In 2021, Türkiye received 615 000 new immigrants, more than twice than in 2020. Iraq, Iran and Uzbekistan were the top three nationalities of newcomers in 2021. Among the top 15 countries of origin, Iran registered the strongest increase (+54 000) and Germany the largest decrease (-5 500) in flows to Türkiye compared to the previous year.

In 2022, the number of first asylum applicants increased by 14%, to reach around 33 000. The majority of applicants came from Afghanistan (19 000), Ukraine (7 100, excluding temporary protection recipients) and Iraq (4 100). The largest increase since 2021 concerned nationals of Iran (+100) and the largest decrease nationals of Afghanistan (-2 500). Of the 70 000 decisions taken in 2022, 18% were positive.

Emigration of Turkish citizens to OECD countries increased by 34% in 2021, to 71 000. Approximately 41% of this group migrated to Germany, 10% to the Netherlands and 7% to France.

In September 2021, the provincial borders of Ankara were closed to temporary protection registration as part of efforts led by the Ankara Governor’s Office, Migration Management, Gendarmerie and Police units. Additionally, Syrians with temporary protection status residing in Ankara, but registered in other provinces, were identified and sent back to their registered provinces. These decisions were made to enhance the regulation and management of foreigners’ residence in the country.

In October 2021, the former “Directorate General of Migration Management” was renamed “Presidency of Migration Management (PMM)” with the issuance of Official Gazette No: 30479. The PMM is responsible for managing and implementing migration issues in the country, assessment of the residence permits applications, removal of foreigners and other migration-related issues.

In 2022, Türkiye continued its promotion of investment opportunities for foreigners by linking investment opportunities to residence permits and naturalisation. Law No. 6 458 on foreigners and international protection provides for issuance and the extension of short-term residence permits through the purchase of immovable property. Foreigners can also obtain Turkish citizenship by purchasing real estate with a value equal to USD 400 000 or by making an investment of minimum of USD 500 000 or its equivalent in foreign currency via defined financial instruments in Türkiye, provided that the investment is not withdrawn for at least three years, or by creating employment of at least 50 within Türkiye. The conditions for obtaining Turkish citizenship through an investment programme, first introduced in 2016, were made stricter in 2022 owing to the high demand for foreign citizenship.

The Turkish Presidency took significant steps to enhance the quality of higher education institutions and support international students in 2022 through the Turkish Scholarship programme. The monthly stipends for university students, including doctoral students, have been raised by between TRY 200-300. More opportunities for short-term students and students in STEM subjects were also made available.

For further information: www.goc.gov.tr | www.nvi.gov.tr/turk-vatandasliginin-kazanilmasi | www.turkiyeburslari.gov.tr

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