it is evident that digital government plays a critical role in driving and shaping an inclusive, equitable and sustainable digital transformation of the economy and society, and addressing the governance challenges that come with it (MITD, 2021[11]). The digital government strategy and the broader digitalisation strategies should be linked with robust governance measures and mechanisms (e.g. institutional, policy tools) that build coherence in the design and implementation processes. The visions, priorities and goals should also be complementary and converging in the long-term.

From an institutional perspective, it was noted during the course of this review the diverse capacities and maturity of ministries and administrations when addressing their digital transformation journeys. Going forward, the next iteration of the Electronic Governance Strategy 2021-2025 or the next digital government strategy could advance towards being accompanied with institutional action- and investment plans, and monitoring and impact assessments. In this line, ministries and administrations should progressively become more autonomous in implementing their digital transformation journeys following the standards, principles and priorities set by the MDIGI and the CTIE as national digital government authorities. Similarly, further efforts are needed to reinforce the role of the Inter-ministerial Committee to align ministries and administrations and to communicate in a clearer way the purpose, scope, and relevance of the strategy to them – or make sure that efforts conducted on this matter deliver intended outcomes. This is because 49% of the surveyed ministries and administrations in Luxembourg considered the Electronic Governance Strategy 2021-2025 “moderate” or “weak” in terms of its relevance for them,1 and some expressed difficulty in applying it within their organisations – eventually influenced by the fact that several initiatives within the strategy apply mostly to the role and function of the CTIE as centralised IT service provider. Two-thirds of the respondents also indicated that they had not been directly involved in the formulation of the Electronic Governance Strategy 2021-2025.2 Since not all ministries and administrations were consulted, the key messages of the strategy and their relevance have not reached across the entire government. Together with an improved communication of strategy by the MDIGI and CTIE, ministries and administrations should also consider strengthening their internal communications regarding the importance of the strategy for their operations and services.

Such an approach could possibly overcome the currently fragmented development of digitalisation strategies, as 56% of surveyed ministries and administrations suggested that they have a formal strategy to support their own digital transformation. A favourable outcome would be that each public sector organisation has a degree of autonomy to produce and act on its own digital transformation plan and roadmap that is in line with the national digital government strategy, plan, and roadmap. In this line, the upcoming implementation of a dedicated service from the CTIE to support ministries and administrations in the definition of their own digital transformation journeys (aligned with national standards and priorities) can help close this gap. On the one hand, action and investment plans would serve the purpose of detailing the tactical, operational and financial aspects for the execution and implementation phases of the strategy, specifying the stakeholders involved in relation to each key performance indicator (KPI) and output, and the governance measures and mechanism supporting the process. On the other hand, prioritising a collaborative approach to developing and implementing the strategy can build legitimacy and create buy-in that is critical for activating stakeholders in the public sector and the digital government ecosystem.

Common management tools and mechanisms are an indispensable way to secure capacity for the execution and implementation of the strategy and plans (OECD, 2021[1]). They can be used at all levels of the government to promote coherence, effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of results for digital government projects and programmes. Standardised business cases, agile project management methodologies, public procurement processes, budgeting and co-funding mechanisms are all key policy levers that can create alignment in the digitalisation process across the public sector.

These project and financial management tools and mechanisms have been adopted widely in several OECD member countries, such as Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Norway and including Luxembourg (OECD, 2020[12]). Examples collected from the OECD Digital Government Index 2019 demonstrate that using these policy levers allow decision makers to show the benefit of digital government initiatives and grant public investment more easily. They also secure the needed governance processes by indicating the specific roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders who are involved in the projects and programmes, and the duties required of them to fulfil their specific tasks.

In Luxembourg, 51% of surveyed ministries and administrations noted that they develop business cases or similar value proposition assessments for digital government projects;3 54% said that there is a standardised model for digital government project management at the central government level;4 64% mentioned that there is a specific procurement strategy for ICT/digital technologies for the public sector5 – and the reasons for the presence or lack thereof were all varied. This firmly validates that there is space to improve the communication (i.e. to raise awareness on their existence), deployment (i.e. to be easily accessible) and application (i.e. to create value from their use) of these standardised policy levers for all public sector organisations. It is expected that future initiatives such as the advisory service for digitalisation to be offered by the MDIGI and the CTIE to ministries and administrations can contribute to close this gap.

