11. Regulatory compliance and enforcement

Though beyond the scope of Part II, the issue of regulatory compliance and enforcement is an integral part of regulatory policy and should be mentioned briefly.

As elaborated earlier in Part II, the PA law is a complex blend of regulations issued under several political regimes, dating as far back as the Ottoman Empire, and has been amended several times by different regimes. This “fragmentation of the laws”, paired with low public confidence in the judiciary, poses strong challenges for implementing and enforcing laws. Regulatory compliance and enforcement is a significant challenge in the PA. The “freezing” of existing legislation happens on a frequent basis due to compliance issues. More generally, there is a substantial number of laws and regulations that is reportedly simply not being enforced.

This lack of regulatory compliance and enforcement creates significant issues for governance and the rule of law in the PA and should be subject to a more in-depth review. Box 11.1 provides an overview of best practices countries can employ to promote effective and efficient regulatory enforcement.


[1] OECD (2014), OECD Best Practice Principles for Regulatory Enforcement and Inspections, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264208117-en. (accessed on 25 October 2021).

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2022

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at https://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions.