Other official providers not reporting to the OECD

This chapter includes information on the estimated volume and key features of development co-operation provided by eight providers that are among the largest providers of development co-operation beyond the DAC membership, on their way to becoming an OECD member or OECD key partners.

The OECD estimates the volume of their programme based on official government reports, complemented by web-based research (mainly on contributions to multilateral organisations) in an internationally-comparable manner.

The chapter also includes information on volumes of development co-operation as per provider’s own methodologies and information on their institutional set up.

Brazil

Introduction

Brazilian South-South and triangular co-operation has expanded its scope; facilitated regional, sub-regional and interregional integration; provided innovative approaches for collective actions; and strengthened its contribution to sustainable development in its three dimensions (ecological, economic and social), implemented under principles that include respect for national sovereignty, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries and non-conditionality.

Brazilian South-South co-operation includes initiatives in public administration, family farming, science and technology, culture, social development, education and school feeding, energy, industry, trade, justice, environment, animal husbandry, health, public safety and security, and employment. Brazil has developed or is developing projects in all Latin American and Caribbean countries; with the Community of Portuguese Language Countries and its members in Africa and Asia; as well as countries in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe.

Brazilian South-South co-operation operates under bilateral, trilateral and regional formats. It includes knowledge sharing, capacity building, humanitarian co-operation, scholarships and technological development. For Brazil, triangular co-operation is not a new modality, as it is well-established as a regular tool in its development co-operation. Brazil does not use innovative financing.

The Brazilian Cotton Initiative

The Brazilian Cotton Initiative promotes the strengthening of the cotton sector in Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal, Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania, Togo and Zimbabwe). The initiative is a partnership between Brazilian public and private institutions with expertise in the cotton sector. The programme aims to enhance cotton production, as well as to expand production in countries where it already exists, through the provision of applied technology and training in the areas of genetic improvement of cotton, pest control, agronomic management, no-tillage, rural extension and the production of cotton seeds.

Institutional set-up

Brazilian South-South co-operation is an instrument of national foreign policy, therefore the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has responsibility for its co-ordination. The Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs runs the technical and humanitarian modalities of Brazilian co-operation. Brazilian South-South co-operation mobilises more than 100 public sector institutions, and includes collaboration with sub-national entities, the private sector and civil society. The ABC’s mandate has been extended to include humanitarian co-operation, which has allowed the Brazilian government to enhance the humanitarian dimension of its South-South co-operation, under the belief that prevention and improving resilience to disasters and calamities play a key role in the progress of the people, in particular those who are most vulnerable.

Estimates of international development co-operation

In 2016, Brazil’s international development co-operation reached USD 907.7 million, up from USD 111 million in 2015. Brazilian contributions to multilateral organisations in 2016 totalled USD 840.5 million (IPEA and ABC, 2018). Data on 2017 and 2018 disbursements are currently under tabulation.

The Brazilian government would like to highlight that the Institute for Applied Economic Research’s (IPEA) methodology to quantify Brazilian South-South co-operation in monetary terms presents some differences from the DAC reporting methodology. As a result, DAC estimates for Brazilian development co-operation over the years have been significantly less than the IPEA’s figures.

According to estimates by the OECD, in 2016 (latest year with available information), Brazil’s international development co-operation reached USD 316 million, up from USD 112 million in 2016. Brazil’s contributions to multilateral organisations in 2017 totalled USD 152 million. These contributions were mainly channelled through the United Nations system (85%) and the World Bank Group (15%).

Additional resources

Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC): http://www.abc.gov.br/Training/Informacoes/ABC_en.aspx

IPEA and ABC (2018), Coperação Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento Internacional: Levantamento 2014-2016 [Brazilian Cooperation for International Development-COBRADI] (in Portuguese), Institute for Applied Economic Research and Brazilian Cooperation Agency, Brasilia, www.ipea.gov.br/portal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34507.

China (People’s Republic of)

Introduction

In April 2018, the People’s Republic of China (hereafter “China”) inaugurated the China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA), and in September 2018 promulgated CIDCA’s Administrative Measures for Foreign Aid. As a key national entity on development co-operation, CIDCA is in charge of developing aid strategies, including statistical rules.

CIDCA’s new administrative measures stipulate that beneficiaries of foreign aid include mainly developing countries in need of support that have established diplomatic relations with China, including international or regional organisations where the majority of the members are developing countries. China’s development co-operation shall inter alia respect the sovereignty of beneficiary countries, help reduce and eliminate poverty, improve livelihood and ecological environment, promote economic development and social progress, enhance the ability of recipients to develop independently, and develop friendly and co-operative relations with the recipients.

