Jurisdictional data

The jurisdictional sections in this chapter provide specific information for each of the 129 jurisdictions in the Inclusive Framework subject to the Peer Review. The information is based on the lists of tax agreements provided by those jurisdictions.

Each jurisdictional section contains information on the progress made in the implementation of the minimum standard and on implementation issues reported. It also includes a summary of the jurisdiction’s response to the Peer Review questionnaire (i.e. the list of tax agreements provided). The summary of the jurisdiction’s response is presented in the form of a table in which all its tax agreements in force are listed.

Although the tax agreements between Inclusive Framework members and non-members are not subject to the Peer Review, to recognise the progress made by some jurisdictions, and for the sake of completeness, information on these agreements is also reported.

This section of Chapter 5 includes a list of the 129 jurisdictions subject to the Peer Review.

It should be recalled that a jurisdiction is required to implement the minimum standard in a treaty if asked to do so by another member of the Inclusive Framework.

  • The jurisdictional sections indicate the number of tax agreements for each jurisdiction and include tax agreements with jurisdictions that are not members of the Inclusive Framework. Such agreements are indicated with an asterisk.

  • For the purpose of the Peer Review, a tax agreement is a comprehensive agreement for the avoidance of double taxation with respect to taxes on income (whether or not other taxes are also covered) that is presently in force. It does not include other types of agreements such as inheritance tax treaties, tax information exchange agreements (TIEAs) or other administrative agreements, shipping and air transport agreements, nor does it include non-comprehensive agreements covering only individuals. 

  • The term “agreement” should also be interpreted to mean a treaty relationship. For example, if a state has split into two and each successor state is honouring an agreement concluded by the predecessor state, each successor state is treated as having a separate agreement. In this example, the number of bilateral treaty relationships therefore exceeds the number of signed agreements.

  • The jurisdictional sections indicate the number of tax agreements that fully comply with the minimum standard for each jurisdiction. Partially compliant agreements, i.e. agreements that contain only one element of the minimum standard, are shown as non-compliant.

  • Where jurisdictions have concluded a new tax agreement or an amending protocol, it is shown as meeting the minimum standard only when its provisions are in force.

  • Where the minimum standard has been implemented through the MLI, the relevant provisions of the MLI (Article 6 and Article 7) must have started to take effect as of 30 June 2019 for this agreement to meet the minimum standard (Article 35 of the MLI).

  • The jurisdictional sections indicate the number of tax agreements that do not comply with the minimum standard but that are subject to a complying instrument.

  • A “complying instrument” can be the MLI or an amending protocol that has not entered into force and that could bring the tax agreement into compliance with the minimum standard. It can also be a completely new agreement that complies with the minimum standard that has not yet entered into force.

  • The complying instrument can only be the MLI if the agreement is notified as an agreement the jurisdiction wishes to cover under the MLI irrespective of whether or not its treaty partner has notified the tax agreement.

  • MLI information shown for each jurisdiction is generally based on its latest publicly available positions, which will be the definitive position for those jurisdictions that have already deposited their instrument of ratification and provisional for those that have not yet done so.

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