Other official providers reporting at the aggregate level to the OECD

This chapter includes information on the estimated volume and key features of development co-operation provided by six development co-operation providers that are not members of the OECD but report regularly to the OECD their development co-operation resource flows on an aggregated or semi-aggregated manner.

Bulgaria has been providing development co-operation since it joined the European Union (EU) in 2007. Consequently, its vision of development co-operation is shaped by two key objectives: 1) its multilateral-level commitments to assist less developed countries and promote sustainable development globally; and 2) its regional-level obligation to contribute to the development of transition economies in its neighbourhood, including through its own experience. Overall, the volume of Bulgaria’s development co-operation has increased slightly over the past decade, albeit with contraction in recent years. Most of Bulgaria’s development co-operation is concentrated geographically on the Western Balkans and Black Sea region, while its humanitarian assistance is focused on regions suffering from the impacts of long-term crises and conflicts, including Afghanistan, Iraq, the Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen.

The overarching policy framework for Bulgaria’s development co-operation is determined by its national priorities, as well as its obligations under the European Consensus on Development and its commitments to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In addition, the Government’s Decree No. 234/2011 on Bulgaria’s policy on participating in international development co-operation defines the goals, principles, mechanisms and institutional framework of development co-operation and humanitarian aid. It also provides guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and auditing Bulgaria’s development co-operation.

To guide the implementation of this policy framework, Bulgaria develops medium-term programmes for its development co-operation and humanitarian aid – most recently for the period 2016-19 – detailing priorities, financial allocations and expected outcomes. Most of Bulgaria’s development co-operation goes through multilateral channels, with a key focus on environmental protection, education, sexual and reproductive health, and the protection of cultural diversity. Special attention is also paid to thematic priorities, including support for democratic and responsible institutions, protection of human rights, migration and development.

In 2019, Bulgaria provided USD 65 million (preliminary figures) in official development assistance (ODA), equivalent to 0.1% of its gross national income (GNI). This represented a decrease of 3.9% in real terms from 2018, due to a decrease in contributions to regional development banks. In 2018, Bulgaria provided USD 69 million in total ODA, equivalent to 0.11% of GNI. The government has committed to strive to achieve a 0.33% ODA/GNI ratio by 2022 and Bulgaria is committed, at the European level, to collectively achieve a 0.7% ODA/GNI ratio by 2030. Total ODA on a grant-equivalent basis has the same value as net ODA under the cash-flow methodology used in the past, as Bulgaria provides only grants.1 See the methodological notes for details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied.

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In 2018, the largest proportion of Bulgaria’s ODA (86%) continued to be provided as core contributions to multilateral organisations. Gross bilateral ODA was 14% of total ODA.

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In 2018, Bulgaria provided USD 59 million as core contributions to multilateral organisations. No information is available on earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2018, Bulgaria’s total contribution to multilateral organisations was mainly allocated to the European Union institutions.

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Note: See the list of UN acronyms.

See the section on “Geographic and thematic focus of ODA” for the geographical and thematic breakdown of bilateral allocations earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2018, Bulgaria decreased its bilateral spending compared to the previous year. It provided USD 10 million of gross bilateral, which represented a decrease of 5.4% in real terms from 2017.

In 2018, Bulgaria’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Europe. USD 4 million was allocated to Europe (38%), with Turkey as the top recipient at USD 1.5 million. A further USD 1 million was allocated Asia (14%). Forty-seven per cent of gross bilateral ODA was unspecified by region in 2018.

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Bilateral ODA by recipient country

In 2018, 44% of gross bilateral ODA went to Bulgaria’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are concentrated in Europe and the Middle East, with the exception of Afghanistan, in line with its focus on its immediate neighbourhood and its policy priorities. Fifty-three per cent of gross bilateral ODA was not allocated by country (mainly due to expenditure for in-donor refugees).

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Note: LDC: least developed country; LIC: low-income country; LMIC: lower middle-income country; UMIC: upper middle-income country; MADCTs: more advanced developing countries and territories.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 1 million of gross bilateral ODA in 2018 (9.2% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts on the States of Fragility platform.

In 2018, most of Bulgaria’s bilateral ODA was allocated to in-donor refugee costs (under other macro sectors). Investments in this area accounted for 50% of bilateral ODA commitments (USD 4.6 million). ODA for social infrastructure and services totalled 2.4 million (24% of bilateral ODA). Bilateral humanitarian aid amounted to USD 2.4 million (25% of bilateral ODA).