Previously, China’s foreign development co-operation was guided by the Eight Principles for Economic Aid and Technical Assistance to Other Countries, announced by Premier Zhou Enlai in 1964 (Government of China, 1964).

China’s approach to development co-operation

“When providing foreign assistance, China adheres to the principles of not imposing any political conditions, not interfering in the internal affairs of the recipient countries and fully respecting their right to independently choosing their own paths and models of development. The basic principles China upholds in providing foreign assistance are mutual respect, equality, keeping promises, mutual benefit and win-win.”

Government White Paper on China’s Foreign Aid, 2014

Institutional set-up

CIDCA, which was set up under the State Council, has taken over some of the responsibilities and functions of the MFA and MOFCOM (the Department of Aid to Foreign Countries and part of the Department of Outward Investment and Economic Cooperation). CIDCA is not intended to be an implementing agency, but is expected to design strategies, plans and policies on China’s foreign aid, as well as to evaluate their implementation.

Previously responsible for most of the foreign aid management and operations, MOFCOM now manages bilateral aid and projects; the MFA is now responsible for issues related to the Sustainable Development Goals and co-ordinating with other ministries.

The Ministry of Finance (MOF) manages the co-operation with multilateral development banks and regional banks.

The Economic and Commercial Counsellors (ECC) of the Chinese Embassy supervises and co-ordinates aid overseas. Ambassadors are appointed by the MFA and MOFCOM; however, recently the Agency for International Economic Cooperation (AIECO) under MOFCOM directly sent staff to implement projects.

The Export-Import Bank of China (China Eximbank) raises funds, provides concessional loans and implements preferential buyer’s credits.

Estimates of international development co-operation

As per the OECD estimates, in 2017, China’s international development co-operation reached USD 4.8 billion, up from USD 3.6 billion in 2016. Chinese contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 2.3 billion. These were primarily channelled through regional development banks (51%) – especially the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) -, the United Nations (20%) and the World Bank Group (29%).

Performance against the commitments for effective development co-operation

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Additional resources

China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA): http://en.cidca.gov.cn/

Government of China (2018), “Administrative Measures for Foreign Aid”, China International Development Cooperation Agency, Beijing, consultation draft.

Government of China (2014), “China’s foreign aid”, White Paper, Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, http://english.gov.cn/archive/white_paper/2014/08/23/content_281474982986592.htm

Government of China (1964), China’s Eight Principles for Economic Aid and Technical Assistance to Other Countries, Government of China, Beijing, http://english1.english.gov.cn/official/2011-04/21/content_1849913_10.htm.

Colombia

Introduction

Colombia is both a beneficiary of official development assistance (ODA) and a provider of South-South and triangular co-operation.

Colombian development co-operation is guided by principles of the need for more effective co-operation, alignment with national development priorities, focus on results, diversification of modalities, strengthening of local capacities and greater transparency. The Colombian government is committed to positioning South-South and triangular co-operation towards the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – as established at the Second High-level United Nations Conference on South-South Co-operation (BAPA+40).

As a provider of South-South and triangular co-operation, Colombia seeks to consolidate its bilateral and regional relations with Latin America and the Caribbean and diversify the geographic and thematic co-operation agenda with Eurasia and Africa.

Colombia’s modalities of development co-operation include multilateral co-operation through the United Nations Development Assistance Framework’s1 social impact bonds; results-based financing; South-South and triangular co-operation; and regional co-operation through regional integration mechanisms such as the Pacific Alliance, the Meso-America Project and Association of Caribbean States. COL-COL2 exchanges were introduced to share good practices derived from ODA projects, from the territories that benefited from the project to territories that did not, in order to maximise the results of successful international co-operation projects within Colombia.

Entrepreneurship and Business Development in Meso-América: The EDEM Project

Colombia’s experience on entrepreneurship and business development is a highly demanded technical assistance in the Latin America and Caribbean region, as Colombia has gained recognition among developing countries because of its feasibility, innovative methodology and multi-stakeholder approach.

Aware of this relevant advance, the European Union chose Colombia as a partner to expand the benefits of this regional South-South co-operation effort in Meso-America. By leveraging additional resources and complementing capabilities, the EDEM Project has, for the very first time, integrated the EU; the Presidential Agency for International Cooperation; the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Tourism; and the regional chambers of commerce to promote innovation on sectoral public policies, capacity building towards innovation; and competitiveness enhancement in the partner countries of Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama.

More information on the EDEM project’s achievements is available at: www.adelante-i.eu/edem.

Institutional set-up

The two main actors in Colombia’s development co-operation are the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (International Cooperation Directorate, DICI) and the Presidential Agency for International Cooperation (APC-Colombia). While the Ministry of Foreign Affairs formulates and guides foreign policy as it relates to international co-operation and maintains the political relationships with all of Colombia’s development partners, APC-Colombia is the technical entity responsible for following up on non-reimbursable co-operation.

Estimates of international development co-operation

From 2012 to 2019, Colombia’s contribution to South-South and triangular co-operation amounted to USD 35 million; 70% was for technical co-operation and 30% was for post-disaster international assistance. The average annual budget was USD 4 million.

Since 2015, Colombia has developed the “Quantification and Added Value Measurement Model”. Beyond the quantification of direct costs (financial), this model focuses on the appraisal of the knowledge contributed during an exchange (indirect costs). This approach takes into account the profile of those contributing the knowledge (knowledge ambassadors) and measures results under value categories such as knowledge contribution, enhanced relations, differential approach, alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals and visibility of South-South co-operation.

According to estimates by the OECD, in 2017, Colombia’s international development co-operation reached USD 198 million (bilateral and multilateral). Colombia’s bilateral co-operation amounted to USD 14.4 million, while the high increase is mainly due to non-core contributions to UN bodies,3 which according to the OECD methodology can be counted as development co-operation.

Additional resources

National Development Department, SDG Platform: https://www.ods.gov.co/es (in Spanish)Presidential Agency for International Cooperation, Colombia’s role in the SDGs: https://www.apccolombia.gov.co/seccion/rol-de-apc-colombia-en-los-ods (in Spanish)National Development Department, National Development Plan 2018-2022 “Pact for Colombia, Pact for Equity”: https://www.dnp.gov.co/DNPN/Paginas/Plan-Nacional-de-Desarrollo.aspx (in Spanish)

Costa Rica

Introduction

Costa Rica has a dual role in development co-operation. Costa Rica provides development co-operation only in the form of technical co-operation through bilateral and regional initiatives by triangular and South-South co-operation. For instance, Spain has a triangular co-operation fund to support Costa Rica in its triangular co-operation projects with other Central American and Caribbean countries (e.g. El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras) in areas such as sustainable development, social cohesion, competitiveness and production, and participative democracy. Costa Rica also participates in projects of the German regional fund for the promotion of triangular co-operation in Latin America and the Caribbean. The country is also interested in developing decentralised co-operation initiatives, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals.

In 2017, Costa Rica, an OECD accession country, participated in the DAC senior-level and high-level meetings. In 2017 and 2018, Costa Rica participated in the Task Force for the Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD). Moreover, in 2018, the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Policy (MIDEPLAN) and the OECD conducted a pilot study of TOSSD in Costa Rica.

Costa Rican Public Policy of International Co-operation (2014-2022)

“Concerning the recent tendencies in international co-operation, Costa Rica has developed capacities in areas such as health, education, sustainable development and environmental protection. Among others, these constitute a co-operation offer with which Costa Rica aims to position itself in the international scene as a country that stands in solidarity with others and promotes new co-operation modalities …”

Costa Rican Public Policy of International Co-operation (2014-22)

Institutional set-up

The Directorate General for International Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the International Cooperation Area of MIDEPLAN manage Costa Rica’s incoming and outgoing development co-operation. MIDEPLAN is responsible for formulating, negotiating, co-ordinating, approving and evaluating technical assistance programmes in line with the National Development Plan. Requests for technical assistance are forwarded by MIDEPLAN to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which assesses whether such requests are consistent with the country’s foreign policy and presents them to the relevant governments and international bodies.4 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs represents Costa Rica in international co-operation, having exclusive competence on diplomatic negotiations and the formalisation of agreements related to development co-operation. Ministries and public sector institutions use an international co-operation liaison system (National Co-operation Subsystem) to contact MIDEPLAN when they want to implement an international co-operation project5.

Estimates of international development co-operation

In 2018, the in-kind international co-operation offered by Costa Rica channelled more than USD 4.5 million as outgoing and as a counterpart for incoming development co-operation through triangular, South-South, bilateral and multilateral co-operation.

According to estimates by the OECD, in 2017, Costa Rica’s international development co-operation reached USD 8 million, down from USD 9 million in 2016. Costa Rica’s contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 7 million. These contributions were mainly channelled through regional development banks (60%) and the United Nations system (31%).6

Additional resources

Government of Costa Rica (2018), International Cooperation Projects Management System, Ministry of Planning and Economic Policy, San José.

Government of Costa Rica (2016), Budget Law 2016 (in Spanish), Ministry of Foreign Relations and Worship, San José, www.hacienda.go.cr/docs/5669c545d0a92_Ley%202016%20SFM%20Titutlo%20204.pdf (accessed on 16 March 2018).

