Other official providers not reporting to the OECD

This chapter includes information on the estimated volume and key features of development co-operation provided by seven providers that are either on their way to becoming OECD members, are OECD key partners and/or that are important international partners in financing for development.

The OECD estimates the volume of their programme based on official government reports, complemented by contributions to UN agencies (excluding local resources) compiled by UN-DESA and web-based research (mainly on contributions to multilateral organisations) in an internationally-comparable manner.

The chapter also includes information on volumes of development co-operation as per provider’s own methodologies and information on their institutional set up.

Brazilian South-South and triangular co-operation has expanded its scope; facilitated regional, sub-regional and interregional integration; provided innovative approaches for collective actions; and strengthened its contribution to sustainable development in its three dimensions (social, economic and environmental). It is implemented under principles that include respect for national sovereignty, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries and non-conditionality. These principles were reiterated in March 2019 at the Second United Nations High-Level Conference on South-South Cooperation (BAPA+40).

Brazilian South-South co-operation includes initiatives in agriculture, public health, social development, science and technology, education, energy, industry, trade, justice, environment, public safety and security, and employment. Brazil has developed projects in most Latin American and Caribbean countries; with the Community of Portuguese Language Countries and its members in Africa and Asia; as well as countries in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. Brazil participated in 2019 in the DAC senior-level meeting and in the LAC-DAC Dialogue on Development Co-operation.

Brazilian South-South co-operation operates under bilateral, trilateral and regional formats. It includes knowledge sharing, capacity building, humanitarian co-operation, scholarships and technological development. For Brazil, triangular co-operation is not a new modality, as it is well-established as a regular tool in its development co-operation. Brazil does not use innovative financing.

The Brazilian Cotton programme promotes the strengthening of the cotton sector in Africa and Latin America since 2009, through the provision of applied technology and training in the areas of genetic improvement, pest control, agronomic management, no-tillage, rural extension, production of improved cotton seeds to enhance cotton production, as well as trading cotton by-products and cotton’s combined crops and decent work in the cotton chain. The programme is co-ordinated by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) with support from United Nations Development Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme, and the International Labour Organization, and executed by the Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), the Brazilian Association of Cotton Producers (ABRAPA) and the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), as well as other private/public institutions, which provide training and capacity building. The current phase of the programme benefits 15 African countries and 6 Latin American countries.

Brazilian South-South co-operation is an instrument of national foreign policy, therefore the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has responsibility for its co-ordination. The Brazilian Cooperation Agency of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs runs the technical and humanitarian modalities of Brazilian co-operation. Brazilian South-South co-operation mobilises more than 100 public sector institutions, and includes collaboration with subnational entities, the private sector and civil society. The Agency’s mandate includes humanitarian co-operation, which has allowed the Brazilian government to improve the humanitarian dimension of its South-South co-operation, under the belief that prevention, strengthening resilience, and supporting reconstruction after disasters and calamities play a fundamental role in people´s progress, in particular those who are most vulnerable.

In 2016, Brazil’s international development co-operation reached USD 907.7 million, up from USD 111 million in 2015. Brazilian contributions to multilateral organisations in 2016 totalled USD 840.5 million (IPEA and ABC, 2018). Preliminary data compiled by the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA) shows that Brazilian contributions to multilateral organisations total USD 195.3 million in 2017 and USD 274.5 million in 2018. Data on 2017 and 2018 disbursements in Brazilian co-operation for international development are currently under tabulation.

The Brazilian government would like to highlight that the IPEA’s methodology to quantify Brazilian South-South co-operation in monetary terms presents some differences from the DAC reporting methodology. As a result, DAC estimates for Brazilian development co-operation over the years have been significantly less than the IPEA’s figures.

According to estimates by the OECD, in 2018, Brazil’s international development co-operation reached USD 160.13 million, down from USD 316 million in 2017. As figures for Brazil’s 2018 bilateral co-operation were not yet available, these include only contributions to international organisations. Brazil’s contributions to multilateral organisations in 2018 were mainly channelled through the United Nations system (69%), the World Bank Group (25%) and regional development banks (6%).

Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC): www.abc.gov.br/Training/Informacoes/ABC_en.aspx

IPEA and ABC (2018), Coperação Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento Internacional: Levantamento 2014-2016 [Brazilian Cooperation for International Development-COBRADI] (in Portuguese), Institute for Applied Economic Research and Brazilian Cooperation Agency, Brasilia, www.ipea.gov.br/portal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34507

Cotton 4 Project: www.abc.gov.br/Projetos/CooperacaoSulSul/Cotton4 and https://www.embrapa.br/en/cotton-4-togo

Better Cotton Initiative (BCI): https://bettercotton.org

In April 2018, the People’s Republic of China (hereafter PRC or “China”) inaugurated the China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA), and in September 2018 promulgated CIDCA’s Administrative Measures for Foreign Aid. As a key national entity on development co-operation, CIDCA is in charge of formulating strategic aid guidelines, plans and policies for foreign aid; co-ordinating and offering advice on major foreign aid issues; advancing the country’s reforms in matters related to foreign aid; and identifying and evaluating major development co-operation programmes. On 1 January 2020, China launched a new foreign aid logo and emblem, “China aid for shared future”.

China has been providing development co-operation to developing countries since the foundation of the PRC, and participated in the Bandung Conference in 1955. Previously, China’s foreign development co-operation was guided by the Eight Principles for Economic Aid and Technical Assistance to Other Countries, announced by Premier Zhou Enlai in 1964 (Government of China, 1964). China’s foreign aid differs in several aspects from official development assistance provided by members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee, as China openly affirms that its development assistance is for mutual benefit, including China’s own commercial benefit.

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a key plank of China’s development co-operation strategy. The initiative aims to build connectivity and investments that are focused on filling the infrastructure financing gap (box below), primarily focused on the provision of hardware (infrastructure) and funding. President Xi summarised the overarching objectives of the initiative as follows: “[W]e hope to achieve policy, infrastructure, trade, financial, and people-to-people connectivity and thus build a new platform for international co-operation to create new drivers of shared development (Xi, 2017 cited in OECD, 2018).” At the same time, concerns have emerged in some quarters of the international development community on the potential impact of BRI loans on developing country economies.

CIDCA, which was set up under the State Council, has taken over some of the responsibilities and functions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) and the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) (the Department of Aid to Foreign Countries and part of the Department of Outward Investment and Economic Cooperation). CIDCA is not intended to be an implementing agency, but is expected to design strategies, plans and policies on China’s foreign aid, as well as to evaluate their implementation.

Previously responsible for most of the foreign aid management and operations, MOFCOM now manages bilateral aid and projects; the MFA is responsible for issues related to the Sustainable Development Goals and co-ordinating with other ministries.

The Ministry of Finance manages co-operation with multilateral development banks and regional banks.

The Economic and Commercial Counsellors (ECC) of the Chinese embassies supervise and co-ordinate aid overseas. Ambassadors are appointed by the MFA and MOFCOM; however, recently the Agency for International Economic Cooperation (AIECO) under MOFCOM directly sent staff to implement projects abroad.

As per the OECD estimates, in 2018, China’s international development co-operation reached USD 4.4 billion, down from USD 4.8 billion in 2017. Chinese contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 1.4 billion. These were primarily channelled through regional development banks (74%) – especially the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank – and to the United Nations (26%).

Explore the Monitoring Dashboard of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation.

China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA): http://en.cidca.gov.cn

Government of China (2018), “Administrative measures for foreign aid”, China International Development Cooperation Agency, Beijing, consultation draft.

Government of China (2014), “China’s foreign aid”, White Paper, Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, http://english.gov.cn/archive/white_paper/2014/08/23/content_281474982986592.htm.

Government of China (1964), China’s Eight Principles for Economic Aid and Technical Assistance to Other Countries, Government of China, Beijing, http://english1.english.gov.cn/official/2011-04/21/content_1849913_10.htm.

OECD (2018), China’s Belt and Road Initiative in the Global Trade, Investment and Finance Landscape, OECD, Paris, https://www.oecd.org/finance/Chinas-Belt-and-Road-Initiative-in-the-global-trade-investment-and-finance-landscape.pdf.

Costa Rica has a dual role in development co-operation, as both a provider and a beneficiary (box below). Costa Rica provides development co-operation only in the form of technical co-operation through bilateral and regional initiatives by triangular and South-South co-operation. For instance, Spain has a triangular co-operation fund to support Costa Rica in its triangular co-operation projects with other Central American and Caribbean countries (e.g. El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras) in areas such as sustainable development, social cohesion, competitiveness and production, and participative democracy. Costa Rica also participates in projects of the German regional fund for the promotion of triangular co-operation in Latin America and the Caribbean. The country is also interested in developing decentralised co-operation initiatives, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals.

