Annex A. PISA Reading Framework

The PISA reading framework received its most recent major updates when it was the major domain of assessment in PISA 2018. It retained aspects of the PISA 2009 and 2015 frameworks that were still relevant to PISA 2018 and 2022. However, for PISA 2018 and onwards the framework was enhanced and revised in the following ways:

  • The framework fully integrated reading in a traditional sense together with the new forms of reading that have emerged over the past decades and that continue to emerge due to the spread of digital devices and digital texts.

  • The framework incorporated constructs involved in basic reading processes. These constructs, such as fluent reading, literal interpretation, inter-sentence integration, extraction of the central themes and drawing inferences, are critical skills for processing complex or multiple texts for specific purposes. If students fail at performing higher-level text processing functions, it is critical to know whether the failure was due to difficulties in these basic skills in order to provide appropriate support to these students.

  • The framework revisited the way in which the domain is organised to incorporate reading processes such as evaluating the veracity of texts, seeking information, reading from multiple sources and integrating/synthesising information across sources. The revision rebalances the prominence of different reading processes to reflect the global importance of the different constructs, while ensuring there is a link to the prior frameworks in order to be able to measure trends in achievement.

  • The revision considered how new technology options and the use of scenarios involving print and digital text can be harnessed to achieve a more authentic assessment of reading, consistent with the current use of texts around the world.

Please see the full version of the reading framework in the following link: PISA 2018 Assessment and Analytical Framework | en | OECD

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