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The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (United Nations and Co-operation for Development Directorate, International Co-operation for Development Department) leads and co-ordinates Bulgaria’s development co-operation activities. In co-operation with line ministries, it elaborates ODA policy and annual action plans, and negotiates agreements with partner countries. In addition, the inter-institutional International Development Co-operation Council, a consultative body created in 2007, assists the Minister of Foreign Affairs in programming and promoting Bulgaria’s development co-operation.

Participant in the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Reporting to the OECD since 2010. It reports at the aggregate level.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

Liechtenstein’s development co-operation aims to assist disadvantaged people in economically vulnerable regions in Africa, Latin America and Europe, in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, through long-term relationships based on trust, responsibility and reliability. Its development co-operation is primary undertaken through the Liechtenstein Development Service (LED) – a publicly owned foundation established in 1965. Activities are focused on improving education, fostering food security, and providing microfinance for poor and vulnerable populations in a small number of countries.

The 2015 Strategy of the Liechtenstein Development Service defines education and rural development (food security) as the key sectors of Liechtenstein’s development co-operation. Human rights, social justice, gender, climate and the protection of the environment and resources are important horizontal themes. The service is currently involved in ten priority countries: Burkina Faso, the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Mali, Moldova, Peru, Senegal, Mozambique, Niger, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Most co-operation is channelled bilaterally. The Liechtenstein Development Service does not report disaggregated data to the OECD, but states on its website that around 90% is disbursed through project aid, with more than half going to least developed countries.

In 2018, Liechtenstein provided USD 26 million as official development assistance (ODA). This represents an increase of 3.8% in real terms from 2017. Total ODA on a grant-equivalent basis has the same value as net ODA under the cash-flow methodology used in the past, as Liechtenstein provides only grants. See the methodological notes for details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied.

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In 2018, Liechtenstein provided the largest proportion of its ODA bilaterally. Gross bilateral ODA was 72% of total ODA. Liechtenstein allocated 28% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations. Liechtenstein does not provide information on the geographical allocation of its development co-operation, either by country or region.

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In 2018, Liechtenstein’s bilateral spending increased compared to the previous year. It provided USD 19 million of gross bilateral ODA, which represented an increase of 8.8% in real terms from 2017.

The country does not provide information to the OECD by recipient country or sector allocation.

The LED is a private-law foundation of the government and the civil society of Liechtenstein, which has been working in development co-operation since 1965.

Liechtenstein Development Service (LED): https://www.led.li/DE/Der-LED/Leitbild/tblid/374/Default.asp

Reporting to the OECD since 2007. Reports at the aggregate level.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

Malta’s development co-operation is shaped by its development commitments at the international and European level, with special emphasis on promoting stability and prosperity in its immediate neighbourhood, in line with its foreign policy priorities. The overall volume of Malta’s development assistance has increased substantially in recent years, mostly due to rapidly increasing in-donor refugee costs. Malta’s Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for the strategic planning and implementation of its development co-operation, more than half of which is allocated bilaterally.

Together, the Official Development Assistance Policy and Framework for Humanitarian Assistance provide the overall strategic framework for Malta’s development co-operation. In 2018, Malta launched an Implementation Plan for this framework, in response to the adoption of the 2017 European Consensus on Development for implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Malta’s regional priorities are North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East.

Malta’s Implementation Plan has three main strands: 1) co-funding of official development assistance (ODA) projects as a means of increasing its ODA; 2) capacity building and scholarships; and 3) humanitarian aid funding. In January 2020, Malta released a new five-year partnership strategy with Africa, concentrating on exchange of wealth and outlining new trade and investment opportunities, forging a new role for Malta as Europe’s bridge to Africa. Malta is expanding its bilateral spending, with gross bilateral ODA that was not allocated by country standing at 96% in 2018, mainly due to increased expenditure for in-donor refugee costs.

In 2019, Malta provided USD 40 million (preliminary figures) in ODA, equivalent to 0.29% of its gross national income (GNI). This represented an increase of 22.6% in real terms from 2018, due to an increase in in-donor refugee costs. In 2018, Malta provided USD 33 million in total ODA, equivalent to 0.25% of GNI. The government has committed to strive to achieve a 0.33% ODA/GNI ratio by 2022 and Malta is committed, at the European level, to collectively achieve a 0.7% ODA/GNI ratio by 2030. Total ODA on a grant-equivalent basis has the same value as net ODA under the cash-flow methodology used in the past, as Malta provides only grants.2 See the methodological notes for details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied.