In 2019, Costa Rica, an OECD accession country, participated in the DAC senior-level meeting and in the LAC-DAC Dialogue on Development Co-operation. Between 2017 and 2020, Costa Rica has joined the Task Force for the Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD). In addition, in 2018, the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Policy (MIDEPLAN) and the OECD conducted a pilot study of TOSSD in Costa Rica.

The Directorate General for International Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the International Cooperation Area of MIDEPLAN manage Costa Rica’s incoming and outgoing development co-operation. MIDEPLAN is responsible for formulating, negotiating, co-ordinating, approving and evaluating technical assistance programmes in line with the National Development Plan. Requests for technical assistance are forwarded by MIDEPLAN to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which assesses whether such requests are consistent with the country’s foreign policy and presents them to the relevant governments and international bodies.1 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs represents Costa Rica in international co-operation, having exclusive competence on diplomatic negotiations and the formalisation of agreements related to development co-operation. Ministries and public sector institutions use an international co-operation liaison system (National Co-operation Subsystem) to contact MIDEPLAN when they want to implement an international co-operation project.2

In 2019, Costa Rica indicated that it had channelled in-kind (non-financial) co-operation of more than USD 6.2 million. This includes triangular, South-South, bilateral and multilateral co-operation. This represents a considerable increase on 2018 efforts, when it provided USD 4.5 million.

According to OECD estimates, in 2018, Costa Rica’s international development co-operation reached USD 2.92 million, down from USD 8 million in 2017. Costa Rica’s contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 2.14 million. These contributions were channelled through the United Nations system.3

Government of Costa Rica (2018), International Cooperation Projects Management System, Ministry of Planning and Economic Policy, San José.

Government of Costa Rica (2016), Budget Law 2016 (in Spanish), Ministry of Foreign Relations and Worship, San José, www.hacienda.go.cr/docs/5669c545d0a92_Ley%202016%20SFM%20Titutlo%20204.pdf (accessed on 16 March 2018).

Government of Costa Rica (2015), Budget Law 2015 (in Spanish), Ministry of Finance, San José, www.hacienda.go.cr/docs/55255f1966c39_LeyActMarzo_204.pdf (accessed on 7 March 2016).

India’s foreign policy is integrated with the national priority of sustained, rapid and inclusive socio-economic development. India emphasises mutual benefit in its development co-operation, and combines a range of investment, trade and development instruments in its co-operation with developing countries (box below).

India is also engaged in triangular co-operation, partnering with several international organisations and Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members such as Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and others.

The focus of India’s development assistance has been in countries in its immediate neighbourhood and Africa, though India is also expanding its development co-operation to countries in Asia-Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. The main sectors of India’s development co-operation are infrastructure development, health, education, energy, agriculture, capacity building and community development.

The Development Partnership Administration (DPA) within the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) co-ordinates India’s bilateral development co-operation. It manages grants and the Indian Technical & Economic Cooperation Programme. The DPA has three divisions:

  • DPA-I looks after the Lines of Credit Projects (LoC) under the Indian Development and Economic Assistance Scheme (IDEAS) of the Ministry of Finance. Under the Allocation of Business Rules, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal fall under the purview of MEA. DPA-I also handles the LoC modalities relating to these countries.

  • DPA-II focuses on technical co-operation. It manages the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme, which focuses on capacity building and training of defence personnel and civilian training under the Colombo Plan for Cooperative and Economic Social Development in Asia and the Pacific, established in 1964. The ITEC offers customised courses, as well as humanitarian assistance.

  • DPA-III manages bilateral grants to Afghanistan, Bangladesh, the Maldives, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka for infrastructure, education and health. It also supports community-based and community-driven projects in these countries.

The Ministry of Finance manages multilateral assistance and exercises administrative oversight over the concessional loans and the lines of credit provided by the EXIM Bank. The bank provides financial assistance. It functions as the principal financial institution for co-ordinating the institutions engaged in financing export and import of goods and services with a view to promoting the country’s international trade.

In 2007, a decision was taken to create the India International Development Cooperation Agency (IIDCA) and a special budget line was created in the 2007-08 budget. The idea was to consolidate Indian aid and to allow for larger projects (Price, 2011). The idea of the IIDCA led to the establishment in 2012 of the Development Partnership Administration (DPA) within the MEA (Taneja, 2012). The current institutional structure of Indian development co-operation is illustrated below.

In 2018, India’s international development co-operation reached USD 1.3 billion, down from USD 3 billion in 2017 (OECD estimates). Indian contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 367.9 million. These were primarily channelled through regional development banks (79%) – mainly the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank – as well as through the United Nations (13%) and the World Bank Group (6%).

