copy the linklink copied!Annex B2. Results for regions within countries

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Table II.B2.1 [1/4]. Students’ socio-economic status for regions within countries

 

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of 15-year-old population

Students’ socio-economic status measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)

All students

Variability in the index

Bottom quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Mean index

S.E.

s

S.D.

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

0.96

0.16

(0.02)

 

0.90

(0.01)

 

-1.06

(0.03)

 

-0.13

(0.03)

 

0.60

(0.03)

 

French Community

m

-0.05

(0.03)

 

0.95

(0.02)

 

-1.32

(0.03)

 

-0.33

(0.04)

 

0.36

(0.03)

 

German-speaking Community

m

0.18

(0.04)

 

0.85

(0.03)

 

-0.97

(0.07)

 

-0.07

(0.07)

 

0.57

(0.05)

 

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

m

0.46

(0.03)

 

0.81

(0.02)

 

-0.63

(0.04)

 

0.23

(0.04)

 

0.81

(0.03)

 

British Columbia

m

0.43

(0.04)

 

0.80

(0.02)

 

-0.66

(0.05)

 

0.23

(0.05)

 

0.80

(0.04)

 

Manitoba

m

0.17

(0.03)

 

0.87

(0.01)

 

-0.98

(0.04)

 

-0.12

(0.04)

 

0.54

(0.03)

 

New Brunswick

m

0.24

(0.03)

 

0.85

(0.02)

 

-0.90

(0.04)

 

-0.03

(0.04)

 

0.62

(0.03)

 

Newfoundland and Labrador

m

0.38

(0.04)

 

0.85

(0.03)

 

-0.74

(0.06)

 

0.13

(0.05)

 

0.73

(0.04)

 

Nova Scotia

m

0.33

(0.03)

 

0.82

(0.03)

 

-0.77

(0.04)

 

0.13

(0.04)

 

0.68

(0.03)

 

Ontario

m

0.48

(0.03)

 

0.81

(0.02)

 

-0.62

(0.04)

 

0.29

(0.04)

 

0.85

(0.03)

 

Prince Edward Island

m

0.32

(0.08)

 

0.80

(0.03)

 

-0.73

(0.06)

 

0.08

(0.10)

 

0.66

(0.10)

 

Québec

m

0.37

(0.02)

 

0.80

(0.01)

 

-0.71

(0.04)

 

0.17

(0.03)

 

0.73

(0.02)

 

Saskatchewan

m

0.29

(0.02)

 

0.84

(0.02)

 

-0.80

(0.04)

 

0.02

(0.03)

 

0.62

(0.02)

 

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

m

-0.56

(0.07)

 

1.13

(0.04)

 

-2.01

(0.07)

 

-0.98

(0.07)

 

-0.14

(0.10)

 

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

m

-0.20

(0.02)

 

0.80

(0.01)

 

-1.17

(0.02)

 

-0.53

(0.03)

 

0.04

(0.03)

 

Sardegna

m

-0.31

(0.04)

 

0.93

(0.01)

 

-1.47

(0.03)

 

-0.70

(0.04)

 

-0.02

(0.04)

 

Toscana

m

-0.21

(0.03)

 

0.89

(0.02)

 

-1.34

(0.04)

 

-0.54

(0.04)

 

0.08

(0.04)

 

Trento

m

-0.16

(0.02)

 

0.83

(0.02)

 

-1.19

(0.03)

 

-0.49

(0.03)

 

0.11

(0.04)

 

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

m

-0.35

(0.06)

 

1.05

(0.02)

 

-1.77

(0.07)

 

-0.67

(0.07)

 

0.09

(0.08)

 

Aragon

m

-0.02

(0.05)

 

0.99

(0.02)

 

-1.38

(0.06)

 

-0.26

(0.05)

 

0.42

(0.06)

 

Asturias

m

-0.09

(0.04)

 

1.03

(0.02)

 

-1.47

(0.06)

 

-0.41

(0.04)

 

0.35

(0.05)

 

Balearic Islands

m

-0.13

(0.05)

 

1.00

(0.03)

 

-1.48

(0.07)

 

-0.43

(0.06)

 

0.32

(0.06)

 

Basque Country

m

0.08

(0.03)

 

0.90

(0.01)

 

-1.14

(0.04)

 

-0.17

(0.04)

 

0.52

(0.03)

 

Canary Islands

m

-0.39

(0.04)

 

1.02

(0.02)

 

-1.74

(0.03)

 

-0.71

(0.04)

 

0.00

(0.06)

 

Cantabria

m

-0.02

(0.03)

 

0.93

(0.01)

 

-1.23

(0.04)

 

-0.31

(0.03)

 

0.33

(0.05)

 

Castile and Leon

m

-0.05

(0.05)

 

1.01

(0.02)

 

-1.44

(0.05)

 

-0.32

(0.05)

 

0.39

(0.06)

 

Castile-La Mancha

m

-0.25

(0.05)

 

1.07

(0.02)

 

-1.67

(0.04)

 

-0.61

(0.06)

 

0.18

(0.07)

 

Catalonia

m

0.09

(0.04)

 

0.97

(0.02)

 

-1.26

(0.06)

 

-0.15

(0.06)

 

0.56

(0.04)

 

Ceuta

m

-0.60

(0.05)

 

1.11

(0.03)

 

-2.11

(0.09)

 

-0.88

(0.09)

 

-0.15

(0.06)

 

Comunidad Valenciana

m

-0.20

(0.04)

 

1.04

(0.02)

 

-1.60

(0.04)

 

-0.52

(0.05)

 

0.26

(0.06)

 

Extremadura

m

-0.36

(0.06)

 

1.04

(0.02)

 

-1.74

(0.06)

 

-0.72

(0.07)

 

0.05

(0.06)

 

Galicia

m

-0.08

(0.03)

 

1.00

(0.03)

 

-1.40

(0.05)

 

-0.37

(0.03)

 

0.33

(0.04)

 

La Rioja

m

-0.15

(0.02)

 

1.01

(0.02)

 

-1.50

(0.04)

 

-0.43

(0.03)

 

0.28

(0.03)

 

Madrid

m

0.15

(0.04)

 

1.03

(0.02)

 

-1.26

(0.05)

 

-0.12

(0.05)

 

0.65

(0.04)

 

Melilla

m

-0.61

(0.07)

 

1.26

(0.05)

 

-2.27

(0.10)

 

-1.10

(0.10)

 

-0.08

(0.10)

 

Murcia

m

-0.41

(0.06)

 

1.08

(0.03)

 

-1.85

(0.07)

 

-0.74

(0.07)

 

0.02

(0.08)

 

Navarre

m

0.01

(0.03)

 

1.01

(0.03)

 

-1.38

(0.06)

 

-0.25

(0.04)

 

0.48

(0.04)

 

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

m

0.28

(0.03)

 

0.92

(0.01)

 

-0.95

(0.04)

 

0.01

(0.04)

 

0.69

(0.03)

 

Northern Ireland

m

0.20

(0.03)

 

0.87

(0.01)

 

-0.94

(0.03)

 

-0.11

(0.04)

 

0.57

(0.04)

 

Scotland*

0.85

0.22

(0.03)

 

0.87

(0.01)

 

-0.94

(0.02)

 

-0.05

(0.04)

 

0.61

(0.04)

 

Wales

m

0.23

(0.03)

 

0.85

(0.01)

 

-0.90

(0.03)

 

-0.04

(0.03)

 

0.59

(0.03)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.1 for national data.

Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.1 [2/4]. Students’ socio-economic status for regions within countries

 

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of 15-year-old population

Students’ socio-economic status measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)

All students

Variability in the index

Bottom quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Mean index

S.E.

s

S.D.

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

0.94

-0.22

(0.05)

 

1.08

(0.02)

 

-1.70

(0.07)

 

-0.53

(0.08)

 

0.32

(0.06)

 

Cordoba*

0.83

-0.83

(0.05)

 

1.12

(0.03)

 

-2.31

(0.06)

 

-1.22

(0.06)

 

-0.36

(0.06)

 

PBA*

0.81

-0.91

(0.06)

 

1.11

(0.02)

 

-2.33

(0.05)

 

-1.32

(0.07)

 

-0.53

(0.08)

 

Tucuman*

0.75

-1.11

(0.06)

 

1.25

(0.03)

 

-2.70

(0.06)

 

-1.62

(0.07)

 

-0.66

(0.08)

 

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

m

-1.20

(0.09)

 

1.21

(0.03)

 

-2.79

(0.10)

 

-1.61

(0.11)

 

-0.75

(0.13)

 

Northeast

m

-1.50

(0.06)

 

1.31

(0.03)

 

-3.19

(0.06)

 

-1.97

(0.06)

 

-1.04

(0.06)

 

South

m

-0.95

(0.07)

 

1.23

(0.03)

 

-2.56

(0.07)

 

-1.38

(0.08)

 

-0.51

(0.10)

 

Southeast

m

-0.93

(0.04)

 

1.13

(0.02)

 

-2.41

(0.05)

 

-1.30

(0.04)

 

-0.50

(0.04)

 

Middle-West

m

-0.79

(0.08)

 

1.10

(0.04)

 

-2.21

(0.08)

 

-1.18

(0.08)

 

-0.43

(0.10)

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

m

-1.29

(0.07)

 

1.09

(0.04)

 

-2.63

(0.07)

 

-1.73

(0.07)

 

-1.00

(0.09)

 

DKI Jakarta

m

-1.04

(0.10)

 

1.05

(0.05)

 

-2.32

(0.05)

 

-1.45

(0.08)

 

-0.77

(0.13)

 

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

m

-0.55

(0.03)

 

0.80

(0.02)

 

-1.53

(0.03)

 

-0.89

(0.04)

 

-0.29

(0.04)

 

Aktobe region

m

-0.49

(0.06)

 

0.83

(0.02)

 

-1.56

(0.05)

 

-0.81

(0.07)

 

-0.16

(0.07)

 

Almaty

m

-0.14

(0.06)

 

0.83

(0.02)

 

-1.25

(0.04)

 

-0.42

(0.08)

 

0.25

(0.06)

 

Almaty region

m

-0.53

(0.05)

 

0.84

(0.02)

 

-1.56

(0.06)

 

-0.88

(0.05)

 

-0.27

(0.06)

 

Astana

m

-0.09

(0.06)

 

0.82

(0.02)

 

-1.19

(0.06)

 

-0.34

(0.09)

 

0.29

(0.07)

 

Atyrau region

m

-0.53

(0.05)

 

0.83

(0.02)

 

-1.60

(0.05)

 

-0.84

(0.06)

 

-0.22

(0.06)

 

East-Kazakhstan region

m

-0.53

(0.07)

 

0.83

(0.03)

 

-1.59

(0.07)

 

-0.86

(0.08)

 

-0.24

(0.08)

 

Karagandy region

m

-0.37

(0.05)

 

0.80

(0.02)

 

-1.40

(0.06)

 

-0.67

(0.07)

 

-0.07

(0.06)

 

Kostanay region

m

-0.52

(0.04)

 

0.79

(0.02)

 

-1.51

(0.05)

 

-0.85

(0.06)

 

-0.22

(0.06)

 

Kyzyl-Orda region

m

-0.49

(0.06)

 

0.90

(0.02)

 

-1.65

(0.05)

 

-0.85

(0.07)

 

-0.13

(0.08)

 

Mangistau region

m

-0.40

(0.07)

 

0.83

(0.03)

 

-1.47

(0.07)

 

-0.71

(0.07)

 

-0.07

(0.09)

 

North-Kazakhstan region

m

-0.54

(0.04)

 

0.80

(0.02)

 

-1.52

(0.03)

 

-0.89

(0.05)

 

-0.25

(0.06)

 

Pavlodar region

m

-0.45

(0.06)

 

0.79

(0.02)

 

-1.46

(0.04)

 

-0.76

(0.06)

 

-0.17

(0.08)

 

South-Kazakhstan region

m

-0.44

(0.06)

 

0.86

(0.02)

 

-1.57

(0.05)

 

-0.76

(0.07)

 

-0.06

(0.08)

 

West-Kazakhstan region

m

-0.47

(0.04)

 

0.83

(0.02)

 

-1.54

(0.04)

 

-0.80

(0.05)

 

-0.17

(0.06)

 

Zhambyl region

m

-0.68

(0.07)

 

0.85

(0.02)

 

-1.74

(0.06)

 

-1.03

(0.07)

 

-0.40

(0.09)

 

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

m

0.34

(0.02)

 

0.69

(0.02)

 

-0.58

(0.04)

 

0.18

(0.03)

 

0.62

(0.02)

 

Republic of Tatarstan*

m

0.13

(0.02)

 

0.72

(0.01)

 

-0.81

(0.02)

 

-0.10

(0.02)

 

0.45

(0.02)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.1 for national data.

Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.1 [3/4]. Students’ socio-economic status for regions within countries

 

Students’ socio-economic status measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)

Fourth quarter

Top - Bottom quarter

5th percentile

95th percentile

95th - 5th percentile

Mean index

S.E.

s

Dif.

S.E.

s

Value

S.E.

s

Value

S.E.

s

Dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

1.23

(0.02)

 

2.29

(0.03)

 

-1.36

(0.04)

 

1.42

(0.01)

 

2.77

(0.04)

.

French Community

1.09

(0.03)

 

2.40

(0.04)

 

-1.63

(0.04)

 

1.32

(0.02)

 

2.95

(0.04)

.

German-speaking Community

1.18

(0.04)

 

2.15

(0.08)

 

-1.24

(0.12)

 

1.33

(0.10)

 

2.56

(0.16)

.

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

1.42

(0.03)

 

2.05

(0.04)

 

-0.94

(0.05)

 

1.62

(0.04)

 

2.57

(0.06)

.

British Columbia

1.35

(0.03)

 

2.02

(0.04)

 

-0.99

(0.05)

 

1.56

(0.03)

 

2.55

(0.05)

.

Manitoba

1.25

(0.03)

 

2.23

(0.04)

 

-1.30

(0.06)

 

1.51

(0.05)

 

2.81

(0.07)

.

New Brunswick

1.26

(0.03)

 

2.16

(0.05)

 

-1.21

(0.03)

 

1.46

(0.04)

 

2.67

(0.05)

.

Newfoundland and Labrador

1.38

(0.04)

 

2.12

(0.05)

 

-1.02

(0.07)

 

1.60

(0.05)

 

2.62

(0.08)

.

Nova Scotia

1.27

(0.03)

 

2.04

(0.04)

 

-1.06

(0.03)

 

1.49

(0.04)

 

2.54

(0.04)

.

Ontario

1.40

(0.02)

 

2.02

(0.04)

 

-0.94

(0.03)

 

1.57

(0.03)

 

2.51

(0.04)

.

Prince Edward Island

1.27

(0.08)

 

2.00

(0.06)

 

-0.96

(0.06)

 

1.47

(0.08)

 

2.43

(0.12)

.

Québec

1.30

(0.02)

 

2.01

(0.03)

 

-1.05

(0.06)

 

1.51

(0.03)

 

2.56

(0.06)

.

Saskatchewan

1.33

(0.03)

 

2.13

(0.04)

 

-1.10

(0.05)

 

1.58

(0.03)

 

2.68

(0.05)

.

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

0.91

(0.09)

 

2.92

(0.10)

 

-2.42

(0.06)

 

1.20

(0.09)

 

3.62

(0.10)

.

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

0.87

(0.04)

 

2.04

(0.04)

 

-1.45

(0.06)

 

1.14

(0.03)

 

2.59

(0.06)

.

Sardegna

0.95

(0.04)

 

2.42

(0.04)

 

-1.72

(0.03)

 

1.28

(0.04)

 

3.00

(0.04)

.

Toscana

0.96

(0.04)

 

2.30

(0.05)

 

-1.59

(0.05)

 

1.20

(0.03)

 

2.79

(0.05)

.

Trento

0.94

(0.03)

 

2.13

(0.04)

 

-1.45

(0.08)

 

1.18

(0.04)

 

2.63

(0.08)

.

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

0.95

(0.05)

 

2.72

(0.04)

 

-2.09

(0.07)

 

1.25

(0.05)

 

3.34

(0.06)

.

Aragon

1.14

(0.04)

 

2.52

(0.06)

 

-1.79

(0.06)

 

1.33

(0.03)

 

3.13

(0.07)

.

Asturias

1.17

(0.04)

 

2.64

(0.06)

 

-1.88

(0.06)

 

1.41

(0.04)

 

3.29

(0.07)

.

Balearic Islands

1.07

(0.05)

 

2.55

(0.07)

 

-1.82

(0.07)

 

1.35

(0.04)

 

3.17

(0.07)

.

Basque Country

1.12

(0.02)

 

2.26

(0.04)

 

-1.52

(0.04)

 

1.30

(0.03)

 

2.82

(0.04)

.

Canary Islands

0.90

(0.06)

 

2.65

(0.06)

 

-2.07

(0.03)

 

1.17

(0.06)

 

3.24

(0.07)

.

Cantabria

1.15

(0.03)

 

2.38

(0.04)

 

-1.64

(0.03)

 

1.37

(0.03)

 

3.01

(0.04)

.

Castile and Leon

1.15

(0.04)

 

2.58

(0.04)

 

-1.87

(0.04)

 

1.39

(0.04)

 

3.26

(0.05)

.

Castile-La Mancha

1.09

(0.04)

 

2.76

(0.04)

 

-2.00

(0.03)

 

1.35

(0.03)

 

3.35

(0.04)

.

Catalonia

1.20

(0.03)

 

2.46

(0.06)

 

-1.67

(0.06)

 

1.43

(0.04)

 

3.10

(0.07)

.

Ceuta

0.75

(0.06)

 

2.86

(0.09)

 

-2.54

(0.12)

 

1.04

(0.05)

 

3.59

(0.13)

.

Comunidad Valenciana

1.07

(0.05)

 

2.67

(0.05)

 

-1.97

(0.04)

 

1.36

(0.04)

 

3.33

(0.05)

.

Extremadura

0.96

(0.05)

 

2.70

(0.05)

 

-2.00

(0.06)

 

1.22

(0.06)

 

3.22

(0.07)

.

Galicia

1.13

(0.04)

 

2.53

(0.06)

 

-1.81

(0.06)

 

1.38

(0.05)

 

3.19

(0.08)

.

La Rioja

1.06

(0.02)

 

2.57

(0.05)

 

-1.89

(0.04)

 

1.31

(0.03)

 

3.21

(0.05)

.

Madrid

1.33

(0.02)

 

2.59

(0.05)

 

-1.70

(0.07)

 

1.55

(0.02)

 

3.24

(0.07)

.

Melilla

1.00

(0.07)

 

3.27

(0.12)

 

-2.74

(0.07)

 

1.28

(0.09)

 

4.02

(0.12)

.

Murcia

0.95

(0.07)

 

2.80

(0.07)

 

-2.22

(0.08)

 

1.24

(0.03)

 

3.47

(0.08)

.

Navarre

1.16

(0.02)

 

2.54

(0.06)

 

-1.85

(0.11)

 

1.37

(0.03)

 

3.22

(0.11)

.

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

1.38

(0.02)

 

2.33

(0.03)

 

-1.28

(0.04)

 

1.61

(0.02)

 

2.89

(0.04)

.

Northern Ireland

1.29

(0.03)

 

2.23

(0.03)

 

-1.20

(0.03)

 

1.54

(0.03)

 

2.74

(0.04)

.

Scotland*

1.27

(0.03)

 

2.21

(0.03)

 

-1.25

(0.03)

 

1.47

(0.03)

 

2.72

(0.04)

.

Wales

1.28

(0.03)

 

2.18

(0.03)

 

-1.18

(0.03)

 

1.50

(0.04)

 

2.68

(0.05)

.

* PISA adjudicated region.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.1 for national data.

Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

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Table II.B2.1 [4/4]. Students’ socio-economic status for regions within countries

 

Students’ socio-economic status measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)

Fourth quarter

Top - Bottom quarter

5th percentile

95th percentile

95th - 5th percentile

Mean index

S.E.

s

Dif.

S.E.

s

Value

S.E.

s

Value

S.E.

s

Dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

1.04

(0.03)

 

2.73

(0.06)

 

-2.17

(0.06)

 

1.26

(0.03)

 

3.43

(0.06)

.

Cordoba*

0.57

(0.05)

 

2.88

(0.07)

 

-2.69

(0.05)

 

0.87

(0.04)

 

3.56

(0.06)

.

PBA*

0.54

(0.06)

 

2.87

(0.05)

 

-2.70

(0.06)

 

0.90

(0.04)

 

3.59

(0.07)

.

Tucuman*

0.55

(0.08)

 

3.25

(0.08)

 

-3.03

(0.05)

 

0.91

(0.07)

 

3.94

(0.09)

.

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

0.34

(0.05)

 

3.13

(0.08)

 

-3.26

(0.09)

 

0.73

(0.08)

 

3.99

(0.11)

.

Northeast

0.19

(0.08)

 

3.38

(0.08)

 

-3.61

(0.05)

 

0.68

(0.06)

 

4.29

(0.07)

.

South

0.65

(0.08)

 

3.21

(0.08)

 

-2.99

(0.08)

 

1.03

(0.12)

 

4.02

(0.14)

.

Southeast

0.49

(0.05)

 

2.90

(0.06)

 

-2.85

(0.08)

 

0.84

(0.04)

 

3.68

(0.08)

.

Middle-West

0.64

(0.10)

 

2.85

(0.10)

 

-2.60

(0.08)

 

0.93

(0.10)

 

3.53

(0.10)

.

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

0.19

(0.10)

 

2.82

(0.10)

 

-3.02

(0.05)

 

0.64

(0.10)

 

3.65

(0.09)

.

DKI Jakarta

0.39

(0.16)

 

2.71

(0.13)

 

-2.65

(0.06)

 

0.78

(0.16)

 

3.43

(0.16)

.

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

0.52

(0.04)

 

2.05

(0.04)

 

-1.73

(0.05)

 

0.77

(0.03)

 

2.50

(0.05)

.

Aktobe region

0.59

(0.04)

 

2.15

(0.05)

 

-1.83

(0.06)

 

0.82

(0.03)

 

2.65

(0.06)

.

Almaty

0.88

(0.05)

 

2.13

(0.04)

 

-1.51

(0.05)

 

1.09

(0.07)

 

2.60

(0.06)

.

Almaty region

0.57

(0.04)

 

2.13

(0.05)

 

-1.78

(0.11)

 

0.81

(0.05)

 

2.59

(0.10)

.

Astana

0.88

(0.03)

 

2.07

(0.05)

 

-1.46

(0.06)

 

1.06

(0.04)

 

2.52

(0.06)

.

Atyrau region

0.54

(0.04)

 

2.13

(0.05)

 

-1.85

(0.06)

 

0.80

(0.04)

 

2.64

(0.07)

.

East-Kazakhstan region

0.55

(0.07)

 

2.14

(0.07)

 

-1.86

(0.08)

 

0.82

(0.09)

 

2.68

(0.10)

.

Karagandy region

0.67

(0.05)

 

2.06

(0.05)

 

-1.62

(0.06)

 

0.89

(0.05)

 

2.51

(0.06)

.

Kostanay region

0.50

(0.04)

 

2.01

(0.05)

 

-1.75

(0.08)

 

0.72

(0.04)

 

2.47

(0.09)

.

Kyzyl-Orda region

0.67

(0.05)

 

2.32

(0.04)

 

-1.89

(0.07)

 

0.92

(0.03)

 

2.81

(0.07)

.

Mangistau region

0.67

(0.07)

 

2.14

(0.07)

 

-1.72

(0.09)

 

0.89

(0.08)

 

2.60

(0.09)

.

North-Kazakhstan region

0.52

(0.05)

 

2.04

(0.05)

 

-1.71

(0.06)

 

0.76

(0.06)

 

2.47

(0.08)

.

Pavlodar region

0.57

(0.07)

 

2.03

(0.05)

 

-1.68

(0.05)

 

0.81

(0.06)

 

2.49

(0.06)

.

South-Kazakhstan region

0.65

(0.05)

 

2.23

(0.05)

 

-1.83

(0.08)

 

0.84

(0.04)

 

2.67

(0.08)

.

West-Kazakhstan region

0.61

(0.05)

 

2.15

(0.05)

 

-1.78

(0.03)

 

0.85

(0.08)

 

2.63

(0.08)

.

Zhambyl region

0.44

(0.07)

 

2.18

(0.06)

 

-1.96

(0.05)

 

0.69

(0.05)

 

2.65

(0.06)

.

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

1.13

(0.03)

 

1.71

(0.04)

 

-0.81

(0.04)

 

1.25

(0.04)

 

2.06

(0.06)

.

Republic of Tatarstan*

1.00

(0.02)

 

1.81

(0.02)

 

-1.01

(0.02)

 

1.15

(0.02)

 

2.16

(0.02)

.

* PISA adjudicated region.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.1 for national data.

Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.4 [1/6]. Socio-economic status and reading performance

 

Reading performance

Socio-economic gradients

Score, unadjusted

Score, adjusted by ESCS1

Strength: Percentage of variance in reading performance explained by ESCS (R2)

Slope: Score-point difference in reading performance associated with a one-unit increase in ESCS

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

Score dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

502

(3.4)

 

496

(3.0)

 

17.3

(1.1)

 

48

(1.9)

 

French Community

481

(3.0)

 

485

(2.7)

 

16.2

(1.6)

 

42

(2.3)

 

German-speaking Community

483

(4.6)

 

480

(5.0)

 

5.1

(3.0)

 

24

(7.0)

 

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

532

(4.3)

 

516

(4.3)

 

9.2

(1.9)

 

38

(4.0)

 

British Columbia

519

(4.5)

 

508

(4.0)

 

5.7

(1.5)

 

31

(4.3)

 

Manitoba

494

(3.4)

 

492

(3.3)

 

4.6

(1.2)

 

24

(3.2)

 

New Brunswick

489

(3.5)

 

483

(3.4)

 

5.6

(1.7)

 

29

(4.4)

 

Newfoundland and Labrador

512

(4.3)

 

510

(4.7)

 

5.1

(1.8)

 

26

(4.4)

 

Nova Scotia

516

(3.9)

 

508

(4.2)

 

6.1

(1.4)

 

31

(4.2)

 

Ontario

524

(3.5)

 

514

(3.5)

 

4.8

(0.9)

 

27

(2.9)

 

Prince Edward Island

503

(8.3)

 

492

(7.9)

 

7.9

(3.1)

 

36

(9.6)

 

Québec

519

(3.5)

 

507

(3.0)

 

9.4

(1.4)

 

36

(2.9)

 

Saskatchewan

499

(3.0)

 

492

(3.2)

 

8.7

(1.5)

 

33

(3.1)

 

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

455

(5.4)

 

475

(4.6)

 

19.3

(3.8)

 

35

(3.3)

 

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

495

(3.3)

 

502

(3.5)

 

7.5

(1.5)

 

31

(3.2)

 

Sardegna

462

(4.1)

 

469

(4.3)

 

4.6

(1.3)

 

21

(3.0)

 

Toscana

482

(4.0)

 

489

(3.7)

 

7.1

(1.3)

 

28

(2.9)

 

Trento

496

(2.3)

 

502

(2.6)

 

9.1

(1.6)

 

34

(3.1)

 

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Aragon

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Asturias

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Balearic Islands

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Basque Country

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Canary Islands

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Cantabria

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Castile and Leon

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Castile-La Mancha

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Catalonia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Ceuta

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Comunidad Valenciana

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Extremadura

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Galicia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

La Rioja

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Madrid

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Melilla

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Murcia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Navarre

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

505

(3.0)

 

499

(2.5)

 

9.8

(1.2)

 

34

(2.1)

 

Northern Ireland

501

(4.0)

 

498

(3.7)

 

6.9

(1.1)

 

29

(2.6)

 

Scotland*

504

(3.0)

 

498

(2.6)

 

8.3

(1.4)

 

32

(2.8)

 

Wales

483

(4.0)

 

483

(3.7)

 

4.0

(0.8)

 

22

(2.4)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.3 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.4 [2/6]. Socio-economic status and reading performance

 

Reading performance

Socio-economic gradients

Score, unadjusted

Score, adjusted by ESCS1

Strength: Percentage of variance in reading performance explained by ESCS (R2)

Slope: Score-point difference in reading performance associated with a one-unit increase in ESCS

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

Score dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

454

(5.4)

 

462

(4.5)

 

14.7

(2.7)

 

33

(3.1)

 

Cordoba*

427

(4.5)

 

455

(4.7)

 

16.7

(2.5)

 

33

(2.8)

 

PBA*

413

(5.8)

 

445

(5.9)

 

15.5

(3.0)

 

34

(3.5)

 

Tucuman*

389

(5.0)

 

427

(5.0)

 

19.8

(2.8)

 

34

(2.5)

 

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

392

(6.9)

 

424

(9.1)

 

11.8

(3.5)

 

26

(4.0)

 

Northeast

389

(4.2)

 

430

(6.5)

 

12.2

(2.6)

 

26

(3.0)

 

South

432

(6.3)

 

465

(5.1)

 

17.8

(3.0)

 

33

(2.9)

 

Southeast

424

(3.0)

 

452

(3.8)

 

11.1

(1.6)

 

29

(2.1)

 

Middle-West

425

(9.1)

 

454

(11.0)

 

13.5

(4.6)

 

35

(7.1)

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

414

(5.8)

 

448

(9.0)

 

11.8

(3.8)

 

26

(4.3)

 

DKI Jakarta

412

(7.0)

 

447

(9.9)

 

17.8

(5.9)

 

33

(6.1)

 

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

395

(4.5)

 

400

(5.1)

 

0.8

(0.4)

 

8

(2.6)

 

Aktobe region

381

(4.3)

 

389

(4.1)

 

4.4

(1.5)

 

17

(2.9)

 

Almaty

424

(7.8)

 

428

(7.5)

 

4.2

(2.3)

 

21

(6.3)

 

Almaty region

360

(4.4)

 

366

(4.5)

 

2.1

(1.1)

 

12

(3.2)

 

Astana

428

(7.4)

 

430

(6.6)

 

9.5

(2.1)

 

30

(4.3)

 

Atyrau region

344

(4.4)

 

354

(4.5)

 

5.3

(1.9)

 

19

(3.5)

 

East-Kazakhstan region

405

(6.4)

 

417

(6.6)

 

6.3

(3.2)

 

23

(6.4)

 

Karagandy region

422

(6.8)

 

430

(7.8)

 

4.0

(2.3)

 

21

(6.2)

 

Kostanay region

417

(5.1)

 

428

(5.7)

 

4.4

(1.7)

 

20

(4.1)

 

Kyzyl-Orda region

366

(2.8)

 

373

(3.1)

 

4.2

(1.3)

 

13

(2.2)

 

Mangistau region

361

(5.8)

 

368

(6.2)

 

4.9

(2.3)

 

19

(4.6)

 

North-Kazakhstan region

413

(5.0)

 

421

(6.2)

 

2.3

(1.3)

 

15

(4.3)

 

Pavlodar region

391

(6.5)

 

398

(7.2)

 

2.6

(1.6)

 

17

(5.1)

 

South-Kazakhstan region

368

(3.5)

 

373

(3.6)

 

2.1

(0.9)

 

11

(2.1)

 

West-Kazakhstan region

378

(4.9)

 

387

(4.9)

 

4.7

(1.3)

 

19

(3.0)

 

Zhambyl region

369

(3.6)

 

375

(4.1)

 

1.3

(0.8)

 

8

(2.8)

 

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

486

(4.7)

 

479

(5.4)

 

2.8

(1.2)

 

22

(5.1)

 

Republic of Tatarstan*

463

(3.1)

 

460

(2.8)

 

4.6

(1.1)

 

27

(3.3)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.3 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.4 [3/6]. Socio-economic status and reading performance

 

Reading performance, by socio-economic status (ESCS)

National quarter of ESCS

Bottom quarter of ESCS

Second quarter of ESCS

Third quarter of ESCS

Top quarter of ESCS

Top - Bottom quarter

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Score dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

448

(4.6)

 

483

(5.3)

 

524

(4.8)

 

558

(3.1)

 

110

(5.1)

 

French Community

430

(4.2)

 

468

(5.0)

 

497

(5.1)

 

538

(5.1)

 

107

(6.7)

 

German-speaking Community

460

(11.2)

 

480

(10.5)

 

487

(9.5)

 

512

(10.1)

 

52

(16.0)

 

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

492

(6.9)

 

521

(7.2)

 

553

(5.2)

 

568

(6.0)

 

76

(9.2)

 

British Columbia

483

(6.4)

 

515

(5.8)

 

541

(6.1)

 

545

(8.0)

 

61

(9.8)

 

Manitoba

468

(5.7)

 

487

(5.2)

 

504

(5.4)

 

526

(5.8)

 

58

(8.2)

 

New Brunswick

460

(6.3)

 

477

(6.4)

 

500

(6.3)

 

524

(7.6)

 

63

(10.6)

 

Newfoundland and Labrador

491

(7.9)

 

514

(8.5)

 

528

(7.5)

 

546

(8.0)

 

55

(9.9)

 

Nova Scotia

480

(6.0)

 

510

(5.9)

 

537

(6.9)

 

543

(8.1)

 

63

(8.3)

 

Ontario

492

(5.3)

 

518

(4.9)

 

542

(5.9)

 

555

(4.8)

 

63

(6.7)

 

Prince Edward Island

472

(13.7)

 

484

(17.1)

 

510

(12.4)

 

549

(13.3)

 

76

(18.0)

 

Québec

482

(4.7)

 

510

(4.9)

 

538

(5.0)

 

