Other official providers not reporting to the OECD

The scope of Brazilian South-South and trilateral co-operation has expanded to facilitate regional, sub-regional and interregional integration; provide innovative approaches for collective actions; and strengthen its contribution to sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. Brazilian co-operation is implemented according to principles that include respect for national sovereignty, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries and non-conditionality. These principles were reiterated in 2019 at the Second United Nations High-Level Conference on South-South Cooperation (BAPA+40).

Brazilian South-South co-operation includes initiatives in agriculture, public health, food and nutritional security, social development, science and technology, education, energy, industry, trade, justice, environment, public safety and security, and employment. Brazil has developed projects in most Latin American and Caribbean countries; with the Community of Portuguese Language Countries and its members in Africa and Asia; as well as with countries in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe.

Brazilian South-South co-operation operates under bilateral, trilateral and regional formats. It has a strong focus on capacity development projects, but also includes knowledge sharing, humanitarian co-operation, scholarships and technological development. For Brazil, trilateral co-operation is not a new modality, as it is well-established as a regular tool in its development co-operation. The Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) has developed and updated a series of frameworks and manuals, such as the Manual of South-South Technical Cooperation Management and the Guidelines for the Design, Coordination and Management of Trilateral Cooperation Initiatives.

Brazil is one of the five Key Partners of the OECD and has actively engaged with different OECD bodies and activities in the past two decades. It has applied for OECD membership, and in 2022, the OECD Council decided to open accession discussions with six countries, among them Brazil. Brazil is an Adherent to the OECD Recommendation of the Council for Development Co-operation Actors on Managing the Risk of Corruption and the OECD-DAC Recommendation on Good Pledging Practice. It has participated in the 2019 DAC Senior-level Meeting and the LAC-DAC Dialogue on Development Co-operation. Brazil is currently co-chair of the OECD LAC Regional Programme. Through its membership in the G20, Brazil advocates for a stronger role of the G20 in support of the 2030 Agenda, notably through the G20 Development Working Group. It focuses on innovative finance for sustainable development, localising the Sustainable Development Goals and on G20 support to developing countries for COVID-19 recovery. Brazil joined the Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD) Task Force in 2020 and reported TOSSD data in December 2021.

Brazilian South-South co-operation is an instrument of national foreign policy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has responsibility for its co-ordination. The ABC of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs runs the technical and humanitarian modalities of Brazilian co-operation. Brazilian South-South co-operation collaborates with public sector institutions and subnational entities, the private sector and civil society. The ABC’s mandate includes humanitarian co-operation, which has allowed the Brazilian government to improve the humanitarian dimension of its South-South co-operation to strengthen prevention and resilience, provide humanitarian assistance in response to disasters and humanitarian appeals, and support reconstruction after disasters and calamities to support people’s progress, particularly those who are the most vulnerable.

The ABC has published evaluations of its projects and partnerships over the past years. In 2017, it concluded the evaluation on Capacity Development in the Management of South-South and Triangular Co-operation project, in partnership with the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation and the Japan International Cooperation Agency. Another example is the Evaluation of the Trilateral South-South Cooperation Programme between the Government of Brazil and UNICEF, published in 2021. In 2022, and in partnership with the Brazilian Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA), ABC has developed a model for evaluating the impact of its bilateral co-operation projects with Portuguese-Speaking African Countries (PALOPs).

The Brazilian report on co-operation for international development has been produced by the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA) since 2010, in partnership with ABC. In 2021, for the first time, Brazil shared its 2020 data with the TOSSD Secretariat on its contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by applying the TOSSD standard methodology. Given the global sanitary restrictions associated with the Covid-19 pandemic, the COBRADI report showed a 43% decrease in Brazilian expenditures between 2019-2020. The 2019-2020 COBRADI report also analysed the impacts of the pandemic on Brazilian international co-operation and found that if there was more agile shift to digital platforms in 2020, the decrease in total expenditures would have been lower.

Brazil reported contributions of USD 33.2 million under Pillar I of the TOSSD (cross-border resources to developing countries), with no data related to Pillar II, as Brazil does not apply the concept of Global Public Goods. Of this amount, USD 27.2 million was reported in the form of South-South co-operation and USD 6 million in the form of triangular co-operation. Brazil reports its TOSSD activities using the ISIC (International Standard Industrial Classification) sector codes of the United Nations, becoming the first TOSSD reporter to do so. This figure does not include assessed contributions to the multilateral system, which has amounted to BRL 1.4 billion in the period, according to Brazilian official national reports.

Brazil engages in trilateral co-operation and has reported 36 trilateral activities to the TOSSD. Data show its regional priorities are in Latin America and Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa. The main sectors of its trilateral projects are government and civil society and agriculture, forestry and fishing. Learn more about trilateral co-operation and Brazil’s number of projects through the OECD’s voluntary triangular co-operation project repository. Brazil is a member of the Global Partnership Initiative on Effective Triangular Co-operation.

Brazilian Cooperation Agency: About (ABC): www.abc.gov.br/Training/Informacoes/ABC_en.aspx

Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC): www.abc.gov.br

IPEA (2021), Cooperação internacional em tempos de pandemia. (in Portuguese), Institute for Applied Economic Research.

COBRADI Reports: https://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=39285

211026_publicacao_preliminar_livro_cooperacao_internacional_em_tempos_de_pandemia.pdf (ipea.gov.br)

The international development co-operation of the People’s Republic of China (hereafter “China”) has increased in recent years and is part of a broader foreign policy shift that took place under President Xi Jinping. Development co-operation is part of China’s foreign policy and affirms China’s self-identity as a provider of development co-operation while still defining itself as a “developing country”.

The establishment of the China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA) in 2018, directly under the State Council, changed the domestic governance model of development co-operation in China. This institutional evolution acknowledges that the country has become a major official provider of development co-operation, and according to some estimates1 one of the largest globally.

The white paper on China’s International Development Cooperation in the New Era commits to supporting the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, notably poverty reduction, food security, healthcare, quality education, gender equality, infrastructure, sustainable and innovative-driven economic growth, and environmental protection. The white paper provides information about China’s approach to development co-operation and unique Chinese characteristics, which are different to the practices of Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members.

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a major platform for China’s foreign aid strategy, as affirmed by the white paper. The BRI aims to build connectivity and investments that are focused on filling the infrastructure financing gap, primarily on the provision of hardware (infrastructure) and funding. The BRI aims to advance, in President Xi’s words, “people-to-people connectivity” and “a new platform for international co-operation”. At the same time, concerns have emerged about the impact of BRI loans on the long-term sustainability for developing country economies, debt sustainability and the quality of infrastructure provided.

In August 2021, China issued new Measures for the Administrations of Foreign Aid, which defines the responsibilities and division of labour of the new CIDCA, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Commerce and other foreign aid implementation departments, as well as Chinese embassies and consulates abroad in the management of foreign aid. As a key national entity, CIDCA is in charge of formulating strategic guidelines, plans and policies for foreign aid; drafting country-specific aid policies; co-ordinating and selecting foreign aid projects; signing foreign aid agreements with recipients; and oversight and evaluation of projects.

CIDCA has thus embraced some of the responsibilities and functions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Commerce (the Department of Aid to Foreign Countries and part of the Department of Outward Investment and Economic Cooperation). CIDCA is, however, not intended to be an implementing agency, but is expected to design strategies, plans and policies on China’s foreign aid, as well as to evaluate their implementation. In April 2021, Mr. Zhaohui LUO was appointed new head of CIDCA.

Project implementation is done mainly by the Ministry of Commerce’s subordinate agencies and specialised line ministries. The Ministry of Commerce is responsible for the implementation of the largest part of Chinese foreign aid projects, which include turnkey, technical assistance, material and human resource projects. It also manages the accreditation and selection of Chinese companies to undertake the implementation of foreign aid projects.

Policy banks play a major role in China’s development co-operation system. The China Export-Import (Exim) Bank is a main lender to lower income countries and fulfils a dual function as an official bilateral creditor, providing renminbi (RMB)-denominated concessional loans, and as an export credit agency, providing USD-denominated preferential export buyer’s credits. The China Development Bank (CDB) is the world’s largest national development bank and China’s largest institution for overseas investment. Though it has played a key role in the BRI and China’s overseas finance, the Chinese government insists that the CDB is not an official bilateral lender, insisting on its status as a commercial bank.

According to OECD estimates, in 2020, China’s bilateral international development co-operation reached USD 2.9 billion, down from USD 3.2 billion in 2019.2

China engages in triangular co-operation and has a strategic policy for engaging in the modality, elaborated under the white paper China’s International Development Cooperation in the New Era. Its focus is on tripartite projects where China can contribute with its domestic experiences, enhancing policy dialogues and knowledge exchange, and advancing co-operation with international organisations. The white paper indicates a strong focus on agriculture and public health. Learn more about triangular co-operation and China’s numerous projects through the OECD’s voluntary triangular co-operation project repository.

Explore the Monitoring Dashboard of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation.

China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA): http://en.cidca.gov.cn

Government of China (2021), China’s International Development Cooperation in the New Era, State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China, http://en.cidca.gov.cn/2021-01/10/c_581228.htm.

CIDCA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Commerce (2021), Measures for the Administration of Foreign Aid, http://china-aid-blog.com/2021/09/01/407.

OECD (2018), China’s Belt and Road Initiative in the Global Trade, Investment and Finance Landscape, OECD, Paris, https://www.oecd.org/finance/Chinas-Belt-and-Road-Initiative-in-the-global-trade-investment-and-finance-landscape.pdf.

Xi, J. (2017), “Secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and strive for the great success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era”, speech delivered at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, 18 October

India’s approach to development co-operation is embedded in its foreign policy and stresses solidarity with developing countries. India’s development co-operation uses multiple instruments, including grants, lines of credit, and capacity building and technical assistance and the areas of focus range from commerce to culture, energy to engineering, health to housing projects, information technology to infrastructure, sports to science, disaster relief and humanitarian assistance to restoration and preservation of cultural and heritage assets.

The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) plays a pivotal role in the delivery of development co-operation in various forms and has evolved different mechanisms to support developing countries. Channels for engaging with developing countires include the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Programme, Special Commonwealth Assistance Programme for Africa (SCAAP), and bilateral development assistance to neighbouring and other developing countries. Various Indian ministries, institutions, and programmes are also invovled in development co-operation and implement projects. India’s development co-operation aims to be demand-driven, mutually beneficial and ensure local ownership. It aims to create co-operation programmes without conditionality, building partnerships that are governed by mutual respect, diversity, care for the future and sustainable development.

While India focused for quite some time exclusively on South-South co-operation, Prime Minister Modi is prioritising triangular co-operation. India is collaborating on development co-operation with France, Germany, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States, and has a new partnership with the European Union on bringing connectivity to Africa and Central Asia. India’s own development co-operation programmes focus on Africa and on CLMV countries (Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam), and include technical co-operation and a capacity-building programme.

Sectors of priority for India’s development co-operation, which involves 154 countries, are agricultural development (i.e. a dry land research project with Ghana) and energy and electricity grids for rural areas (for instance, in Mozambique). India’s co-operation goes beyond government-to-government co-operation to include, also, civil society organisations, for instance focusing on rural women and self-help groups.

In 2023, India will take over the presidency of the G20 and it is expected that it will work to strengthen the development dimension of the G20.

India’s Ministry of External Affairs houses the Development Partnership Administration (DPA). There are ongoing debates on creating an agency for development co-operation.

The DPA, created in 2012, co-ordinates India’s bilateral development co-operation in close collaboration with the Ministry of External Affairs’ regional divisions. It manages grants and the Indian Technical & Economic Cooperation Programme, and has four pillars:

  • DPA-I deals with project appraisal for the Lines of Credit (LoC) programme and loans on concessional terms to developing countries, falling under the Ministry of Finance’s Indian Development and Economic Assistance Scheme. DPA-I handles all LoC modalities and projects in Africa, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka, as well as housing projects.

  • DPA-II focuses on technical co-operation. It manages the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation programme, which focuses on capacity building and training of defence personnel and civilian training under the Colombo Plan for Cooperative and Economic Social Development in Asia and the Pacific, established in 1964. The programme offers customised courses as well as humanitarian assistance. DPA-II also co-ordinates South-South co-operation initiatives and other multilateral development co-operation matters, including co-ordination with international development agencies.