With the CTIE as the technical and operational backbone for Luxembourg’s digital transformation in the public sector, it plays a primary role in pushing for the advancement of digital government projects. During the OECD peer review mission, a majority of public sector organisations expressed their hopes for the CTIE to pursue its transformation in order to have a greater capacity to fulfil the calling and the demand for digitalisation, from leadership to implementation capacity.

Building on the previous sub-section that suggests setting up KPIs, the CTIE should look towards maximising the full value of the clear view it has on its 800-over projects as well as the long tail of initiatives that are implemented by ministries and administrations and upon which the CTIE does not have current capacity to monitor and oversee. This means creating performance indicators based on this data and designing project management tools that are optimised for the projects. For business cases, that could entail the creation of a common language to be adopted by all stakeholders, rules and guidelines for the whole project lifecycle to be followed by all stakeholders; and requesting for information about potential benefits, risks and uncertainties (OECD, 2019[13]). A significant number of public sector organisations also expressed during the OECD peer review mission that the CTIE’s internal work and decision-making processes should be more transparent: such as current project portfolio and pipeline, the prioritisation and selection criteria, and the roadmap and plans for digital government projects. Countries such as Australia, France and Ireland have implemented such systems and made data available in visual, open and machine-readable format to facilitate analysis by stakeholders within and outside the public sector.

Furthermore, given that nearly all of Luxembourg’s public sector IT, ICT and digital resources are concentrated at the CTIE and the pace of project delivery has become a challenge, agility will be a sine qua non condition in the long run. An agile approach to project management should also be embedded in these management tools and mechanisms. This calls for an efficient and effective design and execution of projects, such that opportunities are seized, risks are mitigated, and changes are made quickly based on continuous cycle of diagnosis, feedback and iteration (OECD, 2021[1]). Public servants outside the CTIE should have quick and easy access to information and resources on possible opportunities and openings for digital government projects, while CTIE officials are able to respond dynamically in contrast to a “waterfall” approach that encourages tasks to be undertaken in linear, systematic and rigid fashion (Welby and Tan, 2022[15]). In this sense, the work of the GovTech Lab can help tackle cultural resistance and risk aversion to more agile and iterative approaches. Similarly, the pilot initiative “My idea counts” (Meng Iddi zielt!) provides a safe space for sharing new ideas or projects that can be piloted through the GovTech Lab and eventually scaled up for wide deployment across the administration. In this sense, Luxembourg could consider expanding the topics and coverage of the working groups as well as creating communities of practice that foster a bottom-up approach for sharing good practices and identifying common challenges that can be shared with and tackled by the MDIGI and CTIE, similarly to initiatives in the UK and Australia.

The government of Luxembourg’s current policy on digital government investment similarly requires strengthening its approach to realise benefits. While the CTIE benefits from a flexible budgeting approach, the government of Luxembourg could also look to standardising the use of budgetary or funding policy levers, as well as increasing the availability of performance indicators and spending controls openly to increase the accountability of ministries and administrations in the implementation of relevant ICT/digital projects – leveraging the information available in its IT Quapital Portfolio system and going beyond through setting capacities and collecting data to exert a similar approach for projects that are implemented by ministries and administrations instead. This would help public sector organisations to secure investments more efficiently in line with the objectives and outcomes of Luxembourg’s national digital government strategies. Further developing financial management mechanisms should be taken to be an important part of strengthening the leadership and implementation capacities of the Ministry for Digitalisation and the CTIE.

Similarly, further efforts to promote more agile approaches in public procurement are recommended in Luxembourg. The country benefits from the robust European normative instruments that frame the contracting of goods and services in the public sector. This is the case of promoting innovation partnerships, dynamic purchasing systems, competitive dialogues and centralised procurement exercises that are available to all public sector institutions in Luxembourg thanks to the EU Directives 2004/18/EC and 2004/17/EC that have been transposed by the Law on public procurement of 25 June 2009 and the implementing Regulation of 3 August 2009. It is relevant to notice that accelerating the use of these procurement mechanisms can bring significant benefits to Luxembourg to foster a more dynamic IT sector as well as to reduce existing processing times of regular procurement exercises such as open tender procedures. The ongoing implementation of the GovTech Lab goes in this direction by implementing innovation partnerships and competitive dialogue that are expanding the base of digital suppliers and fostering a healthy ecosystem of entrepreneurs and start-ups that can contribute to the mission of MDIGI and CTIE by providing the digital needs of ministries and administrations that, for multiple reasons, they cannot address.