Government of Costa Rica (2015), Budget Law 2015 (in Spanish), Ministry of Finance, San José, www.hacienda.go.cr/docs/55255f1966c39_LeyActMarzo_204.pdf (accessed on 7 March 2016).

India

Introduction

India’s foreign policy is integrated with the national priority of sustained, rapid and inclusive socio-economic development. India emphasises in its development co-operation mutual benefit, and combines a range of investment, trade and development instruments in its co-operation with developing countries.

India is also engaged in triangular co-operation, partnering with several international organisations and Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members such as Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and others.

The focus of India’s development assistance has been in countries in its immediate neighbourhood and Africa, though India is also expanding its development assistance reach to South East Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, Mongolia and the Pacific. The main sectors of India’s development co-operation are infrastructure development, health, education, power generation (hydropower), agriculture, capacity building and community development.

India’s approach to development co-operation

“India’s diplomatic approach and engagement with the wider world is reflective of its confidence as a rising power capable of shaping the global discourse in the emerging multipolar world.”

“Development partnership is a key instrument of India’s foreign policy. India’s development partnership is based on the needs of partner countries and is geared towards responding to as many of the requests received from these countries as technically and financially feasible.”

Ministry of External Affairs, Annual Report 2017-2018

Institutional set-up

The Development Partnership Administration (DPA) within the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) co-ordinates India’s bilateral development co-operation. It manages grants and the Indian Technical & Economic Cooperation Programme. The DPA has three divisions:

  1. 1. DPA-I manages lines of credit as well as bilateral grants to Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal under the Indian Development and Economic Assistance Scheme (IDEAS) of the Ministry of Finance (MoF).

  2. 2. DPA-II focuses on technical co-operation. It manages the India Technical and Economic Co-operation (ITEC) programme, a scheme to train defence personnel and civilian training under the Colombo Plan for Cooperative and Economic Social Development in Asia and Pacific. It also provides humanitarian assistance.

  3. 3. DPA-III manages bilateral grants to Afghanistan, Bangladesh, the Maldives, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka for infrastructure, education and health. It also supports community-based and community-driven projects in these countries.

The MoF manages multilateral assistance and exercises administrative oversight over the concessional loans and the lines of credit provided by the EXIM Bank.

Estimates of international development co-operation

In 2017, India’s international development co-operation reached USD 3 billion, up from USD 1.7 billion in 2016. Indian contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 1.1 billion. These were primarily channelled through regional development banks (78%) – mainly the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the United Nations (6%) and the World Bank Group (16%).

Performance against the commitments for effective development co-operation

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Additional resources

Ministry of External Affairs, Development Partnership Administration (DPA): https://www.mea.gov.in/development-partnership-administration.htm

Government of India (2018), “Annual report 2017-2018”, Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi, www.mea.gov.in/Uploads/PublicationDocs/29788_MEA-AR-2017-18-03-02-2018.pdf.

Government of India (2016), “Annual report 2016-2017”, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi, https://dea.gov.in/sites/default/files/Annual%20Report-2016-17-E.pdf.

Indonesia

Introduction

The government of Indonesia’s National Medium-Term Development Plan (NMTDP) 2015-2019 emphasises the need for the country to mobilise development financing and therefore the importance of development co-operation. Development co-operation must be aligned with the country’s three medium-term development dimensions: human development, priority sectors, and equality and regional-based development.

The NMTDP 2015-2019 also mandates four principles for Indonesia’s South-South co-operation, which are solidarity, non-conditionality, mutual benefits and non-interference. Indonesia also commits to achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 17. Three flagship programmes for Indonesia’s South-South co-operation are development, governance and economy.

The three main modalities of Indonesia’s development co-operation are training and workshops, expert dispatch, and channelling funds through multilateral organisations. Indonesia also partners with bilateral donors, UN agencies and multilateral development banks under a triangular co-operation framework to provide technical assistance and knowledge transfer to developing countries on demand.

Indonesia’s approach to development co-operation

The Government of Indonesia, the OECD, as well as multi-stakeholder partners launched the Tri Hita Karana Roadmap for Blended Finance and supported five shared values for effective blended finance: 1) to anchor blended finance into the SDGs; 2) to commit to using blended finance to mobilise commercial finance; 3) to design blended finance to move towards commercial sustainability; 4) to structure blended finance to build inclusive markets; and 5) to promote transparency when engaging in blended finance.