  • DPA-III manages bilateral grants to Afghanistan, the Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka for infrastructure (except housing projects), education and health. It also supports community-based and community-driven projects in these countries.

  • DPA-IV includes a humanitarian assistance and disaster relief procurement cell.

The Ministry of Finance manages multilateral assistance and exercises administrative oversight for concessional loans and credit lines provided by the EXIM Bank. The bank provides financial assistance and functions as the principal financial institution for co-ordinating the institutions engaged in financing the export and import of goods and services to promote India’s international trade.

The OECD estimates that India’s bilateral development co-operation reached USD 1.01 billion in 2020, down from USD 1.16 billion in 2019.

The Indian think tank Research and Information System (RIS) estimates that India’s development co-operation has increased from USD 6.18 billion in 2014 to USD 8.7 billion in 2020.

India’s triangular co-operation is evolving and increasing engagement with the OECD and Development Assistance Committee members. An example of this is a Joint Declaration of Intent signed in May 2022 by the German Federal Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Indian Minister of External Affairs to strengthen their triangular partnerships. RIS India collects data on Indian triangular co-operation initiatives, some of which are included in the OECD’s voluntary triangular co-operation project repository. A joint RIS India-OECD publication highlights the importance of Indian civil society organisations in implementing this co-operation modality.

Ministry of External Affairs (2021), Annual Report 2020-21. Available at http://www.mea.gov.in/Uploads/PublicationDocs/33569_MEA_annual_Report.pdf

Ministry of External Affairs (2021), “Development Partnerships”, https://www.mea.gov.in/development-partnership-administration.htmhttps://www.mea.gov.in/development-partnership.htm.

Chaturvedi, Sachin (2021), Why India needs an international development cooperation Agency": https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/why-india-needs-an-international-development-cooperation-agency-7582421/

Indonesia has made development co-operation one of its priorities to advance sustainable development and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) both at home and abroad. Strengthened development co-operation is seen as a means to optimise the country’s foreign policy. In 2022, Indonesia announced major commitments to meet a net zero transition by 2060 and plans to adjust its development co-operation in line with this net zero approach.

Indonesia’s National Medium-Term Development Plan (NMTDP) 2020-2024 emphasises international development co-operation. Four strategies are envisaged to strengthen Indonesia’s development co-operation: 1) increasing new financing sources and mechanisms; 2) creating an enabling environment for private sector engagement in development co-operation; 3) enhancing South-South and triangular co-operation for trade and investment; and 4) strengthening institutions for aid and international development co-operation.

The three main themes of Indonesia’s development co-operation are development (poverty eradication, agriculture, disaster risk management, infrastructure planning and budgeting, education), economic issues (macroeconomic management; public financial management; microfinance for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises) and good governance and peacebuilding (democracy, peace, conflict resolution, law enforcement, central and local government engagement). They are implemented through technical co-operation programmes, training and workshops, seminars and knowledge-sharing.

Indonesia also channels funds through multilateral organisations and collaborates with several bilateral donors, United Nations agencies and multilateral development banks under a triangular co-operation framework to provide technical assistance and knowledge transfer to developing countries.

Indonesia is one of the OECD’s five Key Partners, as well as the first co-chair of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation. As the only member of the G20 from the ASEAN region, Indonesia plays an important role in bringing the voices of ASEAN members and moreover, developing countries, to this global forum. In 2022, Indonesia holds the presidency of the G20 and is advancing the G20 Blended Finance Principles for developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing states, drawing on the OECD-DAC Blended Finance Principles and a G20 Roadmap for Stronger Recovery and Resilience in Developing Countries, least developed countries and small island developing states, drawing on the OECD’s work on the ocean economy and with SIDS. Indonesia is also advancing the sustainable finance agenda, supporting the development of a framework for transition finance and scaling up sustainable finance instruments and policy levers that incentivise financing, including by leveraging the OECD Blended Finance principles for clean energy and the use of blended finance approaches to mobilise new commercial sources of finance.