Establishing regulations (i.e. binding), standards, guidelines and principles (i.e. non-binding) are elemental to creating an enabling environment for transformation towards a digitally mature government. They provide the legal basis for the policies, governance arrangements and mechanisms for digital government.

In the context of rapid developments and advancements in digital technologies, it is critical for governments to be able to continually review, update and set up a regulatory environment that supports the corresponding changes in the public sector, and broader economy and society. Especially in managing the opportunities and risks that come with these changes (i.e. in relation to ethics, transparency, privacy, security). Within the public sector, there are three broad categories for which important domains of legal and regulatory frameworks should cover: (i) the digital rights of citizens and businesses (OECD, 2019[13]); (ii) the key enablers for a digital government; and (iii) the six key principles encapsulated in the OECD Digital Government Policy Framework (OECD, 2020[18]). This comprehensive approach ensures that digital governments are able to meet the needs and requirements of stakeholders with high accountability and trust (see Figure 3.2).

As a European Union (EU) Member State, the government of Luxembourg has made considerable efforts in adopting EU Regulations such as the creating a single digital gateway for access to information (EUR-Lex, 2018[20]), the processing of personal data (EUR-Lex, 2016[21]) to name a few. Yet, public sector organisations commonly pointed out over the OECD peer review mission that there are still some areas for improvement in cementing the legal and regulatory frameworks for domains such as data exchange and sharing, information transfer and the once-only principle. Furthermore, the CTIE does not provide legal and regulatory assistance for the digital products and services that they provide as it is not under its responsibilities. Instead, this is a ministerial task covered through the Commissioner of the Government for Data Protection where ministries and administrations can address their legal requests and questions within the domain of public sector data. In other cases, ministries and administrations need to address these issues internally.

Looking ahead, it is important for the government of Luxembourg to increase its support for the public sector and facilitate the integration of stakeholders (including citizens and businesses) into the digital government ecosystem to foster its development. The launch of the High-Committee for Digital Transformation aims to bring together different actors with the purpose of defining new trends, needs and opportunities for Luxembourg on digital government.

While putting in place the necessary legal and regulatory frameworks is an important step, another area that the government of Luxembourg can deepen its efforts is in the creation of non-binding normative standards to guide the system-wide implementation of the national digital government strategy and plans at an operational-level. Positive advances have been done with the creation of the GovTech Lab by the MDIGI and CTIE to systematise interactions with digital innovators (The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2022[22]). Nevertheless, as part of the result of the dedicated workshops on service design and delivery as well as on data-driven public sector participants highlighted the need to count on supporting standards that help them become more independent in addressing some critical steps in the digitalisation of their respective processes and operations. Doing this can encourage the integration, harmonisation and collaboration on digital government projects across the public sector.

One way to do so is to put in place open and/or common standards such as technology codes of practices, data and interoperability standards, and ethical principles. Access and use of these standards should be friendly and productive for all public sector organisations to use, allowing them to work with their digital resources and build quality digital products and services at pace and scale. This is a feasible way for the CTIE to move towards decentralisation and operating as a platform, rather than continuing to control all digital government projects and allow shadow costs, duplicated efforts and legacy systems to proliferate (see Chapter 5 for more detail on open and/or common tools in the context of service design and delivery).

Essentially, MDIGI and CTIE can take on the onus of building the Government as a Platform, and providing an open toolbox of data, common standards, and good practices in addition to its existing digital solutions – while collaborating with stakeholders to foster uptake and alignment. This would include co-operating with the Inter-Communal Informatics Management Association (SIGI) at the municipal level, exchanging lessons on existing shared services and common standards they have put in place to support the digitalisation of local governments.