554

(4.9)

 

71

(6.2)

 

Saskatchewan

465

(5.2)

 

491

(5.7)

 

510

(5.0)

 

539

(4.8)

 

74

(6.8)

 

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

409

(7.1)

 

438

(7.3)

 

462

(6.9)

 

515

(12.3)

 

106

(14.1)

 

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

466

(5.4)

 

493

(5.4)

 

500

(7.0)

 

525

(5.8)

 

60

(7.2)

 

Sardegna

436

(5.8)

 

458

(5.6)

 

468

(7.4)

 

485

(6.3)

 

49

(7.6)

 

Toscana

447

(6.0)

 

480

(6.7)

 

495

(6.6)

 

512

(5.6)

 

65

(6.8)

 

Trento

461

(5.1)

 

489

(6.6)

 

505

(6.3)

 

533

(6.6)

 

72

(8.4)

 

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Aragon

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Asturias

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Balearic Islands

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Basque Country

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Canary Islands

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Cantabria

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Castile and Leon

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Castile-La Mancha

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Catalonia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Ceuta

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Comunidad Valenciana

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Extremadura

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Galicia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

La Rioja

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Madrid

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Melilla

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Murcia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Navarre

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

471

(3.8)

 

495

(4.3)

 

517

(4.4)

 

553

(4.6)

 

82

(5.7)

 

Northern Ireland

476

(4.8)

 

483

(6.3)

 

516

(7.1)

 

539

(6.6)

 

62

(6.8)

 

Scotland*

472

(4.8)

 

492

(4.6)

 

515

(5.8)

 

544

(5.3)

 

72

(6.9)

 

Wales

466

(4.7)

 

478

(5.6)

 

491

(5.9)

 

515

(5.8)

 

49

(6.6)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.3 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.4 [4/6]. Socio-economic status and reading performance

 

Reading performance, by socio-economic status (ESCS)

National quarter of ESCS

Bottom quarter of ESCS

Second quarter of ESCS

Third quarter of ESCS

Top quarter of ESCS

Top - Bottom quarter

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Score dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

409

(6.5)

 

443

(8.3)

 

463

(7.4)

 

505

(7.8)

 

96

(9.5)

 

Cordoba*

376

(6.6)

 

416

(5.7)

 

446

(6.4)

 

472

(7.2)

 

96

(9.5)

 

PBA*

369

(5.9)

 

397

(8.1)

 

423

(8.2)

 

466

(9.9)

 

97

(11.4)

 

Tucuman*

341

(5.5)

 

363

(7.0)

 

404

(9.6)

 

451

(7.7)

 

110

(9.6)

 

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

350

(7.8)

 

390

(8.7)

 

399

(11.9)

 

432

(11.4)

 

82

(12.6)

 

Northeast

355

(5.1)

 

376

(4.8)

 

389

(6.5)

 

443

(10.7)

 

88

(12.4)

 

South

390

(8.4)

 

414

(7.4)

 

435

(9.7)

 

496

(9.1)

 

106

(11.2)

 

Southeast

389

(3.5)

 

407

(4.2)

 

432

(4.4)

 

473

(6.7)

 

84

(7.2)

 

Middle-West

391

(8.7)

 

401

(13.2)

 

425

(12.0)

 

488

(21.4)

 

97

(23.0)

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

388

(6.3)

 

395

(5.8)

 

413

(8.6)

 

460

(13.6)

 

73

(14.3)

 

DKI Jakarta

378

(4.7)

 

391

(5.6)

 

415

(8.9)

 

465

(21.2)

 

86

(22.3)

 

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

388

(4.8)

 

391

(6.3)

 

398

(7.0)

 

404

(6.6)

 

16

(6.0)

 

Aktobe region

361

(5.7)

 

376

(6.7)

 

387

(6.9)

 

399

(5.2)

 

38

(6.4)

 

Almaty

401

(8.1)

 

422

(9.5)

 

428

(11.4)

 

448

(12.2)

 

47

(13.8)

 

Almaty region

348

(5.6)

 

356

(5.8)

 

362

(6.6)

 

374

(6.1)

 

26

(6.7)

 

Astana

396

(7.4)

 

418

(9.9)

 

441

(9.3)

 

455

(9.1)

 

59

(10.4)

 

Atyrau region

325

(5.8)

 

344

(7.1)

 

342

(7.1)

 

364

(5.7)

 

39

(8.0)

 

East-Kazakhstan region

380

(10.3)

 

401

(6.6)

 

410

(9.4)

 

429

(10.6)

 

49

(14.5)

 

Karagandy region

398

(6.3)

 

422

(8.1)

 

427

(10.9)

 

443

(11.9)

 

45

(13.2)

 

Kostanay region

396

(7.8)

 

417

(6.2)

 

422

(8.2)

 

434

(7.9)

 

39

(8.9)

 

Kyzyl-Orda region

351

(4.8)

 

362

(4.5)

 

373

(5.2)

 

380

(4.6)

 

29

(6.1)

 

Mangistau region

345

(6.1)

 

353

(5.3)

 

362

(8.0)

 

383

(11.6)

 

39

(11.9)

 

North-Kazakhstan region

397

(6.4)

 

410

(6.1)

 

413

(8.7)

 

431

(8.5)

 

34

(9.1)

 

Pavlodar region

379

(8.1)

 

383

(6.6)

 

391

(5.6)

 

411

(12.8)

 

33

(12.9)

 

South-Kazakhstan region

359

(4.8)

 

361

(3.5)

 

370

(6.9)

 

383

(4.7)

 

24

(5.3)

 

West-Kazakhstan region

360

(5.5)

 

370

(6.7)

 

391

(8.2)

 

393

(6.0)

 

33

(6.9)

 

Zhambyl region

359

(5.9)

 

369

(5.0)

 

369

(5.1)

 

380

(5.8)

 

21

(7.2)

 

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

462

(7.9)

 

480

(6.8)

 

495

(6.3)

 

509

(5.5)

 

47

(9.0)

 

Republic of Tatarstan*

437

(3.6)

 

450

(3.2)

 

478

(4.1)

 

487

(6.0)

 

50

(6.5)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.3 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.4 [5/6]. Socio-economic status and reading performance

 

Reading performance, by socio-economic status (ESCS)

National decile of ESCS

Below the bottom decile of ESCS

Above the top decile of ESCS

Above top - Below bottom deciles of ESCS

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Score dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

428

(6.0)

 

569

(5.4)

 

141

(7.8)

 

French Community

414

(5.5)

 

548

(5.8)

 

134

(8.0)

 

German-speaking Community

438

(21.8)

 

518

(16.9)

 

80

(27.1)

 

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

478

(10.8)

 

574

(9.5)

 

96

(15.8)

 

British Columbia

467

(7.8)

 

543

(11.1)

 

76

(13.7)

 

Manitoba

459

(11.0)

 

519

(9.6)

 

60

(14.1)

 

New Brunswick

441

(10.4)

 

515

(14.0)

 

74

(18.2)

 

Newfoundland and Labrador

474

(14.1)

 

542

(12.6)

 

68

(18.0)

 

Nova Scotia

473

(10.0)

 

550

(12.5)

 

76

(15.2)

 

Ontario

485

(7.3)

 

543

(5.6)

 

58

(8.4)

 

Prince Edward Island

465

(19.7)

 

532

(18.7)

 

66

(25.1)

 

Québec

469

(7.3)

 

564

(6.3)

 

96

(9.6)

 

Saskatchewan

450

(8.0)

 

543

(8.8)

 

93

(12.6)

 

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

401

(7.0)

 

539

(13.8)

 

138

(15.1)

 

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

439

(7.7)

 

554

(7.3)

 

115

(10.4)

 

Sardegna

422

(9.7)

 

505

(9.1)

 

83

(12.9)

 

Toscana

428

(11.9)

 

518

(7.6)

 

90

(14.5)

 

Trento

441

(8.7)

 

543

(9.5)

 

102

(12.0)

 

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Aragon

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Asturias

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Balearic Islands

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Basque Country

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Canary Islands

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Cantabria

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Castile and Leon

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Castile-La Mancha

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Catalonia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Ceuta

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Comunidad Valenciana

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Extremadura

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Galicia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

La Rioja

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Madrid

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Melilla

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Murcia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Navarre

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

452

(6.4)

 

553

(6.3)

 

100

(8.4)

 

Northern Ireland

461

(7.0)

 

549

(7.0)

 

88

(9.3)

 

Scotland*

461

(6.4)

 

549

(7.2)

 

88

(9.6)

 

Wales

457

(6.9)

 

528

(7.1)

 

71

(9.0)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.3 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.4 [6/6]. Socio-economic status and reading performance

 

Reading performance, by socio-economic status (ESCS)

National decile of ESCS

Below the bottom decile of ESCS

Above the top decile of ESCS

Above top - Below bottom deciles of ESCS

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Score dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

395

(7.4)

 

508

(8.9)

 

113

(12.0)

 

Cordoba*

356

(9.4)

 

488

(8.6)

 

132

(13.4)

 

PBA*

361

(10.1)

 

495

(9.0)

 

134

(13.4)

 

Tucuman*

331

(7.9)

 

469

(12.2)

 

137

(14.4)

 

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

336

(9.2)

 

465

(16.2)

 

129

(17.3)

 

Northeast

346

(6.3)

 

481

(18.2)

 

135

(19.7)

 

South

375

(11.4)

 

529

(11.8)

 

154

(15.5)

 

Southeast

387

(5.6)

 

502

(10.1)

 

115

(11.5)

 

Middle-West

392

(13.6)

 

522

(34.0)

 

130

(35.8)

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

381

(7.1)

 

482

(16.3)

 

101

(18.2)

 

DKI Jakarta

371

(5.2)

 

497

(22.0)

 

126

(23.9)

 

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

374

(7.6)

 

402

(10.4)

 

28

(10.1)

 

Aktobe region

354

(6.8)

 

396

(6.4)

 

42

(9.2)

 

Almaty

383

(10.4)

 

444

(13.6)

 

62

(18.2)

 

Almaty region

346

(8.7)

 

379

(7.6)

 

32

(11.2)

 

Astana

388

(7.6)

 

467

(11.1)

 

79

(13.4)

 

Atyrau region

310

(7.5)

 

370

(7.4)

 

60

(9.5)

 

East-Kazakhstan region

362

(22.8)

 

433

(16.6)

 

70

(28.4)

 

Karagandy region

391

(8.1)

 

453

(12.6)

 

62

(17.5)

 

Kostanay region

377

(10.8)

 

438

(9.5)

 

61

(13.7)

 

Kyzyl-Orda region

341

(7.2)

 

387

(6.3)

 

45

(9.7)

 

Mangistau region

338

(8.9)

 

388

(13.3)

 

50

(15.1)

 

North-Kazakhstan region

394

(9.2)

 

434

(11.4)

 

41

(13.8)

 

Pavlodar region

368

(13.3)

 

421

(15.8)

 

53

(18.1)

 

South-Kazakhstan region

354

(7.8)

 

381

(8.0)

 

27

(10.0)

 

West-Kazakhstan region

352

(10.0)

 

402

(8.9)

 

50

(12.8)

 

Zhambyl region

351

(6.5)

 

382

(7.2)

 

31

(9.6)

 

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

461

(10.7)

 

503

(8.6)

 

42

(13.7)

 

Republic of Tatarstan*

425

(5.2)

 

483

(8.2)

 

57

(9.5)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

Notes: See Table II.B1.2.3 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

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Table II.B2.9 [1/4]. Total variation in reading performance, and variation between and within schools

 

Sample size

Coverage1

Mean reading performance

Total variation in reading performance2

Variation in reading performance between schools3

Variation in reading performance within schools

Number of schools

%

Mean score

S.E.

s

Variance

S.E.

s

Variance

S.E.

s

Variance

S.E.

s

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

159

97.3

506

(3.5)

 

10309

(409)

 

4424

(439)

 

5865

(180)

 

French Community

97

94.2

489

(2.8)

 

9095

(314)

 

3175

(330)

 

5891

(218)

 

German-speaking Community

9

98.9

484

(4.6)

 

8232

(628)

 

1853

(1033)

 

6345

(440)

 

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

79

96.6

532

(4.3)

 

10298

(468)

 

1284

(262)

 

8968

(389)

 

British Columbia

83

99.7

520

(4.5)

 

10750

(444)

 

949

(274)

 

9912

(370)

 

Manitoba

93

99.3

495

(3.4)

 

9773

(325)

 

936

(245)

 

8876

(343)

 

New Brunswick

53

100.0

489

(3.5)

 

10653

(504)

 

772

(239)

 

9978

(550)

 

Newfoundland and Labrador

46

99.8

512

(4.3)

 

9902

(555)

 

332

(158)

 

9612

(445)

 

Nova Scotia

52

91.7

514

(3.9)

 

10391

(502)

 

709

(269)

 

9651

(446)

 

Ontario

146

100.0

524

(3.5)

 

10233

(317)

 

1052

(177)

 

9235

(282)

 

Prince Edward Island

9

76.3

505

(13.0)

 

11470

(1012)

 

1711

(861)

 

9577

(893)

 

Québec

139

97.8

521

(3.5)

 

8785

(338)

 

1723

(281)

 

7034

(271)

 

Saskatchewan

87

99.6

499

(3.0)

 

8963

(414)

 

456

(182)

 

8493

(403)

 

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

58

100.0

455

(5.4)

 

8013

(514)

 

2916

(497)

 

5115

(201)

 

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

81

99.7

496

(3.3)

 

7870

(353)

 

2535

(389)

 

5370

(322)

 

Sardegna

71

98.9

463

(4.1)

 

8317

(377)

 

2855

(418)

 

5414

(238)

 

Toscana

70

99.7

482

(4.0)

 

8804

(460)

 

3006

(542)

 

5669

(261)

 

Trento

57

99.6

497

(2.3)

 

8576

(369)

 

3669

(601)

 

4926

(250)

 

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

53

98.8

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Aragon

52

98.7

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Asturias

55

98.5

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Balearic Islands

53

97.0

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Basque Country

128

97.6

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Canary Islands

54

96.8

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Cantabria

56

99.1

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Castile and Leon

59

98.3

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Castile-La Mancha

53

99.0

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Catalonia

50

98.3

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Ceuta

12

97.6

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Comunidad Valenciana

53

97.9

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Extremadura

54

97.9

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Galicia

60

98.5

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

La Rioja

45

98.2

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Madrid

143

98.2

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Melilla

8

99.5

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Murcia

52

96.2

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Navarre

49

97.9

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

175

100.0

505

(3.0)

 

10165

(302)

 

1812

(255)

 

8315

(205)

 

Northern Ireland

79

100.0

501

(4.0)

 

9515

(432)

 

3353

(436)

 

6123

(296)

 

Scotland*

110

100.0

504

(3.0)

 

8995

(352)

 

789

(221)

 

8249

(294)

 

Wales

107

100.0

483

(4.0)

 

9389

(304)

 

1372

(215)

 

7989

(280)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

2. The total variation in student performance is calculated from the square of the standard deviation for all students. Due to the unbalanced, clustered nature of the data, the sum of the between- and within-school variation components, as an estimate from a sample, does not necessarily add up to the total.

3. In some countries/economies, subunits within schools were sampled instead of schools; this may affect the estimation of between-school variation components (see Annex A3).

4. The index of academic inclusion is calculated as 100*(1-rho), where rho stands for the intra-class correlation of performance. The intra-class correlation, in turn, is the variation in student performance between schools, divided by the sum of the variation in student performance between schools and the variation in student performance within schools, and multiplied by 100.

Notes: See Table II.B1.4.1 for national data.

Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

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Table II.B2.9 [2/4]. Total variation in reading performance, and variation between and within schools

 

Sample size

Coverage1

Mean reading performance

Total variation in reading performance2

Variation in reading performance between schools3

Variation in reading performance within schools

Number of schools

%

Mean score

S.E.

s

Variance

S.E.

s

Variance

S.E.

s

Variance

S.E.

s

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

81

100.0

454

(5.4)

 

8711

(433)

 

2848

(419)

 

5841

(250)

 

Cordoba*

83

100.0

427

(4.5)

 

8289

(452)

 

2972

(421)

 

5291

(196)

 

PBA*

87

100.0

413

(5.8)

 

9359

(443)

 

3343

(503)

 

5982

(260)

 

Tucuman*

85

100.0

389

(5.0)

 

9145

(472)

 

3697

(496)

 

5397

(184)

 

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

37

74.5

413

(8.0)

 

8071

(507)

 

2648

(807)

 

5383

(353)

 

Northeast

118

68.8

421

(4.6)

 

8843

(630)

 

3294

(652)

 

5535

(242)

 

South

71

88.3

442

(6.0)

 

9070

(593)

 

3218

(589)

 

5813

(351)

 

Southeast

187

90.5

431

(2.9)

 

9472

(305)

 

3119

(411)

 

6360

(200)

 

Middle-West

37

87.5

439

(8.9)

 

9954

(1220)

 

3857

(1360)

 

6158

(449)

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

58

100.0

414

(5.8)

 

6932

(531)

 

3656

(655)

 

3252

(174)

 

DKI Jakarta

60

100.0

412

(7.0)

 

6961

(814)

 

3764

(793)

 

3207

(290)

 

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

44

87.1

395

(4.9)

 

6224

(363)

 

1126

(338)

 

5120

(343)

 

Aktobe region

32

78.6

390

(5.3)

 

4749

(346)

 

1205

(459)

 

3864

(346)

 

Almaty

21

71.2

446

(9.5)

 

7020

(746)

 

2015

(752)

 

4889

(474)

 

Almaty region

31

86.5

361

(4.8)

 

4753

(323)

 

799

(276)

 

4155

(269)

 

Astana

24

81.5

439

(8.0)

 

6557

(469)

 

1661

(430)

 

5013

(280)

 

Atyrau region

26

75.3

349

(4.5)

 

4643

(408)

 

980

(403)

 

3897

(328)

 

East-Kazakhstan region

37

82.8

415

(6.4)

 

5795

(445)

 

1598

(420)

 

4389

(387)

 

Karagandy region

28

72.1

426

(8.2)

 

7389

(690)

 

2346

(684)

 

5202

(447)

 

Kostanay region

40

85.8

424

(5.3)

 

5541

(341)

 

1360

(381)

 

4526

(314)

 

Kyzyl-Orda region

27

70.9

378

(3.6)

 

3560

(315)

 

667

(293)

 

3140

(335)

 

Mangistau region

22

78.7

369

(6.3)

 

4985

(451)

 

1479

(514)

 

3656

(353)

 

North-Kazakhstan region

54

86.2

415

(5.5)

 

6002

(362)

 

1210

(376)

 

4965

(255)

 

Pavlodar region

35

86.8

393

(7.3)

 

6899

(432)

 

2391

(461)

 

4761

(338)

 

South-Kazakhstan region

32

83.7

368

(3.6)

 

4045

(346)

 

681

(220)

 

3529

(326)

 

West-Kazakhstan region

35

78.9

384

(5.3)

 

5131

(377)

 

1588

(318)

 

3624

(343)

 

Zhambyl region

28

80.0

375

(4.1)

 

3907

(311)

 

1080

(346)

 

2996

(257)

 

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

59

98.3

487

(4.8)

 

8404

(402)

 

1170

(248)

 

7254

(260)

 

Republic of Tatarstan*

232

98.7

463

(3.1)

 

8298

(293)

 

2072

(273)

 

6455

(162)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

2. The total variation in student performance is calculated from the square of the standard deviation for all students. Due to the unbalanced, clustered nature of the data, the sum of the between- and within-school variation components, as an estimate from a sample, does not necessarily add up to the total.

3. In some countries/economies, subunits within schools were sampled instead of schools; this may affect the estimation of between-school variation components (see Annex A3).

4. The index of academic inclusion is calculated as 100*(1-rho), where rho stands for the intra-class correlation of performance. The intra-class correlation, in turn, is the variation in student performance between schools, divided by the sum of the variation in student performance between schools and the variation in student performance within schools, and multiplied by 100.

Notes: See Table II.B1.4.1 for national data.

Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

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Table II.B2.9 [3/4]. Total variation in reading performance, and variation between and within schools

 

As a percentage of the average total variation in reading performance across OECD countries

Index of academic inclusion4

Total variation

Between-school variation

Within-school variation

%

%

%

%

S.E.

s

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

106.0

45.5

60.3

57.0

(2.7)

 

French Community

93.5

32.6

60.6

65.0

(2.7)

 

German-speaking Community

84.7

19.1

65.2

77.4

(10.1)

 

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

105.9

13.2

92.2

87.5

(2.3)

 

British Columbia

110.5

9.8

101.9

91.3

(2.4)

 

Manitoba

100.5

9.6

91.3

90.5

(2.3)

 

New Brunswick

109.5

7.9

102.6

92.8

(2.1)

 

Newfoundland and Labrador

101.8

3.4

98.8

96.7

(1.6)

 

Nova Scotia

106.9

7.3

99.2

93.2

(2.4)

 

Ontario

105.2

10.8

95.0

89.8

(1.6)

 

Prince Edward Island

117.9

17.6

98.5

84.8

(6.5)

 

Québec

90.3

17.7

72.3

80.3

(2.7)

 

Saskatchewan

92.2

4.7

87.3

94.9

(2.0)

 

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

82.4

30.0

52.6

63.7

(4.2)

 

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

80.9

26.1

55.2

67.9

(3.7)

 

Sardegna

85.5

29.4

55.7

65.5

(3.5)

 

Toscana

90.5

30.9

58.3

65.3

(4.4)

 

Trento

88.2

37.7

50.7

57.3

(4.5)

 

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

m

m

m

m

m

 

Aragon

m

m

m

m

m

 

Asturias

m

m

m

m

m

 

Balearic Islands

m

m

m

m

m

 

Basque Country

m

m

m

m

m

 

Canary Islands

m

m

m

m

m

 

Cantabria

m

m

m

m

m

 

Castile and Leon

m

m

m

m

m

 

Castile-La Mancha

m

m

m

m

m

 

Catalonia

m

m

m

m

m

 

Ceuta

m

m

m

m

m

 

Comunidad Valenciana

m

m

m

m

m

 

Extremadura

m

m

m

m

m

 

Galicia

m

m

m

m

m

 

La Rioja

m

m

m

m

m

 

Madrid

m

m

m

m

m

 

Melilla

m

m

m

m

m

 

Murcia

m

m

m

m

m

 

Navarre

m

m

m

m

m

 

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

104.5

18.6

85.5

82.1

(2.2)

 

Northern Ireland

97.8

34.5

63.0

64.6

(3.3)

 

Scotland*

92.5

8.1

84.8

91.3

(2.3)

 

Wales

96.5

14.1

82.1

85.3

(2.1)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

2. The total variation in student performance is calculated from the square of the standard deviation for all students. Due to the unbalanced, clustered nature of the data, the sum of the between- and within-school variation components, as an estimate from a sample, does not necessarily add up to the total.

3. In some countries/economies, subunits within schools were sampled instead of schools; this may affect the estimation of between-school variation components (see Annex A3).

4. The index of academic inclusion is calculated as 100*(1-rho), where rho stands for the intra-class correlation of performance. The intra-class correlation, in turn, is the variation in student performance between schools, divided by the sum of the variation in student performance between schools and the variation in student performance within schools, and multiplied by 100.

Notes: See Table II.B1.4.1 for national data.

Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

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Table II.B2.9 [4/4]. Total variation in reading performance, and variation between and within schools

 

As a percentage of the average total variation in reading performance across OECD countries

Index of academic inclusion4

Total variation

Between-school variation

Within-school variation

%

%

%

%

S.E.

s

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

89.6

29.3

60.1

67.2

(3.6)

 

Cordoba*

85.2

30.6

54.4

64.0

(3.6)

 

PBA*

96.2

34.4

61.5

64.1

(3.8)

 

Tucuman*

94.0

38.0

55.5

59.4

(3.5)

 

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

83.0

27.2

55.4

67.0

(6.9)

 

Northeast

90.9

33.9

56.9

62.7

(5.0)

 

South

93.3

33.1

59.8

64.4

(4.7)

 

Southeast

97.4

32.1

65.4

67.1

(3.1)

 

Middle-West

102.4

39.7

63.3

61.5

(8.9)

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

71.3

37.6

33.4

47.1

(5.0)

 

DKI Jakarta

71.6

38.7

33.0

46.0

(5.8)

 

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

64.0

11.6

52.6

82.0

(4.7)

 

Aktobe region

48.8

12.4

39.7

76.2

(6.6)

 

Almaty

72.2

20.7

50.3

70.8

(8.3)

 

Almaty region

48.9

8.2

42.7

83.9

(4.7)

 

Astana

67.4

17.1

51.5

75.1

(4.9)

 

Atyrau region

47.7

10.1

40.1

79.9

(6.5)

 

East-Kazakhstan region

59.6

16.4

45.1

73.3

(5.5)

 

Karagandy region

76.0

24.1

53.5

68.9

(6.8)

 

Kostanay region

57.0

14.0

46.5

76.9

(5.2)

 

Kyzyl-Orda region

36.6

6.9

32.3

82.5

(6.2)

 

Mangistau region

51.3

15.2

37.6

71.2

(6.5)

 

North-Kazakhstan region

61.7

12.4

51.1

80.4

(5.1)

 

Pavlodar region

70.9

24.6

49.0

66.6

(5.0)

 

South-Kazakhstan region

41.6

7.0

36.3

83.8

(4.7)

 

West-Kazakhstan region

52.8

16.3

37.3

69.5

(4.7)

 

Zhambyl region

40.2

11.1

30.8

73.5

(5.9)

 

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

86.4

12.0

74.6

86.1

(2.6)

 

Republic of Tatarstan*

85.3

21.3

66.4

75.7

(2.6)

 

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

2. The total variation in student performance is calculated from the square of the standard deviation for all students. Due to the unbalanced, clustered nature of the data, the sum of the between- and within-school variation components, as an estimate from a sample, does not necessarily add up to the total.

3. In some countries/economies, subunits within schools were sampled instead of schools; this may affect the estimation of between-school variation components (see Annex A3).

4. The index of academic inclusion is calculated as 100*(1-rho), where rho stands for the intra-class correlation of performance. The intra-class correlation, in turn, is the variation in student performance between schools, divided by the sum of the variation in student performance between schools and the variation in student performance within schools, and multiplied by 100.

Notes: See Table II.B1.4.1 for national data.

Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

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Table II.B2.18 [1/6]. Variation in Principals’ views on staff shortage, by school characteristics
Results based on school principals’ reports

 

All schools1

Sample size

Coverage2

Average index of principals’ views on staff shortage

Percentiles of index of principals’ views on staff shortage

Variability in index of principals’ views on staff shortage across schools

Inter-decile range

Number of schools

%

Mean Index

S.E.

10th

S.E.

Median (50th)

S.E.

90th

S.E.

I.D.R.

S.E.

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

151

92.3

0.194

(0.061)

-1.455

(0.499)

0.430

(0.024)

1.074

(0.120)

2.530

(0.518)

French Community

89

86.5

0.581

(0.078)

-0.316

(0.162)

0.611

(0.110)

1.440

(0.134)

1.756

(0.224)

German-speaking Community

9

98.9

0.791

(0.010)

-0.002

c

0.592

c

2.098

c

2.100

c

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

79

96.6

-0.263

(0.115)

-1.455

c

-0.178

(0.218)

0.837

(0.175)

2.292

(0.175)

British Columbia

81

96.7

0.074

(0.092)

-1.455

c

0.189

(0.092)

1.074

(0.524)

2.530

(0.524)

Manitoba

92

98.6

-0.209

(0.053)

-1.455

c

-0.010

(0.185)

1.074

(0.080)

2.530

(0.080)

New Brunswick

53

100.0

0.268

(0.019)

-1.455

c

0.443

(0.009)

1.074

c

2.530

c

Newfoundland and Labrador

46

99.8

-0.220

(0.051)

-1.455

c

-0.297

(0.000)

1.544

(0.481)

2.999

(0.481)

Nova Scotia

50

88.8

0.270

(0.068)

-1.455

(0.000)

0.430

(0.012)

1.082

(0.187)

2.537

(0.187)

Ontario

143

98.9

-0.525

(0.096)

-1.455

c

-0.587

(0.584)

0.674

(0.248)

2.129

(0.248)

Prince Edward Island

8

63.9

1.145

(0.145)

0.430

c

0.837

(0.289)

2.088

c

1.658

c

Québec

129

89.0

0.158

(0.071)

-1.455

c

0.333

(0.136)

1.258

(0.184)

2.713

(0.184)

Saskatchewan

86

97.5

0.020

(0.071)

-1.455

c

0.028

(0.145)

1.000

(0.012)

2.455

(0.012)

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

58

100.0

-0.018

(0.116)

-1.455

c

0.013

(0.210)

1.095

(0.169)

2.550

(0.169)

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

81

99.7

0.299

(0.011)

-0.587

(0.028)

0.430

c

0.973

c

1.560

(0.028)

Sardegna

70

97.5

0.672

(0.097)

-0.316

(0.383)

0.674

(0.146)

1.970

(0.145)

2.287

(0.340)

Toscana

68

96.2

0.668

(0.106)

0.006

(0.394)

0.743

(0.100)

1.544

(0.293)

1.538

(0.515)

Trento

55

98.3

0.150

(0.034)

-1.455

c

0.430

c

1.828

c

3.283

c

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

49

93.2

0.447

(0.108)

-0.297

(0.162)

0.449

(0.024)

1.544

(0.489)

1.840

(0.440)

Aragon

50

97.3

0.375

(0.127)

-0.587

(0.379)

0.283

(0.202)

1.341

(0.409)

1.927

(0.574)

Asturias

54

97.9

0.485

(0.086)

-0.297

(0.258)

0.512

(0.140)

1.341

(0.177)

1.637

(0.307)

Balearic Islands

51

97.6

0.459

(0.124)

-0.587

(0.471)

0.512

(0.108)

1.544

(0.071)

2.130

(0.470)

Basque Country

123

96.3

0.104

(0.076)

-0.614

(0.891)

0.108

(0.182)

0.922

(0.210)

1.536

(0.982)

Canary Islands

51

93.8

0.537

(0.146)

-0.587

(1.286)

0.449

(0.025)

1.881

(0.257)

2.468

(1.319)

Cantabria

52

94.7

0.251

(0.095)

-1.455

(0.868)

0.379

(0.143)

1.341

(0.213)

2.796

(0.917)

Castile and Leon

59

100.0

0.355

(0.101)

-0.587

(1.317)

0.360

(0.183)

1.341

(0.168)

1.927

(1.331)

Castile-La Mancha

53

100.0

0.573

(0.127)

-0.297

(0.301)

0.674

(0.128)

1.544

(0.229)

1.840

(0.382)

Catalonia

47

93.3

0.095

(0.145)

-1.455

c

0.183

(0.168)

1.341

(0.428)

2.796

(0.428)

Ceuta

10

71.5

0.780

(0.017)

-0.178

c

0.430

c

2.490

c

2.667

c

Comunidad Valenciana

52

99.6

0.295

(0.101)

-0.614

(0.704)

0.430

(0.193)

1.544

(0.478)

2.158

(0.744)

Extremadura

51

94.3

0.163

(0.174)

-1.455

(0.301)

0.210

(0.178)

1.776

(0.733)

3.231

(0.828)

Galicia

57

95.3

0.047

(0.113)

-1.455

c

0.210

(0.055)

0.922

(0.571)

2.377

(0.571)

La Rioja

44

98.4

0.164

(0.007)

-1.455

c

0.263

c

1.341

c

2.796

c

Madrid

132

93.6

0.455

(0.090)

-0.783

(0.977)

0.449

(0.035)

1.872

(0.139)

2.655

(0.985)

Melilla

8

100.0

0.684

(0.015)

0.189

c

0.655

c

1.544

c

1.354

c

Murcia

52

100.0

0.390

(0.113)

-1.455

(1.342)

0.449

(0.063)

1.544

(0.359)

2.999

(1.533)

Navarre

49

100.0

0.251

(0.092)

-1.455

(1.228)

0.210

(0.052)

1.166

(0.378)

2.621

(1.161)

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

132

76.1

-0.217

(0.065)

-1.455

c

0.013

(0.071)

0.837

(0.132)

2.292

(0.132)

Northern Ireland

67

84.1

-0.501

(0.090)

-1.455

c

-0.587

(0.130)

0.605

(0.420)

2.060

(0.420)

Scotland*

83

75.0

0.173

(0.097)

-1.455

(0.368)

0.210

(0.278)

1.258

(0.106)

2.713

(0.381)

Wales

99

92.1

-0.065

(0.086)

-1.455

c

0.006

(0.073)

1.000

(0.093)

2.455

(0.093)

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

2. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

3. The socio-economic profile is measured by the school’s average PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS).

4. The calculation “Private-Public” is the difference between private government-dependent and independent schools combined, and public schools.

Notes: See Table II.B1.5.13 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

Private schools refer to schools managed directly or indirectly by a non-governmental organisation, such as a church, trade union, business or other private institution. Privately managed schools are classified as independent when at least 50% of the funding comes from private sources; they are classified as government-dependent when at least 50% of the funding comes from the government (including departments, local, regional, state and national). The classification is based on the school principal’s report.

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Table II.B2.18 [2/6]. Variation in Principals’ views on staff shortage, by school characteristics
Results based on school principals’ reports

 

All schools1

Sample size

Coverage2

Average index of principals’ views on staff shortage

Percentiles of index of principals’ views on staff shortage

Variability in index of principals’ views on staff shortage across schools

Inter-decile range

Number of schools

%

Mean Index

S.E.

10th

S.E.

Median (50th)

S.E.

90th

S.E.

I.D.R.

S.E.

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

75

93.2

-0.178

(0.105)

-1.455

c

-0.178

(0.216)

1.341

(0.326)

2.796

(0.326)

Cordoba*

80

96.2

-0.176

(0.122)

-1.455

c

-0.178

(0.136)

1.527

(0.434)

2.982

(0.434)

PBA*

82

93.4

-0.242

(0.098)

-1.455

c

-0.088

(0.122)

0.902

(0.190)

2.357

(0.190)

Tucuman*

81

94.5

-0.025

(0.110)

-1.455

c

0.028

(0.086)

1.300

(0.451)

2.755

(0.451)

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

34

70.5

-0.550

(0.180)

-1.455

c

-0.587

(0.828)

0.922

(0.193)

2.377

(0.193)

Northeast

113

65.8

-0.260

(0.096)

-1.455

c

-0.195

(0.222)

1.095

(0.267)

2.550

(0.267)

South

61

80.0

-0.413

(0.155)

-1.455

c

-0.587

(0.487)

0.922

(0.296)

2.377

(0.296)

Southeast

170

82.4

-0.021

(0.084)

-1.455

c

0.028

(0.172)

1.356

(0.127)

2.811

(0.127)

Middle-West

36

87.2

-0.129

(0.229)

-1.455

c

-0.178

(0.382)

1.651

(0.575)

3.106

(0.575)

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

50

83.3

0.186

(0.163)

-1.455

c

0.263

(0.275)

1.544

(0.175)

2.999

(0.175)

DKI Jakarta

49

84.0

0.057

(0.155)

-1.455

c

0.263

(0.105)

1.151

(0.304)

2.607

(0.304)

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

44

87.1

-0.559

(0.173)

-1.577

c

-0.519

(0.486)

0.586

(0.826)

2.162

(0.826)

Aktobe region

32

78.6

-0.287

(0.202)

-1.455

c

-0.213

(0.307)

1.243

(0.439)

2.698

(0.439)

Almaty

21

71.2

-0.756

(0.184)

-1.577

c

-0.614

(0.530)

0.006

(0.665)

1.582

(0.665)

Almaty region

31

86.5

-0.642

(0.113)

-1.455

c

-0.783

(0.256)

0.430

(0.434)

1.885

(0.434)

Astana

24

81.5

-0.092

(0.236)

-1.577

(0.121)

0.150

(0.325)

1.126

(0.363)

2.703

(0.326)

Atyrau region

26

75.3

-0.376

(0.182)

-1.455

c

-0.431

(0.110)

0.973

(0.444)

2.428

(0.444)

East-Kazakhstan region

37

82.8

-0.607

(0.160)

-1.577

(0.163)

-0.783

(0.211)

0.694

(0.190)

2.270

(0.158)

Karagandy region

28

72.1

-0.079

(0.287)

-1.577

(0.121)

-0.222

(0.524)

1.544

(0.141)

3.120

(0.191)

Kostanay region

40

85.8

-0.376

(0.236)

-1.577

c

-0.656

(0.405)

1.402

(0.325)

2.978

(0.325)

Kyzyl-Orda region

27

70.9

-0.721

(0.163)

-1.455

(0.121)

-1.455

(0.959)

0.512

(0.319)

1.967

(0.335)

Mangistau region

22

78.7

-0.231

(0.231)

-1.455

c

-0.459

(0.572)

1.243

(0.233)

2.698

(0.233)

North-Kazakhstan region

54

86.2

-0.485

(0.133)

-1.577

(0.000)

-0.519

(0.101)

1.004

(0.320)

2.581

(0.320)

Pavlodar region

35

86.8

-0.721

(0.172)

-1.577

c

-0.914

(0.379)

0.546

(0.215)

2.123

(0.215)

South-Kazakhstan region

32

83.7

-0.260

(0.229)

-1.455

c

-0.775

(0.519)

1.544

(1.109)

2.999

(1.109)

West-Kazakhstan region

35

78.9

-0.869

(0.110)

-1.577

(0.000)

-0.783

(0.216)

0.044

(0.266)

1.621

(0.266)

Zhambyl region

28

80.0

-0.194

(0.287)

-1.455

(0.121)

-0.587

(0.375)

2.088

(1.160)

3.544

(1.157)

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

59

98.3

-0.419

(0.107)

-1.455

c

-0.316

(0.146)

0.592

(0.139)

2.047

(0.139)

Republic of Tatarstan*

232

98.7

-0.060

(0.082)

-1.455

c

-0.002

(0.054)

1.151

(0.125)

2.607

(0.125)

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

2. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

3. The socio-economic profile is measured by the school’s average PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS).

4. The calculation “Private-Public” is the difference between private government-dependent and independent schools combined, and public schools.

Notes: See Table II.B1.5.13 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

Private schools refer to schools managed directly or indirectly by a non-governmental organisation, such as a church, trade union, business or other private institution. Privately managed schools are classified as independent when at least 50% of the funding comes from private sources; they are classified as government-dependent when at least 50% of the funding comes from the government (including departments, local, regional, state and national). The classification is based on the school principal’s report.

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Table II.B2.18 [3/6]. Variation in Principals’ views on staff shortage, by school characteristics
Results based on school principals’ reports

 

Average index of principals’ views on staff shortage, by schools’ socio-economic profile3

Bottom quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Top quarter

Top - bottom quarter

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Dif.

S.E.

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

0.500

(0.115)

0.153

(0.158)

0.102

(0.125)

0.024

(0.131)

-0.476

(0.169)

French Community

1.032

(0.145)

0.272

(0.191)

0.565

(0.198)

0.457

(0.182)

-0.576

(0.224)

German-speaking Community

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

-0.191

(0.249)

-0.520

(0.304)

-0.227

(0.321)

-0.105

(0.247)

0.085

(0.348)

British Columbia

0.392

(0.220)

-0.020

(0.217)

0.137

(0.285)

-0.241

(0.224)

-0.632

(0.332)

Manitoba

0.127

(0.126)

-0.249

(0.199)

-0.317

(0.192)

-0.382

(0.093)

-0.509

(0.143)

New Brunswick

0.294

(0.038)

0.602

(0.033)

-0.387

(0.065)

0.516

(0.027)

0.223

(0.047)

Newfoundland and Labrador

-0.267

(0.161)

-0.621

(0.156)

0.096

(0.330)

-0.447

(0.315)

-0.179

(0.345)

Nova Scotia

0.724

(0.219)

-0.041

(0.282)

0.073

(0.184)

0.345

(0.153)

-0.379

(0.209)

Ontario

-0.105

(0.255)

-0.636

(0.217)

-0.829

(0.201)

-0.506

(0.196)

-0.401

(0.350)

Prince Edward Island

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Québec

0.310

(0.189)

0.422

(0.151)

0.408

(0.144)

-0.536

(0.160)

-0.846

(0.252)

Saskatchewan

0.029

(0.164)

0.255

(0.250)

-0.143

(0.130)

-0.077

(0.102)

-0.105

(0.189)

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

0.420

(0.257)

0.516

(0.318)

-0.143

(0.282)

-0.938

(0.276)

-1.358

(0.389)

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

0.253

(0.017)

0.362

(0.025)

0.531

(0.018)

0.008

(0.034)

-0.246

(0.038)

Sardegna

0.630

(0.282)

0.576

(0.307)

1.012

(0.285)

0.459

(0.253)

-0.171

(0.414)

Toscana

0.700

(0.212)

0.844

(0.193)

0.679

(0.407)

0.472

(0.298)

-0.227

(0.363)

Trento

0.075

(0.112)

0.151

(0.070)

-0.196

(0.078)

0.572

(0.065)

0.497

(0.142)

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

0.621

(0.249)

0.761

(0.337)

0.313

(0.356)

0.072

(0.194)

-0.549

(0.332)

Aragon

-0.018

(0.313)

0.444

(0.399)

0.938

(0.274)

0.126

(0.177)

0.144

(0.342)

Asturias

0.586

(0.221)

0.308

(0.178)

0.580

(0.251)

0.491

(0.169)

-0.095

(0.264)

Balearic Islands

0.558

(0.263)

0.543

(0.271)

0.603

(0.325)

0.120

(0.391)

-0.439

(0.447)

Basque Country

0.077

(0.204)

0.373

(0.166)

0.138

(0.198)

-0.179

(0.158)

-0.256

(0.256)

Canary Islands

0.779

(0.313)

0.338

(0.498)

1.192

(0.517)

-0.208

(0.290)

-0.987

(0.444)

Cantabria

0.684

(0.186)

0.117

(0.222)

0.393

(0.295)

-0.154

(0.159)

-0.838

(0.233)

Castile and Leon

0.447

(0.279)

0.247

(0.297)

0.492

(0.280)

0.212

(0.135)

-0.235

(0.329)

Castile-La Mancha

0.557

(0.184)

0.635

(0.286)

0.670

(0.434)

0.433

(0.175)

-0.124

(0.250)

Catalonia

0.344

(0.262)

0.478

(0.363)

-0.079

(0.399)

-0.417

(0.369)

-0.760

(0.452)

Ceuta

-0.178

c

-0.111

(0.005)

0.692

(0.000)

0.430

(0.000)

0.608

(0.000)

Comunidad Valenciana

0.172

(0.189)

0.493

(0.281)

0.437

(0.334)

0.067

(0.325)

-0.104

(0.427)

Extremadura

-0.086

(0.295)

0.692

(0.469)

0.175

(0.257)

-0.131

(0.295)

-0.045

(0.445)

Galicia

0.006

(0.284)

0.266

(0.271)

0.097

(0.226)

-0.207

(0.215)

-0.214

(0.354)

La Rioja

0.110

(0.016)

0.198

(0.016)

0.345

(0.008)

0.021

(0.015)

-0.089

(0.021)

Madrid

1.051

(0.203)

0.557

(0.206)

0.411

(0.209)

-0.229

(0.156)

-1.281

(0.259)

Melilla

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Murcia

0.556

(0.172)

0.601

(0.250)

0.298

(0.340)

0.092

(0.268)

-0.464

(0.309)

Navarre

0.280

(0.108)

0.430

(0.237)

0.370

(0.280)

-0.078

(0.103)

-0.358

(0.157)

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

-0.025

(0.159)

0.100

(0.168)

-0.206

(0.163)

-0.761

(0.128)

-0.737

(0.220)

Northern Ireland

-0.609

(0.215)

-0.754

(0.238)

-0.502

(0.311)

-0.160

(0.219)

0.450

(0.310)

Scotland*

0.092

(0.222)

0.380

(0.213)

0.278

(0.165)

-0.049

(0.255)

-0.141

(0.339)

Wales

0.179

(0.276)

-0.141

(0.248)

-0.011

(0.182)

-0.151

(0.189)

-0.331

(0.341)

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

2. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

3. The socio-economic profile is measured by the school’s average PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS).

4. The calculation “Private-Public” is the difference between private government-dependent and independent schools combined, and public schools.

Notes: See Table II.B1.5.13 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

Private schools refer to schools managed directly or indirectly by a non-governmental organisation, such as a church, trade union, business or other private institution. Privately managed schools are classified as independent when at least 50% of the funding comes from private sources; they are classified as government-dependent when at least 50% of the funding comes from the government (including departments, local, regional, state and national). The classification is based on the school principal’s report.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.18 [4/6]. Variation in Principals’ views on staff shortage, by school characteristics
Results based on school principals’ reports

 

Average index of principals’ views on staff shortage, by schools’ socio-economic profile3

Bottom quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Top quarter

Top - bottom quarter

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Dif.

S.E.

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

0.405

(0.204)

0.223

(0.226)

-0.526

(0.294)

-0.864

(0.175)

-1.269

(0.261)

Cordoba*

-0.003

(0.211)

0.367

(0.288)

-0.487

(0.320)

-0.609

(0.216)

-0.605

(0.301)

PBA*

-0.049

(0.241)

-0.015

(0.251)

-0.121

(0.298)

-0.816

(0.279)

-0.767

(0.366)

Tucuman*

0.143

(0.301)

0.407

(0.325)

0.057

(0.204)

-0.720

(0.206)

-0.863

(0.350)

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

-0.040

(0.382)

-0.684

(0.433)

-0.650

(0.540)

-1.455

(0.177)

-1.415

(0.409)

Northeast

0.239

(0.250)

-0.317

(0.246)

0.074

(0.247)

-1.085

(0.210)

-1.324

(0.296)

South

-0.303

(0.403)

0.006

(0.280)

-0.165

(0.403)

-1.207

(0.182)

-0.904

(0.447)

Southeast

0.193

(0.136)

0.421

(0.189)

-0.069

(0.282)

-0.646

(0.266)

-0.839

(0.295)

Middle-West

-0.565

(0.469)

0.128

(0.631)

0.587

(0.686)

-0.745

(0.481)

-0.180

(0.651)

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

0.374

(0.281)

-0.081

(0.418)

0.470

(0.348)

-0.053

(0.376)

-0.427

(0.415)

DKI Jakarta

0.604

(0.171)

0.190

(0.261)

0.031

(0.338)

-0.647

(0.400)

-1.250

(0.435)

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

-0.546

(0.347)

-0.423

(0.508)

-0.399

(0.566)

-0.950

(0.443)

-0.404

(0.570)

Aktobe region

-0.187

(0.359)

0.320

(0.896)

-0.635

(0.822)

-0.599

(0.733)

-0.412

(0.880)

Almaty

-1.061

(0.489)

-0.915

(0.433)

-0.884

(0.460)

-0.718

(0.767)

0.344

(0.834)

Almaty region

-0.637

(0.272)

-1.131

(0.453)

-0.132

(0.393)

-0.670

(0.188)

-0.032

(0.338)

Astana

0.273

(0.366)

0.317

(0.928)

-0.405

(0.833)

-0.746

(0.331)

-1.018

(0.508)

Atyrau region

-0.569

(0.227)

-0.485

(0.580)

-0.046

(0.525)

-0.423

(0.767)

0.147

(0.733)

East-Kazakhstan region

-0.653

(0.312)

-0.659

(0.517)

-0.387

(0.333)

-0.763

(0.403)

-0.110

(0.544)

Karagandy region

-0.522

(0.397)

-0.945

(1.084)

1.428

(0.826)

0.454

(0.247)

0.976

(0.461)

Kostanay region

-0.004

(0.407)

-0.769

(0.830)

-0.214

(0.756)

-0.562

(0.653)

-0.559

(0.805)

Kyzyl-Orda region

-0.797

(0.324)

-0.767

(0.420)

-0.754

(0.586)

-0.594

(0.503)

0.203

(0.671)

Mangistau region

-0.096

(0.586)

0.923

(1.019)

-0.698

(0.670)

-0.674

(0.368)

-0.578

(0.693)

North-Kazakhstan region

-0.192

(0.283)

-0.648

(0.553)

-0.472

(0.341)

-0.640

(0.165)

-0.448

(0.307)

Pavlodar region

-0.687

(0.351)

-0.645

(0.515)

-1.095

(0.590)

-0.394

(0.429)

0.294

(0.517)

South-Kazakhstan region

0.604

(0.706)

-0.789

(0.603)

-0.340

(0.554)

-0.673

(0.472)

-1.278

(0.735)

West-Kazakhstan region

-0.708

(0.233)

-0.896

(0.374)

-0.899

(0.436)

-0.983

(0.181)

-0.275

(0.285)

Zhambyl region

-0.648

(0.321)

0.380

(0.976)

-0.455

(0.578)

-0.056

(0.861)

0.592

(0.894)

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow region*

-0.391

(0.284)

-0.364

(0.246)

-0.731

(0.272)

-0.172

(0.236)

0.218

(0.368)

Republic of Tatarstan*

-0.130

(0.136)

-0.028

(0.175)

-0.139

(0.173)

0.060

(0.197)

0.190

(0.248)

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

2. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

3. The socio-economic profile is measured by the school’s average PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS).

4. The calculation “Private-Public” is the difference between private government-dependent and independent schools combined, and public schools.

Notes: See Table II.B1.5.13 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

Private schools refer to schools managed directly or indirectly by a non-governmental organisation, such as a church, trade union, business or other private institution. Privately managed schools are classified as independent when at least 50% of the funding comes from private sources; they are classified as government-dependent when at least 50% of the funding comes from the government (including departments, local, regional, state and national). The classification is based on the school principal’s report.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038780

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Table II.B2.18 [5/6]. Variation in Principals’ views on staff shortage, by school characteristics
Results based on school principals’ reports

 

Average index of principals’ views on staff shortage, by type of school

Public

Private government-dependent

Private independent

Private-Public4

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Dif.

S.E.

OECD

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flemish Community*

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

French Community

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

German-speaking Community

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta

-0.255

(0.115)

m

m

m

m

m

m

British Columbia

0.099

(0.096)

-0.043

(0.427)

m

m

-0.142

(0.441)

Manitoba

-0.170

(0.056)

-0.578

(0.219)

m

m

-0.408

(0.227)

New Brunswick

0.268

(0.019)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Newfoundland and Labrador

-0.202

(0.041)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Nova Scotia

0.270

(0.068)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Ontario

-0.509

(0.099)

m

m

-0.979

(0.137)

-0.469

(0.174)

Prince Edward Island

1.145

(0.145)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Québec

0.396

(0.082)

-0.726

(0.234)

-0.554

(0.221)

-1.014

(0.159)

Saskatchewan

0.050

(0.068)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogotá

0.551

(0.160)

m

m

-0.880

(0.170)

-1.431

(0.233)

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano

0.310

(0.012)

-0.110

(0.044)

m

m

-0.420

(0.046)

Sardegna

0.690

(0.095)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Toscana

0.675

(0.107)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Trento

0.301

(0.030)

-0.319

(0.122)

m

m

-0.620

(0.130)

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andalusia

0.527

(0.133)

0.211

(0.145)

m

m

-0.316

(0.198)

Aragon

0.352

(0.184)

0.490

(0.172)

m

m

0.138

(0.252)

Asturias

0.502

(0.117)

0.468

(0.127)

m

m

-0.033

(0.179)

Balearic Islands

0.641

(0.132)

-0.104

(0.279)

0.633

(0.110)

-0.545

(0.241)

Basque Country

0.125

(0.127)

0.070

(0.088)

m

m

-0.055

(0.155)

Canary Islands

0.780

(0.177)

0.048

(0.436)

-0.446

(0.342)

-0.989

(0.322)

Cantabria

0.482

(0.108)

-0.359

(0.195)

m

m

-0.841

(0.219)

Castile and Leon

0.482

(0.136)

0.012

(0.130)

m

m

-0.470

(0.189)

Castile-La Mancha

0.658

(0.155)

0.312

(0.171)

m

m

-0.346

(0.230)

Catalonia

0.357

(0.198)

-0.376

(0.285)

m

m

-0.733

(0.347)

Ceuta

m

m

0.127

(0.012)

m

m

m

m

Comunidad Valenciana

0.417

(0.112)

0.165

(0.259)

-0.186

(0.376)

-0.344

(0.246)

Extremadura

0.011

(0.212)

0.902

(0.102)

m

m

0.891

(0.234)

Galicia

0.178

(0.142)

-0.282

(0.137)

m

m

-0.460

(0.198)

La Rioja

0.270

(0.007)

0.043

(0.011)

m

m

-0.227

(0.013)

Madrid

0.869

(0.120)

0.230

(0.171)

-0.496

(0.176)

-0.934

(0.183)

Melilla

0.726

(0.016)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Murcia

0.469

(0.145)

0.170

(0.142)

m

m

-0.299

(0.204)

Navarre

0.324

(0.105)

0.033

(0.138)

m

m

-0.291

(0.177)

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England

-0.087

(0.115)

-0.112

(0.088)

-1.342

(0.114)

-0.204

(0.136)

Northern Ireland

-0.501

(0.101)

-0.477

(0.509)

m

m

0.024

(0.548)

Scotland*

0.215

(0.095)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Wales

-0.040

(0.088)

m

m

-0.775

(0.409)

-0.736

(0.418)

* PISA adjudicated region.

1. In this chapter, all analyses are restricted to schools with the modal ISCED level for 15-year-old students. Results may thus differ from those estimated on the entire sample of 15-year-old students.

2. Coverage refers to the weighted share of students in the PISA sample who attend schools included in this analysis. It is equal to 100% if all schools in the PISA sample are included in the analysis.

3. The socio-economic profile is measured by the school’s average PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS).

4. The calculation “Private-Public” is the difference between private government-dependent and independent schools combined, and public schools.

Notes: See Table II.B1.5.13 for national data.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

Private schools refer to schools managed directly or indirectly by a non-governmental organisation, such as a church, trade union, business or other private institution. Privately managed schools are classified as independent when at least 50% of the funding comes from private sources; they are classified as government-dependent when at least 50% of the funding comes from the government (including departments, local, regional, state and national). The classification is based on the school principal’s report.

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Table II.B2.18 [6/6]. Variation in Principals’ views on staff shortage, by school characteristics
Results based on school principals’ reports

 

Average index of principals’ views on staff shortage, by type of school

Public

Private government-dependent

Private independent

Private-Public4

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Mean Index

S.E.

Dif.

S.E.

Partners

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CABA*

0.386

(0.170)

-0.578

(0.171)

-1.276

(0.119)

-1.255

(0.222)

Cordoba*

0.235

(0.173)

-0.435

(0.269)

-1.051

(0.233)

-0.893

(0.247)

PBA*

0.102

(0.100)

-0.802

(0.224)

-0.864

(0.496)

-0.920

(0.259)

Tucuman*

0.222

(0.136)

-0.657

(0.199)

m

m

-0.879

(0.232)

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North

-0.331

(0.204)

m

m

-1.455

c

-1.124

(0.204)

Northeast

-0.065

(0.108)

m

m

-1.203

(0.141)

-1.138

(0.189)

South

-0.238

(0.182)

m

m

-1.298

(0.138)

-1.059

(0.226)

Southeast

0.205

(0.081)

m

m

-0.917

(0.263)

-1.121

(0.276)

Middle-West

0.048

(0.253)

m

m

-1.061

(0.358)

-1.109

(0.444)

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DI Yogyakarta

0.274

(0.189)

0.319

(0.430)

-0.018

(0.358)

-0.077

(0.335)

DKI Jakarta

-0.086

(0.174)

m

m

0.478

(0.227)

0.564

(0.287)

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akmola region

-0.559

(0.173)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Aktobe region

-0.287

(0.202)

m

m

m

m

m

m

Almaty