Other official providers reporting at the aggregate level to the OECD

Bulgaria has been a development co-operation actor since joining the European Union (EU) in 2007. Two objectives shape Bulgaria’s vision of development co-operation: 1) its multilateral commitments to assist developing countries and promote sustainable development globally; and 2) its regional commitment to contribute to the development of transition countries in its neighbourhood, including through sharing its own experience. Official development assistance (ODA) increased slightly in 2021 to USD 91.2 million (preliminary data), representing 0.12% of gross national income (GNI).

Find the methodological notes behind the profile here.

Bulgarian development co-operation supports partner countries in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and multilateral commitments in development financing, enhancing the effectiveness of development co-operation and humanitarian aid, and climate change. The overarching policy framework for Bulgaria’s development co-operation is determined by its national priorities, as well as its obligations under fundamental EU instruments and its commitments to the 2030 Agenda. In addition, Decree No. 234/2011 on Bulgaria’s policy on participating in international development co-operation defines the goals, principles, mechanisms and institutional framework of development co-operation and humanitarian aid. It also provides guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and auditing Bulgaria’s development co-operation.

Bulgaria develops medium-term programmes for its development co-operation and humanitarian aid detailing priorities, financial allocations and expected outcomes. Most of Bulgaria’s development co-operation goes through multilateral channels, with a specific focus on environmental protection, education, health and the protection of cultural diversity. Special attention is also paid to thematic priorities, including support for democratic and responsible institutions, protection of human rights, migration, and development. The new Mid-term Programme 2020-2024 acknowledges the need for Bulgarian development assistance and humanitarian aid to prioritise activities related to mitigating the health, economic and social consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Bulgaria is a DAC participant and an Adherent to the OECD Recommendation of the Council for Development Co-operation Actors on Managing the Risk of Corruption and the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Learn more about DAC standards.

Bulgaria provided USD 91.2 million (preliminary data) as ODA in 2021,1 representing 0.12% of GNI. This was an increase of 0.5% in real terms in volume and a decrease in the share of GNI from 2020. The government has committed to strive to achieve a 0.33% ODA/GNI ratio by 2030 as part of the EU’s collective commitment to achieve a 0.7% ODA/GNI ratio by 2030. Bulgaria provided all of its ODA as grants in 2020.2

Bulgaria provided most of its ODA multilaterally in 2020. Gross bilateral ODA was 10.7% of total ODA. Bulgaria allocated 89.3% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2020, Bulgaria provided USD 76.5 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, an increase of 31.6% in real terms from 2019, all of which was core multilateral ODA.

Ninety-seven per cent of Bulgaria’s total contribution to multilateral organisations in 2020 was allocated to EU institutions (81%), the World Bank Group (8.4%) and the International Monetary Fund (6.1%).

The UN system received 2.6% of Bulgaria’s gross ODA to the multilateral system, through core contributions. Out of a total volume of USD 2 million to the UN system, the top UN recipients of Bulgaria’s core contributions were: the UN Secretariat (USD 600 000) and WHO (USD 300 000).

See the section on Geographic and sectoral focus of ODA for the breakdown of bilateral allocations, including ODA earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2020, Bulgaria’s bilateral spending increased compared to the previous year. It provided USD 9.2 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations). This represented an increase of 1.6% in real terms from 2019.

In 2020, Bulgaria channelled bilateral ODA mainly through the public sector, as earmarked funding.

In 2020, Bulgaria’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Europe. USD 3.3 million was allocated to ODA-eligible countries in Europe and USD 600 000 to Asia, accounting respectively for 36% and 6.4% of gross bilateral ODA.

In 2020, 31.8% of gross bilateral ODA went to Bulgaria’s top 10 recipients - mostly in Europe, in line with its focus on its immediate neighbourhood and its policy priorities. The share of gross bilateral ODA that was not allocated by country was 57.2%, including mainly support to refugees/asylum seekers in donor countries.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 500 000 in 2020, representing 5.9% of Bulgaria’s gross bilateral ODA.

Learn more about support to fragile contexts on the States of Fragility platform.

In 2020, more than half of Bulgaria’s bilateral ODA was allocated to other sectors, notably support to refugees/asylum seekers in donor countries (USD 4.8 million; 52.7% of bilateral ODA). ODA for social infrastructure and services amounted to USD 1.9 million, with a focus on other social and infrastructure services, government and civil society, and health and population policies. Bilateral humanitarian assistance amounted to USD 2.3 million (24.4% of bilateral ODA).

