Other official providers reporting at the aggregate level to the OECD

This chapter includes information on the estimated volume and key features of development co-operation provided by six development co-operation providers that are not members of the OECD but report regularly to the OECD their development co-operation resource flows on an aggregated or semi-aggregated manner.

Bulgaria

Introduction

Bulgaria has been a provider of development co-operation since it became a member of the European Union (EU). It participates in both the formulation and provision of European development co-operation. Bulgaria’s development co-operation and humanitarian policy is an integral part of its foreign policy and is co-ordinated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Bulgarian development policy is based on the principles of effectiveness, transparency, coherence, partnership, membership, concentration and non-discrimination. Bulgaria is implementing the current Medium-term Program for Development Assistance and Humanitarian Aid for the period 2016-19, which takes into account Bulgarian experience and capacity, its economic reality, and the need for optimal targeting and spending of allocated financial resources. This medium-term programme reflects Bulgaria’s national policy priorities, which are in line with the European Consensus on Development and the Sustainable Development Goals.

The Western Balkans and the Black Sea region represent priority geographic areas for Bulgaria’s development policy. Priority sectors include environmental protection, education, sexual and reproductive health, and the protection of cultural diversity. Special attention is paid to thematic areas, such as support for democratic and responsible institutions, protection of human rights, migration and development. Countries in the Middle East and North Africa with long-term crises and conflicts as well as a heavily aggravated humanitarian situation (such as Iraq, the Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen), along with Afghanistan, are among Bulgaria’s priority beneficiaries of humanitarian aid.

Official development assistance

In 2018, Bulgaria provided USD 68.5 million in total official development assistance (ODA) (preliminary data). This represented 0.11% of gross national income (GNI). Bulgaria does not have a loan programme, so that its total ODA is the same using the new “grant-equivalent” methodology (see the methodological notes for further details) adopted by DAC members on their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans and under the “cash-flow basis” methodology used in the past. Total ODA for 2018 represented an increase of 5.6% in real terms from 2017, due to an increase in multilateral contributions.

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In 2017, 16% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally. Bulgaria allocated 84% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2017, bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Europe. USD 4.1 million was allocated to Europe and USD 1 million to Asia. However, the biggest share of Bulgaria’s bilateral ODA, USD 4.2 million, was for “developing countries, unspecified”.

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In 2017, 47% of gross bilateral ODA went to Bulgaria’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are mainly in the Middle East and Europe, with the biggest recipients being Turkey (more specifically through the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey), Serbia and Ukraine. Support to fragile contexts reached USD 0.6 million in 2017 (6.2% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts.

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In 2017, 3% of Bulgaria’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 0.3 million) was allocated to the least developed countries (LDCs). This is up from 0.7% in 2016, lower than the average of providers beyond the DAC of 12.3% in 2017. Upper middle-income countries received USD 3.8 million (38.1%).

At 0.02% of GNI in 2017, total ODA to the LDCs was lower than the UN target of 0.15-0.20% of GNI. This includes imputed multilateral flows, i.e. making allowance for contributions through multilateral organisations, calculated using the geographical distribution of multilateral disbursements.

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Institutional set-up

Government Decree No. 234/2011 on Bulgaria’s policy on participating in international development co-operation defines the goals, principles, mechanisms and institutional framework of the country’s development co-operation and humanitarian aid. It also provides guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and auditing Bulgaria’s development co-operation. The medium-term programmes for development co-operation and humanitarian aid, covering three- or four-year periods, determine the specific areas of intervention and expected outcomes, as well as financial allocations among priority regions, countries and sectors. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (United Nations and Co-operation for Development Directorate, International Co-operation for Development Department) leads and co-ordinates Bulgaria’s development co-operation activities, in co-operation with line ministries, elaborates ODA policy and annual action plans, and negotiates agreements with partner countries. In addition, the inter-institutional International Development Co-operation Council, a consultative body created in 2007, assists the Minister of Foreign Affairs in programming and promoting Bulgaria’s development co-operation.

Participant in the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Reporting to the OECD since 2010.

Chinese Taipei

Introduction

Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation is driven by the country’s development strategy and global trends, enshrined in the Four-Year National Development Plan (2017-20). It aims to develop a new economic model for sustainable development, enhance the quality of healthcare and education in recipient countries, and work towards the achievement of the goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as well as foster a model of global civil society. Focus countries are in Asia and the Pacific: Azerbaijan, Jordan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu; in Africa: Tunisia and Eswatini; in Europe: Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ukraine, and Moldova; in Latin America and the Caribbean: Belize, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

Official development assistance

In 2017, Chinese Taipei provided USD 319 million in total official development co-operation (ODA). This represented 0.06% of gross national income (GNI). Total ODA for 2017 represented a decrease of 2.5% from 2016.

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In 2017, 90.1% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally. Chinese Taipei allocated 9.9% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

Chinese Taipei does not disaggregate data by region, except for loans provided. A large part of Chinese Taipei’s ODA (99.7%) was not geographically allocated.

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Institutional set-up

Development co-operation in Chinese Taipei is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Institute of Diplomacy and International Affairs offers educational training programmes and student fellowship programmes to recipient countries. The International Cooperation and Development Fund (TaiwanICDF) is in charge of implementing co-operation projects in partner countries.

Performance against the commitments for effective development co-operation

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Additional resources

Ministry of Foreign Affairs: https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/default.html

TaiwanICDF: https://www.icdf.org.tw/mp.asp?mp=2

TaiwanICDF’s Annual Reports: https://www.icdf.org.tw/lp.asp?ctNode=29977&CtUnit=148&BaseDSD=7&mp=2

Reporting to the OECD since 1988 for the period 1988-97 and from 2004 to date. It reports at the aggregate level.

Liechtenstein

Introduction

The 2015 Strategy of the Liechtenstein Development Service (LED) defines education and rural development as the key sectors of Liechtenstein’s development co-operation. Human rights, social justice, equal rights, climate and the protection of the environment and resources are important horizontal topics. The LED is currently engaged in ten priority countries: Burkina Faso, Bolivia, Mali, Moldova, Peru, Senegal, Mozambique, Niger, Zambia and Zimbabwe and. Since the food security and intercultural bilingual education concepts and the Microfinance Directive were adopted, these areas have been given greater consideration.

Official development assistance

In 2017, Liechtenstein provided USD 24.14 million in total official development assistance (ODA), which represented an increase of 21.6% over 2016.

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In 2017, 68.35% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally. Liechtenstein allocated 31.65% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

Liechtenstein does not provide information on the geographical allocation of its development co-operation, either by country or region.

Reporting to the OECD since 2007.

Malta

Introduction

In 2018, Malta launched its Implementation Plan of the “Official Development Assistance Policy and a Framework for Humanitarian Assistance” in response to the adoption of the 2017 European Consensus on Development and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Malta’s regional priorities are North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, as a means of promoting stability and prosperity in its immediate neighbourhood and beyond.

Malta’s Implementation Plan has three main strands: 1) co-funding of official development assistance (ODA) projects as a means of increasing the impact of its ODA; 2) capacity building and scholarships; and 3) humanitarian aid funding.

Official development assistance

In 2018, Malta provided USD 30.62 million in total ODA (preliminary data). This represented 0.23% of gross national income (GNI). Malta does not have a loan programme, so that its total ODA is the same using the new “grant-equivalent” methodology (see the methodological notes for further details) adopted by DAC members on their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans and under the “cash-flow basis” methodology used in the past. Total ODA for 2018 represented an increase of 17.52% in real terms from 2017, due to increases in in-donor refugee costs.

In 2017, in-donor refugee costs amounted to USD 11.6 million, an increase of 105% in real terms over 2016, and represented 47% of Malta’s total net ODA.

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In 2017, 60.42% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally. Malta allocated 39.58% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2017, bilateral ODA was primarily focused on the Middle East and Africa. USD 0.51 million was allocated to the Middle East, USD 0.51 million to sub-Saharan Africa and USD 0.29 million to north of Sahara Africa. However, the biggest share of Malta’s bilateral ODA, USD 13.62 million, was for “developing countries, unspecified”.

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In 2017, 8.6% of gross bilateral ODA went to Malta’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are mainly in the Middle East, and North and Horn of Africa, with the Syrian Arab Republic, Libya and Eritrea being the biggest recipients. Support to fragile contexts reached USD 15.1 million in 2017 (8.6% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts.

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In 2017, 4% of Malta’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 0.6 million) was allocated to the least developed countries (LDCs). This is down from 9.8% in 2016 and lower than the average of providers beyond the DAC of 12.3% in 2017. Lower middle-income countries received USD 0.46 million (3.1%). Within bilateral ODA that is unallocated by country (90.2%), Malta estimates that 2% is directed to the LDCs.

At 0.03% of GNI in 2017, total ODA to the LDCs was lower than the UN target of 0.15-0.20% of GNI. This includes imputed multilateral flows, i.e. making allowance for contributions through multilateral organisations, calculated using the geographical distribution of multilateral disbursements.

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Institutional set-up

Official development assistance falls within the remit of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Trade Promotion. In 2018, the ministry launched a new Implementation Plan to serve as guideline and as a strategy on how ODA shall be administered. This Implementation Plan is in line with the 2030 Agenda and the European Consensus on Development and is being implemented in conjunction with and in close collaboration with local non-governmental development organisations.

Reporting to the OECD since 2009.

Russian Federation

Introduction

The Russian Federation’s development co-operation is provided in line with the Concept of Russia’s State Policy in the Field of International Development Assistance, approved by the President of the Russian Federation in 2014. It aims to support sustainable social and economic development of the recipient countries, and the settlement of crisis situations arising out of natural disasters, man-made disasters and other emergencies, internal and international conflicts.

Development co-operation is implemented through the federal ministries and services and mainly focuses on bilateral aid programmes in the fields of health, food security, education, science and many other spheres towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Focus countries are those of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) but also countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Asia-Pacific, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America.

Official development assistance

In 2018, the Russian Federation provided USD 1 billion in total official development assistance (ODA) (preliminary data). This represented 0.06% of gross national income (GNI). The Russian Federation does not have a loan programme, so that its total ODA is the same using the new “grant-equivalent” methodology (see the methodological notes for further details) adopted by DAC members on their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans and under the “cash-flow basis” methodology used in the past. Total ODA for 2018 represented a decrease of 14.3% due to reductions throughout its aid programme.

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In 2017, 61.7% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally. The Russian Federation allocated 38.3% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2017, bilateral ODA was primarily focused on America and Asia. USD 367.8 million was allocated to North and Central America, and USD 165.4 million to South and Central Asia.

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In 2017, 86.1% of gross bilateral ODA went to the Russian Federation’s top 10 recipients. Its main recipients are in America, and in South and Central Asia. The largest recipient was Cuba, with USD 353.8 million.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 733.8 million in 2017 (17.1% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts.

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In 2017, 3.5% of the Russian Federation’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 26 million) was allocated to the least developed countries (LDCs). This is down from 4.4% in 2016 and is lower than the average of providers beyond the DAC of 12.3%. The largest share of bilateral ODA was allocated to upper middle-income countries (50.4%) and 29.3% was allocated to lower middle-income countries.

At 0.0% of GNI in 2017, total ODA to the LDCs was lower than the UN target of 0.15-0.20% of GNI.

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Institutional set-up

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance, as well as other government agencies, play a leading role in formulating the Russian Federation’s development co-operation policy and supervise its implementation, including programmes with the World Bank, UN agencies and other members of the international development assistance community.

Additional resources

Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo): http://rs.gov.ru/en/activities/1

Reporting to the OECD since 2010

Thailand

Introduction

The Thailand International Development Cooperation Agency, under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is the central implementing agency for technical co-operation and capacity building. It provides a number of training courses, post-graduate scholarships, fellowships and study visits as well as programmes to dispatch Thai experts and volunteers. The Thailand International Cooperation Agency also provides funding to other government agencies and private organisations to support capacity development for developing countries.

Thailand’s development co-operation is guided by the “Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy” (SEP) – a model that Thailand followed for its own development and which aims at providing a balanced and stable development to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In its development policies, Thailand looks at modernising economies and societies, notably how to lift countries out of the middle-income trap into high-income status. The Thailand International Cooperation Agency has several bilateral and trilateral “SEP for SDGs” partnerships.

Official development assistance

In 2017, Thailand provided USD 133 million in total official development assistance (ODA). This represented 0.03% of gross national income (GNI). Total ODA for 2017 represented a decrease of 20.7% from 2016.

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In 2017, 45.4% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally. Thailand allocated 54.6% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2017, bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Asia. USD 44.2 million was allocated to Far East Asia, and USD 11.1 million to South and Central Asia.

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In 2017, 89.4% of gross bilateral ODA went to Thailand’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are in the Asia-Pacific region, and the biggest recipients were Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Cambodia and Myanmar. In Africa, Thailand has projects in Senegal, Madagascar, Kenya, Nigeria and Sudan.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 60 million in 2017 (72% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts.

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In 2017, 89.4% of Thailand’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 54 million) was allocated to the least developed countries (LDCs). This is down from 92.8% in 2016 and is much higher than the average of providers beyond the DAC of 12.3%. Lower middle-income countries (LMICs) received 5.6% noting that 1.2% of bilateral ODA was unallocated by country.

At 0.01% of GNI in 2017, total ODA to the LDCs was lower than the UN target of 0.15-0.20% of GNI.

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Institutional set-up

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for Thailand’s bilateral and multilateral development co-operation policies. Its Department of International Organizations (DIO) also makes contributions to international organisations, such as the United Nations and the Asian Development Bank.

The Thailand International Cooperation Agency is the central implementing agency for development co-operation, but 17 line ministries (including education, health, agriculture and transport) also provide grants for bilateral projects and make contributions to some multilateral organisations. The Neighbouring Countries Economic Development Cooperation Agency (NEDA), under the Minister of Finance, offers concessional loans to developing countries, which are linked to the provision of goods and services from Thai companies.

Performance against the commitments for effective development co-operation

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Additional resources

Ministry of Foreign Affairs: www.mfa.go.th/main/en/home

Thailand International Development Cooperation Agency: www.tica.thaigov.net

Reporting to the OECD since 1988 for the period 1988-98 and from 2006 to date.

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