Finally, the last vital component of the capacity to build a sound digital government is having a public sector workforce that is agile, user-driven, collaborative, innovative and adaptable to the rapidly changing contexts. This is because the outcome of public policy and reform hinges on how much the public workforce is able to meet demands and deliver (OECD, 2017[23]). The OECD Framework for Digital Talent and Skills in the Public Sector provides a three-pillar analytical framework for what digital leaders and public servants need to do and have in order to attain a digital public workforce that can drive digital transformation in the public sector effectively (Figure 3.3).

The OECD Framework for Digital Talent and Skills in the Public Sector calls for human resource policies and processes that can (i) create the right environment to encourage digital transformation; (ii) develop skills to support digital government maturity; and (iii) establish and maintain a digital workforce. Building all three pillars holistically involves having the awareness of what skills are needed, to having the leadership and vision for creating the right environment and setting out the right scopes and job profiles, and having good strategies for recruitment, training, retention and mobility.

While promoting digital competencies in society is also important for consideration, the scope of this framework and the following discussions in the context of Luxembourg will mainly focus on the public sector, and what can be done at the organisational-, team- and individual-levels. The following sub-sections will look at the policies, practices and initiatives by the government of Luxembourg to establish and sustain a digital workforce in line with these three pillars.

Having the right environment is foundational for fostering the talent and skills needed for digital government maturity. It plays a key role in determining how agents in the organisation work, interact and deliver. With an environment that is favourable for going and being digital, public servants will find it easier to carry out initiatives that can advance the whole-of-organisation and -government change from the outset.

Creating a conducive environment that promotes digital transformation calls for digital leaders to (pro)actively shape and build an organisational culture that supports the development of digital talent and skills among all public servants inclusively. This entails being keenly aware of what digital skills are required by different job profiles, communicating a clear and understandable vision of the role of digital, championing the benefits of digital government, engaging and endorsing the design and delivery of digital services, and supporting a learning culture and different ways of working (OECD, 2021[24]).

Over the past few years, the government of Luxembourg has been placing increasing emphasis on developing digital talent and skills in the public sector and society. Yet, while the governance for digital transformation in the public sector is clearly shared by the MDIGI and CTIE (see Chapter 2), the ownership of the policy agenda for digital talent and skills is less clear with several actors playing a critical part and contributing to it: the Ministry of Labour, Employment and the Social and Solidarity Economy (MTEESS), the Ministry of Education, Children and Youth (MENEJ), the MDIGI, the Ministry of Higher Education and Research (MESR), the Ministry of Culture (MC), the Department of Media, Connectivity and Digital Policy (SMC), the National Institute for Public Administration (INAP), the National Employment Agency (ADEM), the Chamber of Commerce (CC) and the Chamber of Skilled Trades and Crafts (CDM).

Box 3.5 presents the recent, ongoing and planned strategies and initiatives that these institutions are undertaking with regards to the digital talent and skills agenda.

While it is extremely noteworthy that there are many initiatives around promoting digital talent and skills in Luxembourg’s ecosystem beyond the public sector, findings from the OECD Digital Government Survey of Luxembourg demonstrate a mixed reality in regard to the public sector. Of the 39 ministries and administrations surveyed on the level of priority given to improving digital skills of public servants in the digital government agenda, 15% indicated a very high priority, 33% indicated a high priority, another 33% indicated a somewhat high priority and the last 18% indicated a somewhat low priority (OECD, 2021[28]) (Figure 3.4).

Building on the high political and administrative commitment to building up a digital workforce in Luxembourg’s public sector and beyond, the government would benefit greatly from consolidating all these initiatives and appointing a public sector organisation to take charge, lead and co-ordinate the digital talent and skills agenda among the many other actors that are playing a part. Looking ahead, it would also be critical to set out a strategy dedicated to developing digital talent and skills in the public sector, and in line with the Electronic Governance Strategy 2021-2025. The public sector organisation in-charge-of this mandate would then have the responsibility to implement and deliver on the strategy.