Ministry of External Affairs, Development Partnership Administration (DPA): https://www.mea.gov.in/development-partnership-administration.htm

Government of India (2018), Annual Report 2017-2018, Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi, www.mea.gov.in/Uploads/PublicationDocs/29788_MEA-AR-2017-18-03-02-2018.pdf.

Government of India (2016), Annual Report 2016-2017, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi, https://dea.gov.in/sites/default/files/Annual%20Report-2016-17-E.pdf.

Price, G. (2011), For the Global Good: India’s Developing International Role, Chatham House, https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/Research/Asia/r_indiarole0511.pdf.

Taneja, K. (2012), “India sets up global aid agency”, The Sunday Guardian, 1 July, New Delhi, http://www.sunday-guardian.com/news/india-sets-up-global-aid-agency.

The government of Indonesia sees strengthened development co-operation as a means to optimise its foreign policy. Indonesia’s National Medium-Term Development Plan (NMTDP) 2020-2024 is a continuation of the previous NMTDP (2015-19) and places great emphasis on international development co-operation. Four strategies are envisaged to strengthen Indonesia’s development co-operation: 1) increasing new financing sources and mechanisms; 2) creating an enabling environment for private sector engagement in development co-operation; 3) enhancing South-South and triangular co-operation for trade and investment; and 4) strengthening institutions for aid and international development co-operation.

The three main themes of Indonesia’s development co-operation are: 1) development issues; 2) economic issues; and 3) good governance and peacebuilding. They are implemented through technical co-operation programmes, training and workshops, and seminars and knowledge sharing, with each activity having a direct link to at least one Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target. Indonesia carries out these programmes to support collective efforts in attaining the SDGs.

Indonesia also channels funds through multilateral organisations and collaborates with several bilateral donors, United Nations agencies and multilateral development banks under a triangular co-operation framework to provide technical assistance and knowledge transfer to developing countries on demand. Indonesia also engages in triangular co-operation with DAC members. With the OECD, Indonesia engaged in an exchange of experiences on strengthening ecosystems for development co-operation and on achieving the 2030 Agenda through South-South and triangular co-operation.

The government of Indonesia launched in May 2019 the first Multi-Stakeholder Partnership (MSP) Guidelines in order to advance meaningful engagements with partners from all sectors of society and to ensure the principle of “leaving no one behind”. The guidelines were elaborated together with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the International NGO Forum on Indonesia Development (INFID), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), and the United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS).

Indonesia has applied the guidelines in the mainstreaming process of the SDGs, and by actively involving the government and parliament, civil society organisations and media, philanthropy and business, and academics in the structure of the National Co-ordination Team for the SDGs.

The guidelines serve to accelerate and localise the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in Indonesia, in an effort to provide accessible guidance to all stakeholders (box below); provide a dynamic resource that inspires stakeholders to build new partnerships and further develop existing ones; and support capacity building for localising the SDGs at the local, national and global level.

In 2019, the Indonesian government announced the creation of an agency for international development co-operation (Indonesia AID). The new agency is seen as a diplomatic tool and a way of making a more significant contribution to international development co-operation and to ensure global partnership in development. Details are still being worked out as to the mandate of the new agency, and its relations with other ministries and bodies in Indonesia.

Previously, the National Coordination Team (NCT) for South-South and Triangular Co-operation, comprised of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of National Development Planning/Bappenas, the Ministry of Finance and the State Secretariat (SetNeg) developed policies and facilitated the implementation of South-South and triangular co-operation related activities undertaken by line ministries or in partnership with development partners. The idea of a single agency for South-South and triangular co-operation was mentioned in the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) for 2015-19, which was the basis for starting the process of setting up “Indonesia AID”.

According to OECD estimates, Indonesia’s international development co-operation reached USD 139 million in 2018, down from USD 144 million in 2016. The 2018 estimates include information that Indonesia provided to the OECD for the pilot on total official support for sustainable development (TOSSD). Indonesia’s contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 132.1 million. These were primarily channelled through the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB, 87%) and through the United Nations (13%).

Indonesia estimates that in the period 2016-18, its development co-operation financing reached USD 763.02 million. This was channelled as capital contributions to multilateral organisations (79%), mainly the AIIB, the Islamic Development Bank, the Islamic Corporation for the Development of Private Sector, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, and the International Development Association. Among contributions to multilateral organisations, the AIIB received the largest share (91.43%). The remaining 21% was channelled through South-South and triangular co-operation.

Over the period 2016-2018, Indonesia’s financing for South-South and triangular co-operation activities has risen considerably. In 2018, Indonesia implemented a total of 59 South-South and triangular co-operation activities. These activities – conducted mostly in Asia Pacific, Africa and the Middle East and involving 1 313 participants from 72 countries – focussed largely on the following five sectors: economy (20%), gender and family planning (17%), agriculture (13.5%), health (13.5%), and education (10%).

In 2019, the government of Indonesia allocated grant assistance for five countries, namely Fiji, Tuvalu, Nauru, the Solomon Islands and Myanmar, for a total amount of USD 14.8 million.

Government of Indonesia (2020a), Buku II Nota Keuangan Beserta Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara Tahun Anggaran 2020 [Book II Financial Note and State Revenue and Expenditure Budget Financing Year 2020], Government of Indonesia, Jakarta, https://www.kemenkeu.go.id/media/14041/nota-keuangan-beserta-apbn-ta-2020.pdf.

Government of Indonesia (2020b), Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2020-2024 (National Medium-Term Development Plan 2020-2024), Ministry of National Development Planning, http://jdih.bappenas.go.id/data/peraturan/Perpres_Nomor_18_tahun_2020_tentang_RPJMN_lampiran.pdf.

Government of Indonesia (2019a), Buku II Nota Keuangan Beserta Rancangan Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara Tahun Anggaran 2019 [Book II Financial Note and State Revenue and Expenditure Budget Financing Year 2019], Government Indonesia, Jakarta, https://www.kemenkeu.go.id/media/10377/nota-keuangan-dan-rapbn-2019.pdf.

Government of Indonesia (2019b), Voluntary National Reviews: Empowering People and Ensuring Inclusiveness and Equality, Government of Indonesia, Jakarta, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/23803INDONESIA_Final_Cetak_VNR_2019_Indonesia_Rev2.pdf.

Government of Indonesia (2018), Panduan Kemitraan Multipihak untuk Pelaksanaan Tujuan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan (TPB/SDGs) di Indonesia [Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Guidelines for SDGs in Indonesia], https://localisesdgs-indonesia.org/asset/file/2018/08/bappenas-draft-ii-panduan-kmp.pdf.

OECD et al. (2018), Tri Hita Karana Roadmap for Blended Finance: Blended Finance and Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), OECD, Paris, www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance-topics/Tri-Hita-Karana-Roadmap-for-Blended-Finance.pdf.

Qatar’s development co-operation is closely aligned with its National Vision 2030, which calls for the country to become a prominent actor in international development co-operation. The Qatar Fund for Development is a government entity, established by Law 19 of 2002, which carries out Qatar's international development and foreign assistance programme, mostly through concessional loans, but also through other modalities. It is overseen by Qatar’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The objective of the fund is to improve livelihoods around the world. Key activities focus on the provision of health services, support for educational systems, the eradication of poverty, and mobilisation of fast and efficient life-saving humanitarian aid. In 2018, Qatar participated in the DAC peer review of Switzerland as an observer.

The fund became operational in 2014 with a range of initiatives underway to facilitate more co-ordinated and effective assistance to communities and countries in need, starting with the refinement of its corporate strategy (incorporating its strategic objectives, operational practices and principles). In addition, the fund has strengthened co-ordination mechanisms and partnerships with the multilateral agencies of the United Nations, bilateral donors, non-governmental organisations and civil society organisations, in accordance with international humanitarian and development principles. Furthermore, the fund is putting increasing emphasis on contextualising interventions based on developing countries' needs, based on joint assessment missions with Qatari-based donors, as well as deep-dive analysis of partner countries' needs and development plans, to devise effective development intervention strategies.

Overall, the Qatar Fund aims to tailor programming to country-specific situations and needs in order to unlock partner countries’ capacity to integrate development assistance into their national budgeting processes (box below). To this end, the fund is committed to maintaining predictability and flexibility in its financing of development and humanitarian interventions. In 2019, the fund allocated an estimated USD 577 million to 78 partners worldwide, below 2018 activities (table below).

Geographically, the Qatar Fund’s interventions in 2019 focused on the Middle East and North Africa (78.6%), sub-Saharan Africa (5.9%), Asia (1.8%), America and Oceania (3.8%), and Europe (0.5%). It also provided aid to multilateral and international agencies (9.4%).

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ Department for International Cooperation is responsible for development of the state policy in the field of aid and developmental and humanitarian assistance to support the economic and social development in developing countries. It formulates development assistance policy, organizes and directs development co-operation activities and co-ordinates humanitarian programs with the Qatar Fund for Development.

The Qatar Fund for Development is a public corporation established with a juristic personality and is affiliated to Qatar’s Council of Ministers. The Fund, which provides concessional loans and other forms of development finance on behalf of the State of Qatar, is overseen by a Board of Directors that is headed by Qatar’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 2019, the Risk and Compliance Department of the Qatar Fund was created to improve the organisational governance and accountability model of the fund, taking a systemic and organisational-wide approach. The department supports other areas of the Qatar Fund in achieving its strategic objectives through proper identification, assessment, evaluation, prioritisation and control of risks across the organisation. It also aims to support and ensure compliance and adherence to adopted policies, national bylaws and regulations, and international good practices, particularly in matters related to combating terrorist financing and extreme violence, money laundering, and other illicit financing schemes.

Through continuous horizon scanning and “what if” scenarios, the Risk and Compliance Division function at the Qatar Fund contributes to plan and reduce risks, in addition to identify opportunities, maintain high standards of operations and interventions delivery.

According to OECD estimates, in 2018, Qatar’s international development co-operation reached USD 601 million, down from USD 744 million in 2017. Qatar’s contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 157.5 million. These were primarily channelled through the United Nations (88%) and regional development banks (10%).

According to the Qatar Fund, Qatar’s international development co operation increased from USD 269 million in 2015 to USD 577 million in 2019 (table below). For the period between 2016 and 2019, Qatar’s contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 119 million.

Qatar Fund for Development annual reports 2016, 2017, 2018: https://qatarfund.org.qa/en/annual-reports

The 2019 report was published in April 2020, see https://qatarfund.org.qa/en/qatar-fund-for-development-releases-its-annual-report-for-2019/.

The Revised Strategic Plan 2015-2020 of South Africa’s Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO) emphasises co-operation with “the African continent” and “strengthening South-South relations”.

South Africa prioritises co-operation with the African continent, with a strong focus on member countries of the Southern African Development Community (Box 9). The priority sectors of its bilateral development co-operation are peace, security, post-conflict reconstruction, regional integration, governance and humanitarian assistance.

South Africa provides its bilateral development co-operation mostly in the form of technical co-operation.

South Africa is also engaged in triangular co-operation, partnering with several Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members (e.g. Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United States) to support other African countries in areas such as governance, public security and post-conflict reconstruction.

As a response to the Covid-19 crisis, South Africa’s President, as Chairperson of the African Union (AU), hosted two virtual meetings of the Bureau of the Assembly of AU Heads of State and Government, which decided to establish an AU Covid-19 Response Fund and called on the international community for a comprehensive, robust economic stimulus package for Africa.

The Department of International Relations and Cooperation is responsible for strategy and foreign policy formulation, and other line ministries are involved in the implementation of development co-operation projects. The National Treasury has a co-ordinating function in terms of managing incoming official development assistance. DIRCO and National Treasury officials are on the advisory committee of the ARF. South Africa’s development co-operation structures may change when South Africa establishes a development co-operation agency under the department.

According to OECD estimates, in 2018, South Africa’s international development co-operation reached USD 111 million, up from USD 104 million in 2017. South African contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 74.7 million. These were primarily channelled through the African Union (41%), the United Nations (20%), regional development banks (30%) and the World Bank Group (6%).

Government of South Africa (2019), African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund (ARF), Revised Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Annual Performance Plan 2018/2019, Department of International Relations and Cooperation, Pretoria, www.dirco.gov.za/department/african_renaissance2015_2020/arf_revised3_2015_2020.pdf.

Government of South Africa (n.d), Revised Strategic Plan 2015-2020, Department of International Relations and Cooperation, Pretoria, www.dirco.gov.za/department/strategic_plan_2015_2020_revised2/strategic_plan2015_2020_revised2.pdf.

← 1. According to Article 11 of National Planning Law No. 5525 of 1974 and amendments thereto.

← 2. According to Article 15 of Executive Decree No. 35056-PLAN-RE “Regulation of Article 11 of the National Planning Law No. 5525 of May 2, 1974” of 12 November 2008.

← 3. Costa Rica does not consider these contributions to international organisations as development co-operation. According to the OECD-DAC methodology, these contributions include organisations that have a developmental mandate or else the developmental share of organisations that do not work exclusively on development.

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