“Approaches to blended finance have evolved over time at varying speeds and in response to diverse actors and stakeholders. These diverse approaches have resulted in the need for effective co-ordination, in order for improved outcomes for the broader blended finance agenda and development impact. To address this, a multi-stakeholder endeavour, bringing together different perspectives, has sought to develop a narrative for a shared blended finance value system and contribute towards effective co-ordination”

Institutional set-up

The National Coordination Team for South-South Cooperation, led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with BAPPENAS, the Ministry of Finance and the State Secretariat as the main partners, develops policies and facilitates implementation of South-South and triangular co-operation related activities undertaken by line ministries or in partnership with development partners. The Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS) is the leading ministry for developing the medium-term policies on development financing as well as setting priorities for the country’s development co-operation.

Estimates of international development co-operation

Indonesia estimates that in the period 2016-18 its development co-operation financing reached approximately USD 685.88 million. More than 90% of this was channelled as capital contributions through multilateral organisations, of which the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) received some major portions. No information is publicly available on Indonesia’s bilateral development co-operation for 2016-18. Some funds channelled through UN agencies are reportedly committed specifically to support other countries’ humanitarian and development works.

Development co-operation fund channelling through international organisations, 2016-18, Indonesia
Figure 701. Development co-operation fund channelling through international organisations, 2016-18, Indonesia

Note: Data on Indonesia’s capital contributions to multilateral organisations are extracted from the published annual state budget document. The number therefore only reflects annual payments, not the accumulated funds invested as capital into such organisations.

Voluntary contributions to international organisations are calculated from the UN’s data on voluntary contributions to UN agencies.

In 2016, Indonesia implemented 84 South-South and triangular co-operation activities, which is an increase compared to 2014 and 2015. As in 2014 and 2015, training and workshops were the predominant activities. Indonesia allocated USD 6.22 million in 2016 and USD 7.51 million in 2017 from the state budget to finance South-South and triangular co-operation activities.

According to OECD estimates, in 2017, contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 445.4 million, which were channelled through the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB, 77%), the World Bank Group (19%) and UN agencies (4%). There is not information available on bilateral development co-operation for 2017. In 2016, Indonesia’s international development co-operation reached USD 144 million.

South-South triangular co-operation, 2014-16, Indonesia
Figure 702. South-South triangular co-operation, 2014-16, Indonesia

Source: Government of Indonesia (2017), “Voluntary national review (VNR): Eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a changing world”, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/15705Indonesia.pdf.

Additional resources

Government of Indonesia (2018), Buku II Nota Keuangan Beserta Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara Tahun Anggaran 2018 [Book II Financial Note and State Revenue and Expenditure Budget Financing Year 2018], Government of Indonesia, https://www.kemenkeu.go.id/media/6526/nota-keuangan-apbn-2018.pdf.

Government of Indonesia (2017), “Voluntary national review (VNR): Eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a changing world”, Government of Indonesia, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/15705Indonesia.pdf.

Government of Indonesia (2016), Buku II Nota Keuangan Beserta Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara Tahun Anggaran 2016 [Book II Financial Note and State Revenue and Expenditure Budget Financing Year 2016], Government of Indonesia, https://www.kemenkeu.go.id/media/6632/nota-keuangan-apbn-2016.pdf.

Government of Indonesia (2015), Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2015-2019 [National Medium-Term Development Plan 2015-2019], Ministry of National Development Planning, https://www.bappenas.go.id/id/data-dan-informasi-utama/dokumen-perencanaan-dan-pelaksanaan/dokumen-rencana-pembangunan-nasional/rpjp-2005-2025/rpjmn-2015-2019.

OECD et al. (2018), “Tri Hita Karana Roadmap for Blended Finance: Blended finance and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”, OECD, Paris, www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance-topics/Tri-Hita-Karana-Roadmap-for-Blended-Finance.pdf.

United Nations System Chief Executive Board for Coordination (n.d.), “Agency revenue by government donor (voluntary contributions, specified)”, https://www.unsceb.org/content/FS-D03-01?gyear=2017 (accessed on 6 June 2019).

UNRWA (2019), “Indonesian foreign minister visits UNRWA in Jordan and announces USD 1 million contribution for Palestine refugees”, United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, https://www.unrwa.org/newsroom/press-releases/indonesian-foreign-minister-visits-unrwa-jordan-and-announces-us-1-million (accessed on 6 June 2019).

Qatar

Introduction

The Qatar Fund for Development (QFFD) is the main implementing arm of Qatar’s foreign aid, with projects and programmes in over 100 countries worldwide. Emerging international trends, such as the Sustainable Development Goals, require Qatar to have a more institutional and co-ordinated foreign aid agency that aspires to deliver maximum impact from its projects in a more efficient and sustainable manner. Today, the foreign aid sector in Qatar is more aligned with the aid effectiveness principles and has placed strong and innovative partnerships at the centre of its activities. This can be attributed to the QFFD’s role as co-ordinating agency, which systematically adopts an inclusive partnership approach.