Currently, INAP is looking to further develop a plan to support public servants in upskilling and reskilling based on a study that was carried out in 2020 with the entire Luxembourg civil service and in line with the European Digital Competence Framework for Citizens (DigComp 2.1). The plan will involve stakeholders such as MDIGI, CTIE, Digital Luxembourg and the State Centre for Human Resources and Organisation Management (CGPO) as co-creators of the “Digital Skills” training such that it is aligned with the objectives of the strategy for digital transformation (The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2021[27]).

Should INAP be the public sector organisation that takes the helm of the digital talent and skills agenda in Luxembourg’s public sector, INAP will need to consider adopting a range of initiatives (besides training courses) aimed at creating an environment that truly supports digital transformation. This includes setting out a clear vision with a national strategy on digital talent and skills in the public sector, setting up mechanisms that foster a learning and innovative culture at the organisational-, team- and individual-level, and empowering public servants to use digital tools and data with a user-driven mindset.

At present, the OECD Digital Government Survey of Luxembourg shows that a large majority of ministries and administrations have in place such initiatives: 51% of the 39 public sector organisations that were surveyed have initiatives aimed at developing communities of practice, providing networking and mentoring, and developing skills and competencies for data and digitalisation for public servants. However, there is the other half that said that there are no such initiatives in their public sector organisation or do not know of such initiatives (OECD, 2021[28]) (Figure 3.5).

This underlines the message that the government of Luxembourg will need to look towards more consolidation, formalisation and standardisation of practices across ministries and administrations, in terms of equipping employees with the knowledge, tools and awareness to pursue digital transformation. Doing so will then contribute to an environment throughout the public sector that normalises change in the favour of employees and the public good. Box 3.6 presents several initiatives by OECD member countries to clarify the leadership, organisational structures, learning culture and ways of working to support digital transformation in the public sector.


[26] Digital Skills and Jobs Coalition Luxembourg (2022), “Digital Skills and Job Coalition”, European Commission, https://www.digitalcoalition.lu/ (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[14] Direction interministérielle du numérique (2022), Panorama des grands projets numériques de l’État, https://www.numerique.gouv.fr/publications/panorama-grands-projets-si/ (accessed on 22 August 2022).

[20] EUR-Lex (2018), Regulation (EU) 2018/1724 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 2 October 2018 establishing a single digital gateway to provide access to information, to procedures and to assistance and problem-solving services, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2018.295.01.0001.01.ENG (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[21] EUR-Lex (2016), Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (GDPR), https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2016/679/oj (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[25] European Commission (2021), Education and Training Monitor 2021: Luxembourg, https://op.europa.eu/webpub/eac/education-and-training-monitor-2021/en/luxembourg.html (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[19] G20/OECD (2021), G20 Compendium on the use of digital tools for public service continuity, https://assets.innovazione.gov.it/1628073696-g20detfoecdcompendiumdigitaltools.pdf.

[17] Government of the United Kingdom (n.d.), Communities, https://www.gov.uk/service-manual/communities.

[11] MITD (2021), The Declaration of G20 Digital Ministers, https://assets.innovazione.gov.it/1628084642-declaration-of-g20-digital-ministers-2021final.pdf.

[28] OECD (2021), Digital Government Survey of Luxembourg: Ministries and Administrations, unpublished.

[1] OECD (2021), The E-Leaders Handbook on the Governance of Digital Government, OECD Digital Government Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/ac7f2531-en.

[24] OECD (2021), “The OECD Framework for digital talent and skills in the public sector”, OECD Working Papers on Public Governance, No. 45, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/4e7c3f58-en.

[12] OECD (2020), “Digital Government Index: 2019 results”, OECD Public Governance Policy Papers, No. 03, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/4de9f5bb-en.

[18] OECD (2020), “The OECD Digital Government Policy Framework: Six dimensions of a Digital Government”, OECD Public Governance Policy Papers, No. 02, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/f64fed2a-en.

[13] OECD (2019), Digital Government Review of Panama: Enhancing the Digital Transformation of the Public Sector, OECD Digital Government Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/615a4180-en.

[23] OECD (2017), Skills for a High Performing Civil Service, OECD Public Governance Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264280724-en.

[2] OECD (2014), “Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies”, OECD Legal Instruments, OECD/LEGAL/0406, OECD, Paris, https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0406.

[16] Pirot, J. (2019), How digital, data and technology communities of practice can benefit you and your organisation, https://digitalpeople.blog.gov.uk/2019/08/29/how-digital-data-and-technology-communities-of-practice-can-benefit-you-and-your-organisation/ (accessed on 22 August 2022).

[22] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2022), GovTech Lab, Government IT Centre (CTIE), https://govtechlab.public.lu/en.html (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[7] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2021), “Digital Lëtzebuerg”, gouvernement.lu, https://gouvernement.lu/en/dossiers/2014/digital-letzebuerg.html#bloub-1 (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[4] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2021), “’Electronic Governance 2021-2025’ strategy”, gouvernement.lu, https://gouvernement.lu/en/dossiers.gouv_ctie%2Ben%2Bdossiers%2Bstrategie_gouvernance_electronique_2021_2025%2Bstrategie_gouvernance_electronique_2021_2025.html (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[27] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2021), Ministère de la Fonction publique - Rapport d’activité 2021, https://gouvernement.lu/dam-assets/fr/publications/rapport-activite/minist-fonction-publique-reforme-administrative/2021-rapport-activite-mfp.pdf.

[10] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2021), “Ministère des Finances - Plan pour la Reprise et la Résilience”, gouvernement.lu, https://mfin.gouvernement.lu/fr/dossiers/2021/planderelance.html (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[5] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2021), “Ministry for Digitalisation - Strategic axes: Four strategic axes for a common goal”, gouvernement.lu, https://digital.gouvernement.lu/en/axes.html (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[3] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2021), “Ministry for Digitalisation - The Ministry”, gouvernement.lu, https://digital.gouvernement.lu/en/le-ministere.html (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[8] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2018), “Grand-Ducal decree of 5 December 2018 establishing the Ministries”, Official Journal of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, http://data.legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/adm/agd/2018/12/05/b3633/jo (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[6] The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2014), “Actualités : Lancement de la stratégie “Digital Lëtzebuerg” par le Conseil de gouvernement des 3 et 4 juin 2014”, gouvernement.lu, https://gouvernement.lu/fr/actualites/toutes_actualites/articles/2014/06-juin/05-digital-letzebuerg.html (accessed on 15 June 2022).

[9] The Luxembourg Government (2021), “National Reform Programme of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2021: National Plan for a Green, Digital and Inclusive Transition”, gouvernement.lu, https://odc.gouvernement.lu/dam-assets/publications/rapport-etude-analyse/programme-national-de-reforme/2021-pnr-luxembourg/2021-nrp-luxembourg-en.pdf.

[15] Welby, B. and E. Tan (2022), “Designing and delivering public services in the digital age”, Going Digital Toolkit Note, No. 22, https://goingdigital.oecd.org/data/notes/No22_ToolkitNote_DigitalGovernment.pdf.


← 1. 48.71% of surveyed ministries and administrations responded “Moderate” or “Weak” to the question “Rank the relevance that the national digital government strategy has for your institution (e.g. mandates, alignment and relevance of the central strategy’s goals with your institutional goals, etc.).” (OECD, 2021[28])

← 2. 66.67% of surveyed ministries and administrations responded “No” or “I don’t know” to the question “Did your institution participate in [the exercise of formulating the current national digital government strategy]?” (OECD, 2021[28])

← 3. 51.28% of surveyed ministries and administrations responded “Yes, for all projects.” or “Yes, but only when the projects meet specific criteria (such as budget thresholds).” to the question “Does your ministry/administration regularly develop business cases or similar value proposition assessments for data, digital and technology projects?” (OECD, 2021[28])

← 4. 53.84% of surveyed ministries and administrations responded “Yes” to the question “Is there a standardised model for data, digital and information technology project management at the central government level?” in contrast to “No” or “I don’t know.” (OECD, 2021[28])

← 5. 64.10% of surveyed ministries and administrations responded “Yes, there is a specific ICT procurement strategy for the public sector.” to the question “Is there a central strategy covering public procurement of ICT goods and services?” in contrast to “No” or “No, but there is a whole-of-government procurement strategy that covers ICT procurement.” (OECD, 2021[28])

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2022

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at https://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions.