copy the linklink copied!9. Reader’s guide for the country profiles

This section presents a short overview of inclusive entrepreneurship trends, issues and recent policy developments in each of the 28 European Union Member States. Each profile includes a set of key indicators that benchmark entrepreneurship activity rates and barriers in each country relative to the European Union average for men, women, youth and seniors.

    

This section of the book provides a short overview of inclusive entrepreneurship trends and recent policy actions in each European Union Member State. Each Country Profile presents recent trends for key inclusive entrepreneurship indicators, focusing on self-employment and entrepreneurship activity rates, motivations for business creation and growth aspirations for female, youth and senior entrepreneurs. In addition, the Country Profiles highlight a current policy issue relevant for inclusive entrepreneurship policy development and describe a recent policy development to strengthen entrepreneurship support for women, youth, seniors, the unemployed or immigrants.

The Profiles also include a common set of country-specific data that benchmark key inclusive entrepreneurship indicators against the European Union average. Data are presented for men, women, youth, seniors and the overall population. These data help to show the scale of the challenge and its recent evolution. Each profile contain six figures:

  • Panel A: Self-employment rate, 2009 vs. 2018. This presents the proportion of those aged 15-64 years old in employment who are self-employed. Data are presented for the overall population, women, youth (20-29 years old) and seniors (50-64 years old).

  • Panel B: Proportion of self-employed people that have employees, 2009 vs. 2018. This presents the share of the self-employed (15-64 years old) that employ at least one other person. Data are presented for the overall population, women, youth (20-29 years old) and seniors (50-64 years old).

  • Panel C: Women’s self-employment rate by location, 2017. This presents the proportion of working women (15-64 years old) that are self-employed by local, i.e. cities, towns and suburbs, and rural areas.

  • Panel D: Total Early-stage Entrepreneurship Activity (TEA) rate, 2009-13 vs. 2014-18. This presents the proportion of the population (18-65 years old) who is actively involved in starting a business or who is the owner-operator of a business that is less than 42 months old. Data are presented for the overall population, women, youth (18-30 years old) and seniors (50-64 years old).

  • Panel E: Proportion of TEA that is necessity entrepreneurship, 2009-13 vs. 2014-18. This presents the proportion of early-stage entrepreneurs (18-64 years old) who launched their business due to a lack of other opportunities in the labour market. Data are presented for the overall population, women, youth (18-30 years old) and seniors (50-64 years old).

  • Panel F: Proportion of early-stage entrepreneurs who expect to create more than 19 jobs in five years, 2009-13 vs. 2014-18. This presents the proportion of early-stage entrepreneurs (18-64 years old) who anticipate the creation of at least 19 additional new jobs over the next five years. Data are presented for the overall population, women, youth (18-30 years old) and seniors (50-64 years old).

This set of Country Profiles draw on country-specific reports that are produced by the OECD and European Commission on inclusive entrepreneurship policies and programmes. These reports are available at: https://www.oecd.org/cfe/smes/inclusive-entrepreneurship-policies-country-assessment-notes.htm.

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