The QFFD’s strategy focuses on human development and prioritises education, health and economic infrastructure sectors. This approach builds upon, yet slowly shifts the focus from, sectors that were prevalent prior to 2014 (so-called legacy interventions), namely infrastructure and budget support.

Geographically, in 2018, the Qatar Fund focused on the Middle East and North Africa (77.2%), sub-Saharan Africa (10.9%), Asia (4.9%), America and Oceania (3.1%), and Europe (0.3%). It also provided aid to multilateral and international agencies (3.4%).

The Qatar Fund has established relations with a large and diverse set of local and global partners over the past four years, engaging with them through multiple funding modalities that directly contribute to advancing and enhancing effective development and humanitarian aid co-operation, including co-financing through grants, pooled funding, core and non-earmarked contributions to UN agencies and multilateral organisations.

Transition from conflict to stability: Establishment of the Integrated Village Service Complex in Darfur

The Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) was finalised at the All Darfur Stakeholders Conference in May 2011 in Doha, Qatar. Following the vision of the DDPD, one of the initiatives undertaken to promote peace, security and improved quality of life for war-affected communities and encourage the voluntary return and resettlement of internally displaced people in Darfur was to provide modern, integrated service villages, including access to safe water, health, education, vocational training, solar power and security.

The first phase of the project provided funding to build, maintain and provide services for five villages, one in each of the five states of Darfur. The most immediate impact of the project was the construction of the village complexes and the integration of services that provided otherwise missing support for re-establishing community life, including classrooms and teachers, staffed healthcare centres, staffed police and security offices, a water station, and living quarters for those staffing the complexes. Providing infrastructure is a costly and challenging endeavour, but one that has the potential for significant lasting impact for recipient populations. In addition to the infrastructure itself, the project’s commitment to service delivery helped ensure that life change occurred. Overall, the QFFD conservatively estimated that the first 5 villages impacted over 123 000 people. The five villages piloted a particular model village approach, which was relatively unique to Darfur compared with the way other funders supported reconstruction. The approach included project design elements that supported sustainability. One such element was allocating funding to support service delivery three years after the village complexes were completed. This allowed time for the services provided through the village complexes to become a central part of village life. Currently, the QFFD is planning to launch ten new villages in Darfur, based on this successful pilot model.

Institutional set-up

In 2018, the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit of the QFFD is in charge of measuring the impact of the QFFD’s interventions. The fund also strengthened its reporting capacity and launched its third annual report, and plans to align its reporting efforts with OECD-DAC guidelines in 2019. The fund has developed its internal capacity in planning for, and tracking, risk, and mitigation actions for its projects. The QFFD has been developing its capacity in the area of needs assessment and has launched a deep-dive country development strategy for five countries in Africa and Asia.

Estimates of international development co-operation

According to the Qatar Fund for Development, in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, Qatar’s international development co-operation reached USD 269 million, USD 503 million, USD 674 million and USD 585 million respectively. For the period between 2016 and 2018, Qatar’s contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 67.1 million.

Estimates on Qatar’s development co-operation provided by QFFD
Million USD

 

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019 (Jan-April)

Total disbursed (grants and loans)

268.45

503.31

673.86

585.38

202.29

Total disbursed (grants)

214.38

490.83

618.53

499.11

202.29

Total disbursed (loans)

54.07

12.49

55.34

86.27

-

Bilateral ODA (grants)

178.61

395.71

558.54

354.48

147.12

Multilateral ODA (grants)

1.10

12.01

37.09

18.01

26.00

International organisation - ODA others (grants)

82.92

88.54

77.55

91.34

27.61

Source: QFFD.

The OECD also estimates contributions to development co-operation in an internationally comparable manner based on publicly available information. According to the OECD, Qatar’s development co-operation was EUR 337 million in 2016 and EUR 744 million in 2017. Contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 123.5 million in 2017, which were primarily channelled through the United Nations (97%).

The OECD has not yet produced its estimates for 2018, in line with the reporting cycle of the countries that report to the OECD whose development co-operation activities for 2018 will be published at the end of 2019.

Additional resources

Qatar Fund for Development annual reports 2016, 2017, 2018: https://qatarfund.org.qa/en/annual-reports

South Africa

Introduction

The Revised Strategic Plan 2015-2020 of South Africa’s Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO) emphasises co-operation with “the African continent” and “strengthening South-South relations”.