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs – specifically the International Co-operation for Development Department of the United Nations and Co-operation for Development Directorate – leads and co-ordinates Bulgaria’s development co-operation activities. In co-operation with line ministries, it elaborates ODA policy and annual action plans and negotiates agreements with partner countries. In addition, the inter-institutional International Development Co-operation Council, a consultative body created in 2007, assists the Minister of Foreign Affairs in programming and promoting Bulgaria’s development co-operation.

Bulgaria’s Mid-term Programme 2020-2024: https://www.mfa.bg/upload/58061/Midterm%20Programme%202020-2024_EN.docx

Participant in the OECD Development Assistance Committee since 2018. Reporting to the OECD since 2010. Bulgaria reports at the aggregate level.

On 25 January 2022, the OECD Council decided to open accession discussions with Bulgaria as well as five other countries, taking into account the criteria of like-mindedness, significant player, mutual benefit and global considerations and recognising the progress made by these countries toward fulfilling the criteria outlined in the Framework for Consideration of Prospective Members.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

Liechtenstein’s development co-operation aims to assist disadvantaged people in economically vulnerable regions in Africa, Latin America and Europe, in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, through long-term relationships based on trust, responsibility and reliability. Its development co-operation is primarily undertaken through the Liechtenstein Development Service (LED) – a publicly owned foundation established in 1965. Activities are focused on improving education, fostering food security, and providing microfinance for poor and vulnerable populations in a small number of countries.

Find the methodological notes behind the profile here.

The 2015 Strategy of the LED defines education and rural development (food security) as the key sectors of Liechtenstein’s development co-operation. Human rights, social justice, gender, climate, and the protection of the environment and resources are important horizontal themes. The service is currently involved in ten priority countries: the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Mali, Moldova, Mozambique, Niger, Peru, Senegal, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Most co-operation is channelled bilaterally. The LED does not report disaggregated data to the OECD, but states on its website that around 90% of ODA is disbursed through project aid, with more than half going to least developed countries.

Liechtenstein provided USD 28 million of official development assistance (ODA) in 2020.3 This was an increase of 7% from 2019 in real terms. Liechtenstein provided all of its ODA as grants.4

Liechtenstein provided a higher share of its ODA bilaterally in 2020. Gross bilateral ODA was 67.5% of total ODA. Liechtenstein allocated 32.5% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2020, Liechtenstein’s bilateral spending declined compared to the previous year. It provided USD 18.9 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations). This represented a decrease of 4.3% in real terms from 2019.

Lichtenstein does not provide information to the OECD on the geographic allocation or sectoral distribution of its development finance nor details on channels of delivery.

The LED engages in development co-operation on behalf of the Liechtenstein government. The LED is a private-law foundation of the government and the civil society of Liechtenstein, and has been working on development co-operation since 1965.

Liechtenstein Development Service (LED): https://www.led.li/DE/Der-LED/Leitbild/tblid/374/Default.asp

Reporting to the OECD since 2007. Reports at the aggregate level.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

Malta’s development co-operation is shaped by its development commitments at international and European levels. It emphasises promoting stability and prosperity in its immediate neighbourhood, in line with its foreign policy priorities. The overall volume of Malta’s development assistance has increased in recent years, both in absolute terms and the share of GNI represented by ODA (official development assistance/gross national income), primarily due to rapidly increasing in-donor refugee costs. In 2020, the increase in in-donor refugee costs was due to the recruitment of new staff, the refurbishment of facilities, and the protection of asylum seekers and refugees in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Malta’s Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for the strategic planning and implementation of its development co-operation.

Find the methodological notes behind the profile here.

Together, the Official Development Assistance Policy and the Framework for Humanitarian Assistanceprovide the overall strategic framework for Malta’s development co-operation. In 2021, Malta launched an updated Implementation Planestablishing collaborative avenues with different stakeholders and national, regional and multilateral partnerships, to tackle global challenges. In particular, as part of its overall policy of supporting and advocating for the human rights of all citizens, both in Malta and abroad, the Government of Malta devotes resources towards the reduction of poverty and social inequality; equal rights for women and girls; and, inclusive, equitable quality education and capacity building.

In line with the “Malta and Africa: A Strategy for Partnership 2020-2025”, Malta continues to give priority to Africa as a means of promoting stability and prosperity in Malta’s and Europe’s neighbourhood and beyond, especially where Malta has diplomatic representation. This decision was taken to maximise the effectiveness and impact of Malta’s capacity building and partnership efforts using existing channels for bilateral cooperation.

Malta provided USD 53.8 million (preliminary data) of ODA in 2021,5 representing 0.33% of gross national income (GNI). This was a decrease in real terms in volume from 2020. Malta is in line with the EU commitment to achieve a 0.33% ODA/GNI ratio by 2030 and its domestic commitment to achieve this by 2022. Malta provided all of its ODA as grants in 2020.6

Malta provided most of its ODA bilaterally in 2020. Gross bilateral ODA was 88.3% of total ODA. Malta allocated 11.7% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2020, Malta provided USD 6.2 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, a fall of 31.2% in real terms from 2019. All of these allocations were core contributions to multilateral organisations.

Ninety-nine per cent of Malta’s total contribution to multilateral organisations in 2020 was allocated to European Union institutions (45.2%), United Nations (UN) entities (26.2%) and the International Monetary Fund (16.4%).

The UN system received 27% of Malta’s gross ODA to the multilateral system, through core contributions. Out of a total volume of USD 1.7 million to the UN system, the top three UN recipients of Malta’s support were: unspecified UN agencies (USD 1.7 million), the FAO (USD 143 600) and WHO (USD 95 400).

See the section on Geographic and sectoral focus of ODA for the breakdown of bilateral allocations, including ODA earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2020, Malta’s bilateral spending increased compared to the previous year. It provided USD 47.2 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations). This represented an increase of 42.6% in real terms from 2019.

In 2020, country programmable aid was 4.9% of Malta’s gross bilateral ODA, compared to the average of other official development co-operation providers of 30.3%. In-donor refugee costs were USD 39.2 million in 2020, an increase of 69% in real terms from 2019, and represented 83.2% of Malta’s total gross ODA.

In 2020, Malta channelled all its bilateral ODA through the public sector, as earmarked funding. Technical co-operation made up 0.3% of gross ODA in 2020.

In 2020, Malta’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Africa and the Middle East. USD 1.8 million was allocated to Africa and USD 300 million to the Middle East, 3.9% and 0.5% of gross bilateral ODA respectively. USD 200 000 was allocated to Asia and USD 100 000 to ODA-eligible countries in Europe.

In 2020, 4.5% of gross bilateral ODA went to Malta’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are notably in the Middle East and Africa regions, in line with its focus on its immediate neighbourhood and its policy priorities. The share of gross bilateral ODA that was not allocated by country was 95.1%, mainly due to expenditure for in-donor refugees.

In 2020, least developed countries received 0.8% of Malta’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 400 000), and 95.1% was unallocated by income group.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 1.9 million in 2020, representing 4% of Malta’s gross bilateral ODA.

Learn more about support to fragile contexts on the States of Fragility platform.

Official development assistance falls within the remit of the Ministry for Foreign and European Affairs and Trade. The ministry administers Malta’s 2021 Implementation Plan for Development Co-operation, in close collaboration with local non-governmental development organisations.

Maltese Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs and Trade: https://foreignandeu.gov.mt

Reporting to the OECD since 2009.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

The overarching goal of Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation, as enshrined in the 2016 vision statement “steadfast diplomacy” and “mutual assistance for mutual benefits”, is to promote international co-operation to advance “progress, development and humanity”. Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation is mainly disbursed through bilateral channels. Total ODA (USD 334.4 million, preliminary data) decreased in 2021, representing 0.04% of gross national income (GNI).

Find the methodological notes behind the profile here.

Chinese Taipei’s co-operation goals and areas include: facilitating social and economic development in partner countries; promoting better economic ties with partner countries; co-operation with international organisations; providing humanitarian assistance to international refugees or countries afflicted by natural disasters; providing technical and human resources training and technical assistance or services to foster industrial capacity; operating overseas missions to develop agricultural, industrial, economic, medical and education sectors in partner countries; and, other initiatives designed to bolster international development co-operation. Priority sectors for Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation programmes include public health and medicine, small and medium enterprises, the environment, agriculture, education, and information and communication technology.

Chinese Taipei provided USD 334.4 million (preliminary data) of ODA in 2021,7 representing 0.04% of GNI. This was a decrease of 22.2% in real terms in volume and a decrease in the share of GNI from 2020. Overall, Chinese Taipei’s ODA has remained relatively stable over the past decade. In 2020, Chinese Taipei’s assistance focused in particular on the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Chinese Taipei provided a higher share of its ODA multilaterally in 2020. Gross bilateral ODA was 41.8% of total ODA. A share of 7.3% of gross bilateral ODA was channelled through multilateral organisations (earmarked contributions). Chinese Taipei allocated 58.2% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In the wake of the COVID-19 crisis, Chinese Taipei has stepped up its health-related development co-operation, sharing technical expertise on pandemic management and prevention, as well as facial masks and medical devices to partners across the globe.

In 2020, Chinese Taipei provided USD 313.3 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, an increase of 382.1% in real terms from 2019.

All of Chinese Taipei’s contributions to multilateral organisations in 2020 were allocated to regional development banks (the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) and other multilateral organisations.

See the section on Geographic and sectoral focus of ODA for the breakdown of bilateral allocations, including ODA earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2020, Chinese Taipei’s bilateral spending declined compared to the previous year. It provided USD 213.6 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations). This represented a decrease of 19.5% in real terms from 2019.

In 2020, country programmable aid was 5.2% of Chinese Taipei’s gross bilateral ODA.

The top recipients of Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation in 2020 were the Marshall Islands (USD 3million), Palau (USD 3.0 million) and Belize (USD 2.2 million). Chinese Taipei allocated 3.8% of gross bilateral ODA to small island developing states (SIDS) in 2020, equal to USD 8.2 million.

In June 2010, the government of Chinese Taipei adopted the International Co-operation and Development Act, and has since adopted six related regulations. Under this act, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and other government institutions are authorised to give priority to commissioning the International Co-operation and Development Fund (TaiwanICDF) and other legal entities and professionals to conduct international co-operation and development affairs.

As the main implementing institution for development co-operation, TaiwanICDF implements projects in partner countries and offers educational training programmes and student fellowship programmes. It partners with 36 countries across Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently, TaiwanICDF has set up 22 technical missions in 21 countries.

In 2010, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs established the Official Development Assistance Database, which collates information on international co-operation and development from relevant government agencies. The database is regularly updated and serves as a source of information for the International Co-operation and Development Annual Report, which is published on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ website.

Chinese Taipei Ministry of Foreign Affairs: https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/default.html

International Cooperation and Development Fund (TaiwanICDF): https://www.icdf.org.tw/wSite/mp?mp=2

TaiwanICDF’s Financial Reports: https://www.icdf.org.tw/wSite/lp?ctNode=31585&CtUnit=458&BaseDSD=7&mp=2#aC

Taiwan ICDF’s Post-Evaluation Reports: https://www.icdf.org.tw/wSite/lp?ctNode=31584&CtUnit=441&BaseDSD=7&mp=2#aC

TaiwanICDF’s Annual Reports: https://www.icdf.org.tw/wSite/lp?ctNode=31575&CtUnit=148&BaseDSD=7&mp=2

Chinese Taipei has been reporting to the OECD since 1988 for the period 1988-98 and from 2004 to date. It reports at the aggregate level.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

Thailand has a long history of engaging in development co-operation, focusing on technical co-operation and training with its neighbours in the ASEAN region, and also engaging in triangular co-operation with OECD countries. Thailand conducts its development co-operation mainly through the Thailand International Co-operation Agency (TICA), under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Neighbouring Countries Economic Development Cooperation Agency (NEDA), under the Ministry of Finance. Thailand provided USD 63 million of ODA in 2020, representing 0.01% of gross national income (GNI).

Find the methodological notes behind the profile here.

Thailand’s current development co-operation priorities are based on the 12th National Economic and Social Development Plan 2017-2021, which aimed to expand and intensify co-operation with partner countries on the economy, society, security and in other fields, and the 20-year Foreign Affairs Masterplan 2018-2037, with its key strategic priorities: security, sustainability, standard, status and synergy.

Thailand’s policy is particularly focused on institutional connectivity at the sub-regional and regional levels, reducing non-tariff barriers, and improving physical infrastructure domestically and internationally through infrastructure investment schemes (12th National Economic and Social Development Plan 2017-2021, Strategy 10).

Thailand conducts its development co-operation mainly through TICA, established in 2004, which supports development projects and provides training courses, post-graduate scholarships, fellowships and study visits, as well as programmes to dispatch Thai experts and volunteers. Priority themes include economic development, climate change adaptation, public health, agriculture and food security, as well as sustainable community development based on “Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP)”. TICA also has several bilateral and trilateral “SEP for SDGs” partnerships programmes and projects. In addition, NEDA, under the Ministry of Finance, provides concessional loans mostly to transport and storage projects. Just over half of Thailand’s development assistance is channelled through multilateral co-operation as core contributions, with the rest provided through bilateral channels and triangular co-operation arrangements.

Thailand provided USD 63 million of ODA in 2020,8 representing 0.01% of GNI. This was a decrease of 52% in real terms in volume from USD 148 million in 2019 and a decrease in the share of GNI from 2020. Within Thailand’s ODA portfolio in 2020, 69% was provided in the form of grants and 31% in the form of non-grants.9 Preliminary data on 2021 ODA are not available.

Thailand provided a higher share of its ODA bilaterally in 2020. Gross bilateral ODA was 76.6% of total ODA. Thailand allocated 23.4% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2020, Thailand provided USD 16.7 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, a fall of 77.0% in real terms from 2019. All of these contributions to the multilateral system in 2020 were core multilateral ODA, while non-core contributions were earmarked for a specific country, region, theme or purpose.

Ninety per cent of Thailand’s total contribution to multilateral organisations in 2020 was allocated to other multilateral institutions (65.8%), United Nations (UN) entities (20.8%) and the World Bank Group (7.6%).

The UN system received 20.8% of Thailand’s gross ODA to the multilateral system through core contributions. Out of a total volume of USD 3.5 million to the UN system, the top three UN recipients of Thailand’s support (core and earmarked contributions) were: WHO (USD 1.1 million), the ILO (USD 700 000) and unspecified UN entities (USD 600 000).

See the section on Geographic and sectoral focus of ODA for the breakdown of bilateral allocations, including ODA earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2020, Thailand’s bilateral spending declined compared to the previous year. It provided USD 54.7 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations). This represented a decrease of 27.4% in real terms from 2019.

In 2020, Thailand channelled bilateral ODA exclusively through the public sector.

In 2020, Thailand’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Asia and to a lesser extent Oceania. USD 52 million was allocated to Asia and USD 1.3 million to Oceania, accounting respectively for 95.1% and 2.4% of gross bilateral ODA.

In 2020, 96.2 % of gross bilateral ODA went to Thailand’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are in the Asia-Pacific region, in line with its focus on its immediate neighbourhood.

In 2020, least developed countries received 91.8% of Thailand’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 50.2 million). This is above average of countries reporting to the OECD of 23.6%. All of Thailand’s gross bilateral ODA was allocated by income group. Thailand allocated 2.7% of gross bilateral ODA to small island developing states in 2020, equal to USD 1.5 million.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 49.2 million in 2020, representing 90% of Thailand’s gross bilateral ODA.

Learn more about support to fragile contexts on the States of Fragility platform.

Thailand engages in triangular co-operation; however, it did not report its triangular co-operation activities to the DAC Creditor Reporting System or to the Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD). Learn more about triangular co-operation and Thailand’s number of projects through the OECD’s voluntary triangular co-operation project repository. Thailand is a member of the Global Partnership Initiative of Triangular Co-operation.

In 2020, USD 24.9 million of Thailand’s ODA commitments were allocated to the transport and storage sector (under economic infrastructure and services). Thailand’s sectoral division is not provided with the same categorisation criteria as the CRS system.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for Thailand’s bilateral and multilateral development co-operation policies. Its Department of International Organisations (DIO) also contributes to international organisations, such as the UN and the Asian Development Bank.

The main implementing bodies of development co-operation are TICA under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and NEDA under the Ministry of Finance. TICA is in charge of technical co-operation with countries worldwide, whereas NEDA covers financial and technical co-operation aspects at a regional level.

Furthermore, 17 line ministries (including education, health and transport) provide grants for bilateral projects and contribute to some multilateral organisations. The Export-Import Bank (EXIM), under the Minister of Finance, offers concessional loans to developing countries, which are linked to the provision of goods and services from Thai companies.

Thailand International Development Cooperation Agency (TICA): https://tica-thaigov.mfa.go.th/en

OECD (2022), “Development co-operation systems in Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam”, OECD, Paris, https://www.oecd.org/dac/2022-south-east-asian-dev-coop-providers.pdf?utm_source=email-outreach&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=seadevproviders&utm_content=en&utm_term=dcd.

Reporting to the OECD since 1988 for the period 1988-98 and since 2006 to date.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

Notes

← 1. DAC members adopted the grant-equivalent methodology starting from their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. See the methodological notes for further details.

← 2. Other providers also provide non-grants, which include sovereign loans, multilateral loans, equity investment and loans to the private sector.

← 3. DAC members adopted the grant-equivalent methodology starting from their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. See the methodological notes for further details.

← 4. Other providers also provide non-grants, which include sovereign loans, multilateral loans, equity investment and loans to the private sector.

← 5. DAC members adopted the grant-equivalent methodology starting from their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. See the methodological notes for further details.

← 6. Other providers also provide non-grants, which include sovereign loans, multilateral loans, equity investment and loans to the private sector.

← 7. DAC members adopted the grant-equivalent methodology starting from their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. See the methodological notes for further details.

← 8. DAC members adopted the grant-equivalent methodology starting from their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. See the methodological notes for further details.

← 9. Non-grants include sovereign loans, multilateral loans, equity investment and loans to the private sector.

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