Indonesia’s National Coordination Team for South-South and Triangular Co-operation (NCT) is comprised of the Ministry of National Development Planning (Bappenas), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance and the State Secretariat. Together these three institutions provide guidance for the country’s development co-operation system. While the NCT co-ordinates Indonesia’s development co-operation, relevant sectoral line ministries implement the activities. Furthermore, the NCT continues to strengthen the governance, outreach, and promotion to increase domestic and international awareness of Indonesia’s contribution to South-South and triangular co-operation.

In 2019, the Indonesian government announced the creation of an Agency for International Development co-operation (Indo-AID), which could help step up its contribution to international development co-operation, and global partnerships in development. Details are still being worked out as to the exact mandate of the agency, including an update of the regulations on the aid management (the Government Regulation on Aid Management date from 2018 and 2019; PP Pemberian Hibah No. 48/2018 and No. 57/2019), and its relations with other ministries and bodies in Indonesia. The sector focus will be the prevention and relief of natural disasters and humanitarian crises, through which the agency aims to enhance Indonesia’s participation in fulfilling the 2030 Agenda.

Indonesia reports its contributions to sustainable development to the Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD) statistical framework. In 2020, Indonesia reported contributions of USD 153 000, down from USD 16.6 million in 2019. Indonesia’s support was reported in the form of South-South co-operation under Pillar I of the TOSSD (cross-border resources to developing countries). Contributions were relatively lower compared to 2019 due to the effects of COVID-19. Furthermore, South-South Co-operation activities shifted into a virtual arrangement, with lower operational costs. This figure does not include contributions to the multilateral system, since Indonesia does not include those contributions in its TOSSD reporting.

According to Indonesian estimates reported to OECD, from 2016 to 2019, its development co-operation financing reached approximately USD 989.27 million. The funds were channelled as capital contributions to multilateral organisations (77%), mainly the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, which received the largest share (83%); the Islamic Development Bank; the Islamic Corporation for the Development of the Private Sector; the International Fund for Agricultural Development; and the International Development Association. The remaining 23% was channelled through international organisations and South-South and triangular co-operation.

Indonesia engages in triangular co-operation and has reported activities in the modality to the TOSSD. Data show the main sectors of its triangular projects are population policies and health and its main partners are in Asia, including Cambodia, Japan, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. Learn more about triangular co-operation and Indonesia’s number of projects through the OECD’s voluntary triangular co-operation project repository. Indonesia is a member of the Global Partnership Initiative on Effective Triangular Co-operation.

Bappenas (2020), National Medium-Term Development Plan 2020-2024, Ministry of National Development Planning, Jakarta, http://jdih.bappenas.go.id/data/peraturan/Perpres_Nomor_18_tahun_2020_tentang_RPJMN_lampiran.pdf.

Bappenas (2016), Integrated Study of International Development Cooperation Policy, Ministry of National Development Planning, Jakarta.

OECD (2022), Development Co-operation Systems of Six Countries in Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam, OECD, Paris, https://www.oecd.org/dac/2022-south-east-asian-dev-coop-providers.pdf?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=seadevproviders&utm_content=en&utm_term=dcd.

Yasmin, N. (2019), “Indonesia launches $212M International Development Aid Fund”, Jakarta Globe, 18 October 2019, https://jakartaglobe.id/news/indonesia-launches-212m-international-development-aid-fund

International development co-operation is a component of Peru’s foreign policy and a valuable tool that contributes to the country’s sustainable and inclusive development. As an upper middle-income country, a beneficiary of official development assistance (ODA) and a provider of technical co-operation through South-South co-operation, Peru undertakes commitments and responsibilities that strengthen the effectiveness of co-operation and promote partnership mechanisms with various development actors. Peru encourages a multidimensional development model that goes beyond per capita income, while recognising the differentiated capacities and vulnerabilities of developing countries.

Peru shares strengths, capacities and knowledge for mutual benefit and learning through South-South and triangular co-operation, mainly with countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, and with a clear aspiration to expand co-operation with other regions. It is worth noting that the development of effective development measures and public policies has allowed Peru to establish itself as an important partner and to provide technical co-operation to 12 countries by 2020. Peru’s efforts in providing technical co-operation are in line with its aspiration to join the OECD. Since 2018, Peru has been implementing an Action Plan to support its reform agenda drawing on OECD legal instruments, bodies and evidence-based analysis and, on 25 January 2022, the OECD Council decided to open accession discussions with Peru and on 10 June 2022 adopted a Roadmap for the OECD Accession of Peru.

Peru is an Adherent to the OECD Recommendation of the Council for Development Co-operation Actors on Managing the Risk of Corruption. Peru hosted virtually and co-chaired the third LAC-DAC Dialogue on Development Co-operation in 2021 and attended the LAC-DAC Dialogues in 2016 and 2019. In 2021, Peru also participated in OECD work on “Aligning Development Co-operation to the SDGs in Upper Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of Peru”. In the margins of the 2021 ECOSOC High Level Political Forum, the Permanent Missions of New Zealand and Peru to the United Nations and the OECD organised the side event “Getting Results: Using the SDG framework to ensure an inclusive and sustained recovery”.

Peru’s international co-operation comes under the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, whose function is to formulate, plan, dictate, direct, co-ordinate and supervise national policies in the area of international co-operation. The Peruvian Agency for International Cooperation (APCI), a public body attached to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is responsible for programming and organising international co-operation received by Peru, contributing to the co-ordination and facilitation of co-operation from official bilateral and multilateral sources, as well as the technical co-operation that Peru provides to partner countries through South-South co-operation.

The APCI has an IT platform, the Integrated Management System for International Technical Cooperation (SIGCTI), which allows public and private entities to report on the implementation of international co-operation-funded programmes, projects and activities through an Annual Declaration. This platform makes it possible to identify the alignment of official and non-governmental co-operation with the priorities of the National Policy on International Technical Cooperation and the SDGs, and to prepare the annual statistical document Situation and Trends of International Technical Cooperation in Peru.

Peru’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the APCI, with the technical assistance of the National Center for Strategic Planning, are in the process of updating the National Policy for International Technical Cooperation, which aims to consolidate the effectiveness of international co-operation received by Peru and expand the Peruvian offer of international co-operation by 2030.

According to Peru’s internal estimates, its contribution to multilateral organisations totalled USD 10.62 million (2020), USD 17.5 million (2021) and USD 19.42 million (2022). In South-South co-operation, Peru estimates that in 2018 USD 97 975,64 were disbursed to implement activities as a provider of technical co-operation with Paraguay, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Panama, Saint Lucia and Uruguay. Although no financial resources were disbursed in 2020 due to COVID-19, data from the 2019 Situation and Trends of International Technical Co-operation in Peru, show that Peru participated in 81 South-South Co-operation projects, 32 as provider, 31 as a beneficiary, and 18 as both beneficiary and provider.

Peru engages in triangular co-operation and is a member of the Global Partnership Initiative on Effective Triangular Co-operation. Data from the Situation and Trends of International Technical Co-operation in Peru shows that Peru engaged in nine triangular co-operation projects in 2020, acting as both beneficiary and provider of development co-operation. Peru has important partners in triangular co-operation such as Germany, which sponsors the Regional Fund for Triangular Cooperation in Latin American and the Caribbean, Japan, ILO and WFP. Peru also participates in the OECD’s voluntary triangular co-operation project repository.

Peru is an accession country to the OECD.

APCI (2022), Situación y Tendencias de la Cooperación Técnica Internacional en el Perú 2020, Peruvian Agency for International Cooperation, https://cdn.www.gob.pe/uploads/document/file/2987877/Situacion%20y%20tendencias%20CTI%20Per%C3%BA%202020.pdf.pdf.

APCI (2021), Situación y Tendencias de la Cooperación Técnica Internacional en el Perú 2019


APCI (2021), Memoria Anual 2020, Peruvian Agency for International Cooperation, http://portal.apci.gob.pe/Novedades/InstrumentosCINR/memoria-anual-2020.pdf.

APCI (2020), Catalogue of Peruvian Offer of International Technical Cooperation 2020, Peruvian Agency for International Cooperation, http://portal.apci.gob.pe/gestion/Atach/Catalogo-OPTCI-2020.pdf.

APCI (2019), “Peru supports Honduras in its process of implementation of the General Water Law”, https://www.gob.pe/institucion/apci/noticias/110545-peru-apoya-a-honduras-en-su-proceso-de-implementacion-de-la-ley-general-de-aguas.

APCI (2019), Declaración de Política de Cooperación Técnica Internacional, Peruvian Agency for International Cooperation, https://cdn.www.gob.pe/uploads/document/file/714592/declaracion-de-politica-de-cooperacion-t%C3%A9cnica-internacional.pdf.

APCI (2019c), Las Alianzas Multiactor de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo Sostenible: Rol de la APCI, Peruvian Agency for International Cooperation, https://cdn.www.gob.pe/uploads/document/file/714567/ficha-rol-apci-en-las-alianzas-multiactor.pdf.

APCI (2018), Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships for Sustainable Development Cooperation, Peruvian Agency for International Cooperation, https://cdn.www.gob.pe/uploads/document/file/714601/multi-stakeholder-partnerships.pdf.

South Africa’s African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund (ARF) emphasises co-operation with the African continent through the promotion of democracy, good governance, the prevention and resolution of conflict, socio-economic development and integration, humanitarian assistance, and human resource development. The ARF focuses on South-South and triangular co-operation projects with African countries, notably members of the Southern African Development Community. It also provides loans and/or other financial assistance. South Africa provides its bilateral development co-operation mainly in the form of technical co-operation.

South Africa held the chairmanship of the African Union in 2020 where it prioritised peace and security, economic development, and continental integration through the operationalisation of the African Continental Free Trade Area, infrastructure development to facilitate continental free trade, advancing the economic empowerment of women, and support of good governance and democracy.

South Africa is an Adherent to the OECD Recommendation of the Council for Development Co-operation Actors on Managing the Risk of Corruption. Since 2007, South Africa has been one of the OECD’s five Key Partners, contributing to the OECD’s work comprehensively and participating in different OECD activities. South Africa is a member of the G20 and advocates for a more substantial role of the G20 in support of the 2030 Agenda, notably through the G20 Development Working Group and its focus on finance for sustainable development, including curbing illicit financial flows, localising the Sustainable Development Goals and G20 support to developing countries for a COVID-19 recovery. South Africa chairs the Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD) Task Force.

South Africa’s Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO) is responsible for strategy and foreign policy formulation, while line ministries are involved in the implementation of development co-operation projects. The African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund is housed in DIRCO.

The National Treasury has a co-ordinating function in managing incoming official development assistance and disbursing funds for outgoing co-operation. DIRCO and National Treasury officials are on the ARF Advisory Committee. South Africa’s development co-operation structures may change when South Africa establishes a development co-operation agency under DIRCO.

According to OECD estimates, South Africa’s bilateral international development co-operation reached USD 32.6 million in 2020, down from USD 34.9 million in 2019.

According to the African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund Strategy Plan 2020-2025, between 2015 and 2020, 49% of the ARF’s allocations were directed to humanitarian assistance-related support, 9% to democracy and good governance, and 4% to conflict resolution. The plan indicates a downward trend in fiscal allocations to various government departments, including DIRCO, foreseeing the need to prioritise its allocations and maximise the impact of its interventions.

South Africa engages in triangular co-operation, partnering with several DAC members such as Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United States, to support other African countries in areas such as governance, public security and post-conflict reconstruction. South Africa is a member of the Global Partnership Initiative on Effective Triangular Co-operation.

DIRCO (2021), Annual Report 2020-21, Department of International Relations and Cooperation, Pretoria, www.dirco.gov.za/department/report_2020-2021/annual_report2020_2021.pdf

DIRCO (n.d), African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund (ARF) Strategic Plan 2020-2025 & Annual Performance Plan 2020-2021 Revised, Department of International Relations and Cooperation, Pretoria, www.dirco.gov.za/department/african_renaissance2020_2025/arf_2020_2025_newrevised.pdf.


← 1. Scholars have estimated that China’s development aid is much larger, standing at USD 5.9 billion in 2018 (see Kitano and Miyabayashi) or as high as USD 7.9 billion if one includes preferential buyers credits (see Kitano 2019). China’s development co-operation is estimated to have decreased due to expenditure cuts to deal with COVID-19 (Kitano and Miyabayashi).

← 2. Based on data from the Chinese Ministry of Finance, available at http://yss.mof.gov.cn/2020zyjs/202106/t20210629_3727246.htm. Scholars (Kitano and Miyabayashi) provide higher estimates.

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