South Africa prioritises co-operation with the African continent, with a strong focus on member countries of the Southern African Development Community. The priority sectors of its bilateral development co-operation are peace, security, post-conflict reconstruction, regional integration, governance and humanitarian assistance. South Africa provides its bilateral development co-operation mostly in the form of technical co-operation.

South Africa is also engaged in triangular co-operation, partnering with several Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members (e.g. Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United States) to support other African countries in areas such as governance, public security and post-conflict reconstruction.

The African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund

“In line with our foreign policy, the African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund (ARF) remains an important tool that seeks to enhance development assistance and co-operation with a dedicated focus on the realisation of the African Agenda. Through this approach, the developmental co-operation agenda is beneficial for South Africa, the African continent as well as the world at large and will be maintained.

We believe that building strong institutions will enable us to entrench the culture of good governance as well as efficiency and responsiveness, which, is an integral part of Africa’s renewal programme.”

Lindiwe Nonceba Sisulu, Minister of International Relations and Cooperation (Government of South Africa, 2019)

Institutional set-up

DIRCO is responsible for strategy and foreign policy formulation, and other line ministries are involved in the implementation of development co-operation projects. The National Treasury has a co-ordinating function in terms of managing incoming official development assistance and funds for outgoing development co-operation. DIRCO and the National Treasury are on the advisory committee of the African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund (ARF). All South African departments are eligible to apply for ARF funding for development co-operation projects. South Africa’s development co-operation structures may change when the South African Development Partnership Agency becomes operational under the Department of International Relations and Cooperation.

Estimates of international development co-operation

According to estimates by the OECD, in 2017, South Africa’s international development co-operation reached USD 104 million, up from USD 95 million in 2016. South African contributions to multilateral organisations totalled USD 71 million. These were primarily channelled through the United Nations (30%), regional development banks (16%) and the World Bank Group (16%).

Additional resources

Government of South Africa (2019) “African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund (ARF), Revised Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Annual Performance Plan 2018/2019”, Department of International Relations and Cooperation, Pretoria, www.dirco.gov.za/department/african_renaissance2015_2020/arf_revised3_2015_2020.pdf.

Government of South Africa (n.d), “Revised Strategic Plan 2015-2020”, Department of International Relations and Cooperation, Pretoria, www.dirco.gov.za/department/strategic_plan_2015_2020_revised2/strategic_plan2015_2020_revised2.pdf.

Tables

Estimates of gross concessional flows for development co-operation, 2012-16
Million USD

Country

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Source

Brazil

411

316

293

112

316

..

Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA) and Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC)

Chile

38

44

49

33

33

24

Ministry of Finance

China (People’s Republic of)

3 123

2 997

3 401

3 113

3615

4792

Fiscal Yearbook, Ministry of Finance

Colombia

27

42

45

42

..

198

Strategic institutional plans, Presidential Agency of International Cooperation

Costa Rica 1

..

21

24

10

9.0

8.3

Annual budget laws, Ministry of Finance

India 2

1 077

1 223

1 398

1 772

1695

2957

Annual budget figures, Ministry of Finance

Indonesia

26

49

56

..

144

..

Ministry of National Development Planning

Mexico 3

203

526

169

207

220

340

Mexican Agency for International Development Cooperation (AMEXCID)

Qatar

543

1 344

..

..

337

744

Foreign aid reports, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Qatar Fund for Development reports

South Africa 2

191

191

148

100

95

104

Estimates of public expenditures, National Treasury. Annual Reports. Department International Relations & Cooperation.

Note: 1. Bilateral figures for Costa Rica were provided by MIDEPLAN and include the cost of experts in charge of implementing South-South and Triangular Co-operation in 2017, both for co-operation offered and received by Costa Rica

1. Figures for India and South Africa are based on their fiscal years. For example, 2012 data correspond to fiscal year 2012/13.

2. According to AMEXID, the Mexican Development Co-operation agency, contributions to international organisations in 2017 amounted to USD 280 million. The OECD is unable to include this information since it does not have access to the list of contributions to international organisations to verify that all contributions to multilateral agencies have as main aim the promotion of economic development and welfare of developing countries. In practice, in OECD-DAC statistics a percentage of these contributions is applied when a multilateral agency does not work exclusively on developmental activities in developing countries. The OECD estimates that contributions to international organisations amounted to USD 178 million. These estimates are therefore conservative and based on contributions to main multilateral development banks and UN agencies but might not include contributions to sub-regional organisations

Estimated development-oriented contributions to and through multilateral organisations, 2017
Million USD, current prices

 

Brazil

Chile

China (People’s Republic of)

Colombia

Costa Rica

India

Indonesia

Mexico

Qatar

South Africa

Total United Nations

128.4

12.3

457.1

182.0

2.2

63.1

19.5

63.6

120.2

21.6

United Nations Organization (18%)

17.4

1.8

36.0

1.5

0.2

3.4

2.3

6.5

1.2

1.7

Food and Agriculture Organization (51%)

15.5

0.9

16.0

7.4

0.1

2.0

0.9

11.3

0.5

0.9

UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (60%)

16.4

1.6

23.5

0.6

0.2

4.3

1.0

4.1

1.3

0.7

World Health Organization (76%)

13.4

1.4

38.1

1.1

0.2

10.7

2.5

5.0

1.2

1.9

UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (7%)

1.7

0.3

112.8

0.1

0.0

0.3

0.2

0.6

2.5

0.2

World Food Programme (100%)

10.7

0.0

75.9

18.1

-

1.0

-

1.0

2.5

3.7

International Fund for Agricultural Development (100%)

-

-

20.0

-

-

12.0

6.0

1.7

-

-

International Labour Organization (60%)

13.9

1.4

19.1

10.6

0.6

1.7

1.2

3.4

1.6

4.1

UN Industrial Development Organization (100%)

4.0

0.5

8.7

0.8

0.1

1.5

0.5

2.5

0.3

0.5

International Atomic Energy Agency (33%)

13.3

0.9

19.6

0.4

0.2

1.7

0.9

3.3

1.2

0.8

International Organization for Migration (100%)

2.1

0.6

5.4

37.3

0.0

0.8

-

2.6

-

0.2

UN Development Programme (100%)

1.5

0.6

21.8

0.2

0.7

11.2

1.0

2.8

-

2.6

Other United Nations

18.5

2.4

60.2

103.9

-

12.6

3.1

19.0

107.8

4.4

Total regional development banks

-

-

1 146.7

0.9

4.2

870.5

342.8

147.6

-

11.2

Inter-American Development Bank (100%)

-

-

-

-

1.7

-

-

96.1

-

African Development Bank (100%)

-

-

132.6

-

-

17.0

-

-

-

11.2

Central American Bank for Economic Integration (100%)

2.5

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (85%)

-

-

1 012.5

-

-

853.5

342.8

-

-

Development Bank of Latin America (CAF) (100%)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

51.5

-

-

Caribbean Development Bank (100%)

-

-

1.6

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

World Bank Group (total)

23.5

-

649.4

1.0

-

183.0

83.1

49.0

-

11.1

Other multilateral organisations

-

-

6.0

-

0.7

6.0

41.9

3.3

27.2

The Global Fund (100%)

6.0

6.0

3.3

2.0

Other organisations

0.7

41.9

3.3

25.2

Overall total

151.9

12.3

2 259.3

183.9

7.1

1 122.6

445.4

302.1

123.5

71.1

Note: Data include only development-related contributions. DAC coefficients – the percentage of an organisation’s core budget allocated to developmental purposes in developing countries (see first column in parenthesis) – are applied to core contributions. Lastly, local resources, financing from a country through multilateral organisations destined to programmes within that same country, are excluded.

The information in this table is mainly based on data from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), www.aidflows.org; and websites of other multilateral organisations and national publications of the countries involved. Not all data on contributions to multilateral organisations are made publicly available, so the presented information may not be complete.

← 1. In Colombia, there are 26 funds, programmes and specialised agencies from the United Nations Development System: 23 resident agencies, 2 non-resident agencies (the International Fund for Agricultural Development and UNESCO) and the United Nations Verification Mission. UN co-operation in Colombia for the period 2015-19 is based on the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) and 11 individual co-operation frameworks agreed with the national government.

← 2. For further information, see: https://www.apccolombia.gov.co/node/2810.

← 3. In 2017, Colombia disbursed USD 101.6 million to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; which was the highest contribution to the UNODC in 2017), USD 18.1 million to the World Food Programme (WFP) and USD 37.3 million to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). Contributions to the UNODC, the WFP and the IOM have a 100% coefficient for core contributions. Data provided by UNDESA.

← 4. According to Article 11 of National Planning Law No. 5525 of 1974 and amendments thereto.

← 5. According to Article 15 of Executive Decree Nº 35056-PLAN-RE ‘Regulation of Article 11 of the National Planning Law No. 5525 of May 2, 1974’ of November 12, 2008.

← 6. Costa Rica does not consider these contributions to international organisations as development co-operation. According to the OECD-DAC methodology, these contributions include organisations that have a developmental mandate or else the developmental share of organisations that do not work exclusively on development.

Other official providers not reporting to the OECD