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In 2018, Malta continued to provide more than half of its ODA bilaterally. Gross bilateral ODA was 62% of total ODA, of which 3% was channelled through multilateral organisations (earmarked contributions). Malta allocated 38% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

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In 2018, Malta increased its total support (core and earmarked contributions) to multilateral organisations. It provided USD 13 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system. Of this, USD 12 million was core multilateral ODA and the rest was softly earmarked (to pooled funds and specific-purpose programmes and funds) for a specific country, region, theme or purpose.

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In 2018, Malta’s total contribution to multilateral organisations was mainly allocated to the European Union institutions, United Nations (UN) and regional development banks. These contributions together accounted for almost 95% of Malta’s total support to the multilateral system. The UN system received 8%, mainly core contributions. Out of a total volume of USD 1 million to the UN system, the top three UN recipients of Malta’s support (core and earmarked contributions) were: the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (USD 0.8 million), the United Nations Development Programme (USD 0.15 million), and the UN Refugee Agency (USD 0.13 million).

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Note: See the list of UN acronyms.

See the section on “Geographic and thematic focus of ODA” for the geographical and thematic breakdown of bilateral allocations earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2018, Malta’s bilateral spending increased compared to the previous year. It provided USD 21 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations), which represented an increase of 30.3% in real terms from 2017.

In 2018, country programmable aid was 2% of Malta’s gross bilateral ODA. In-donor refugee costs were USD 16 million in 2018, an increase of 31.1% in real terms over 2017, and represented 48% of Malta’s total net ODA.

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Note: NGO: non-governmental organisation.

In 2018, Malta channelled its bilateral ODA through the public sector, as earmarked funding.

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In 2018, Malta’s bilateral ODA was primarily unspecified by region (95%).

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Bilateral ODA by recipient country

In 2018, 4% of gross bilateral ODA went to Malta’s top 10 recipients, on par with its 2017 allocations. The share of gross bilateral ODA that was not allocated by country was 96%, mainly due to expenditure for in-donor refugees.

In terms of its sectoral or thematic focus, 15% of bilateral ODA commitments were made to social infrastructure and services. Of the remainder, 78% was to in-donor refugee costs.

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Ninety-six per cent of Malta’s ODA was unallocated by income group.

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Note: LDC: least developed country; LIC: low-income country; LMIC: lower middle-income country; UMIC: upper middle-income country; MADCTs: more advanced developing countries and territories.

Official development assistance falls within the remit of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Trade Promotion, which is the primary authority for Malta’s development authority. The ministry administers Malta’s 2018 Implementation Plan for development co-operation, in close collaboration with local non-governmental development organisations.

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Maltese Ministry of Foreign Affairs: www.gov.mt

Reporting to the OECD since 2009.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

The Russian Federation’s development co-operation aims to support sustainable social and economic development of partner countries, and the settlement of crisis situations arising out of natural disasters, man-made disasters and other emergencies, internal and international conflicts. Its official development assistance (ODA) has increased on average over the past decade and is delivered primarily through bilateral government channels. In 2018, more than two-thirds of bilateral ODA went to debt relief operations. Development co-operation is mainly implemented through the federal ministries and services. This year, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and in line with its core comparative advantage on health support, the Russian Federation has announced a series of measures for medical aid support for a range of developing countries in its region and beyond.

The Russian Federation’s development co-operation is provided in accordance with to the Concept of Russia’s State Policy in the Field of International Development Assistance, approved by the President of the Russian Federation in 2014, in line with its foreign policy, as well as with its commitments to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This co-operation mainly focuses on bilateral aid programmes in the fields of health, food security, education and science. Focus countries are those of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), but also countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Asia-Pacific, the Middle East, and the Caribbean.

In 2019, the Russian Federation provided USD 1.1 billion in total ODA, equivalent to 0.07% of gross national income (GNI). This represented an increase of 11.5% compared to the previous year. In 2018, the Russian Federation provided USD 999.1 million in total ODA, equivalent to 0.06% of gross national income (GNI). Most ODA is provided through bilateral channels, two-thirds of which constitutes debt relief operations. Total ODA on a grant-equivalent basis has the same value as net ODA under the cash-flow methodology used in the past, as the Russian Federation provides only grants.3 See the methodological notes for details on definitions and statistical methodologies applied.

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In 2018, the Russian Federation continued to provide most of its ODA bilaterally. Gross bilateral ODA was 63% of total ODA. The Russian Federation allocated 37% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

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In 2018, the Russian Federation decreased its total support to multilateral organisations by 21%, provided in the form of core multilateral support, amounting to USD 371 million (37%).

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In 2018, the Russian Federation’s total contribution to multilateral organisations was mainly allocated to the regional development banks, the United Nations (UN) and the World Bank Group. These contributions together accounted for more than 93% of the Russian Federation’s total support to the multilateral system. The UN system received 28%, only through core contributions. Out of a total volume of USD 105 million to the UN system, the top three UN recipients of the Russian Federation’s support (core contributions) were: the UN Secretariat (USD 47.1 million), the World Health Organization (USD 14.9 million) and the International Labour Organization (USD 7.6 million).

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Note: See the list of UN acronyms.

See the section on “Geographic and thematic focus of ODA” for the geographical and thematic breakdown of bilateral allocations earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2018, the Russian Federation’s bilateral spending decreased compared to the previous year. It provided USD 628 million of gross bilateral ODA, which represented a decrease of 15.8% in real terms from 2017.

In 2018, country programmable aid was 25% of the Russian Federation’s gross bilateral ODA, compared to a DAC country average of 49%.

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Note: NGO: non-governmental organisation.

In 2018, the Russian Federation channelled almost all of its bilateral ODA through the public sector.

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In 2018, the Russian Federation’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia. USD 367 million was allocated to the Caribbean and USD 174 million to Asia, accounting respectively for 58% and 28% of gross bilateral ODA. Eight per cent of gross bilateral ODA was unspecified by region in 2018.

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Bilateral ODA by recipient country

In 2018, 87% of gross bilateral ODA went to the Russian Federation’s top 10 recipients, and primarily to Cuba. The share of gross bilateral ODA that was not allocated by country was 8%.

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In 2018, least developed countries received 5.4% of the Russian Federation’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 34 million), compared with the DAC country average of 23.8%. The Russian Federation allocated the highest share of gross bilateral ODA (59%) to upper middle-income countries in 2018, noting that 8% was unallocated by income group. The Russian Federation allocated 57.1% of gross bilateral ODA to small island developing states (all of this to Cuba) in 2018, equal to USD 359 million.

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Note: LDC: least developed country; LIC: low-income country; LMIC: lower middle-income country; UMIC: upper middle-income country; MADCTs: more advanced developing countries and territories.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 111 million of gross bilateral ODA in 2018 (17.6% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts on the States of Fragility platform.

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Note: The chart represents only gross bilateral ODA that is allocated by country.

In 2018, most of the Russian Federation’s bilateral ODA was allocated to debt relief operations. Investments in this area accounted for 68% of bilateral ODA commitments (USD 424.9 million). ODA for social infrastructure and services totalled USD 54.7 million, accounting for 9% of bilateral ODA commitments. Bilateral humanitarian aid amounted to USD 15.5 million (2.5% of bilateral ODA).

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The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance, as well as other government agencies, play a leading role in formulating the Russian Federation’s development co-operation and supervising its implementation, including programmes with the World Bank, UN agencies and other members of the international development co-operation community.

Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo): http://rs.gov.ru/en/activities/1

Reporting to the OECD since 2010. It reports at the aggregate level.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

The overarching goal of Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation, as enshrined in its 2012 vision statement “Partnership for Progress and Sustainable Development”, is to promote international co-operation in line with global development commitments. Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation is mainly disbursed through bilateral channels, with the overall volume increasing slightly from 2018 reflecting an increase in its multilateral assistance after contracting in previous years. As the main institution responsible for development co-operation, the International Co-operation and Development Fund (TaiwanICDF) implements this vision through projects in partner countries.

Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation is driven by the priorities of its Four-Year National Development Plan (2017-20), which aims to develop a new economic model for sustainable development, enhance the quality of healthcare and education in recipient countries, work towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and foster a model for a global civil society. The plan builds on the 2012 vision statement “Partnership for Progress and Sustainable Development”, which highlights key objectives as follows: boosting socio-economic development and human resources in partner countries, as well as humanitarian assistance and aid in the event of natural disasters, global health crises or international refugee crises.

Furthermore, the TaiwanICDF’s operating principles are derived from Article 141 of the Constitution of Chinese Taipei, which stipulates Chinese Taipei to “cultivate good-neighbourliness with other nations, promote international cooperation, advance international justice and ensure world peace”. Priority sectors for the TaiwanICDF’s programming include environment, agriculture, education, and information and communication technology. In addition, in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis, Chinese Taipei has stepped up its health-related development co-operation, donating 10 million masks and medical devices to partners across the globe, and increasing research on screening and vaccination. Almost 90% of Chinese Taipei’s co-operation is allocated through bilateral channels, mainly through project assistance, with the remainder channelled as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

In 2019, Chinese Taipei provided USD 302 million (preliminary figures) in official development assistance (ODA), equivalent to 0.05% of its gross national income (GNI). This represented an increase of 3.3% in real terms from 2018, due to a small increase in its multilateral ODA. In 2018, Chinese Taipei provided USD 298 million in total ODA, equivalent to 0.05% of GNI. Under the cash-flow methodology used in the past, net ODA was USD 306 million in 2019. Within Chinese Taipei’s ODA on a grant-equivalent basis in 2019, 98.2% was provided in the form of grants and 1.8% in the form of non-grants.4 See the methodological notes for details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied.

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In 2018, Chinese Taipei provided the largest proportion of its ODA bilaterally. Gross bilateral ODA was 89% of total ODA. Chinese Taipei allocated 11% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations.

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In 2018, Chinese Taipei continued its level of total support (core contributions) to multilateral organisations. It provided USD 34 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, a fall of 0.3% in real terms from 2017. All of this was core multilateral ODA.

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See the section on “Geographic and thematic focus of ODA” for the geographical and thematic breakdown of bilateral allocations earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2018, Chinese Taipei’s bilateral spending decreased compared to the previous year. It provided USD 265 million of gross bilateral ODA, which represented a decrease of 15.3% in real terms from 2017.

In 2019, Chinese Taipei’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on the following countries: in Asia: Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Thailand, Turkmenistan, and Tuvalu; in Africa: Eswatini and Tunisia; in Latin America and the Caribbean: Belize, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

In June 2010, the government of Chinese Taipei promulgated the International Co-operation and Development Act, and has since adopted six related regulations. Under this Act, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) and other government institutions are authorized to give priority to commissioning the International Co-operation and Development Fund (TaiwanICDF) and other legal entities and professionals to conduct international cooperation and development affairs.

Development co-operation in Chinese Taipei falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The TaiwanICDF is in charge of implementing co-operation projects in partner countries, and also offers educational training programmes and student fellowship programmes to recipient countries.

In 2010, MOFA established the Official Development Assistance (ODA) Database, which collates information on international co-operation and development from relevant government agencies. The database is regularly updated and serves as a source of information for the International Co-operation and Development Annual Report, which is published on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Chinese Taipei Ministry of Foreign Affairs: https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/default.html

International Co-operation and Development Fund (ICDF): https://www.icdf.org.tw/mp.asp?mp=2

TaiwanICDF’s Annual Reports:

https://www.icdf.org.tw/lp.asp?ctNode=29977&CtUnit=148&BaseDSD=7&mp=2

https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/cp.aspx?n=41570175D3B41EEE

Chinese Taipei has been reporting to the OECD since 1988 for the period 1988-98 and from 2004 to date. It reports at the aggregate level.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

Thailand has a long history of engaging in development co-operation, with its first South-South co-operation projects dating back to 1973. As a regional leader for sustainable development, Thailand focuses on co-operation with neighbours in the Southeast Asia and Pacific region to advance development and fight regional disparities. Today, while most of its development co-operation is still focused on its region, Thailand’s development partnerships extend across the globe to 110 countries via a range of modalities, including extensive triangular co-operation activities.

In 2017, Thailand provided USD 133 million in total official development assistance (ODA), which saw a decrease of 20.7% from the previous year. Thailand conducts its development co-operation through the Thailand International Co-operation Agency (TICA), under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Neighbouring Countries Economic Development Cooperation Agency (NEDA), under the Ministry of Finance.

Thailand’s development co-operation is guided by its “Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy” (SEP) for a balanced and stable development. This model has guided Thailand’s own development path, which it now aims to share with others, in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Through its development co-operation, Thailand aims to help strengthen the enabling environment for the economic and social development of its partners. TICA, established in 2004, provides training courses, post-graduate scholarships, fellowships and study visits, as well as programmes to dispatch Thai experts and volunteers. Priority themes include economic development, climate change adaptation, public health, and agriculture and food security. TICA also has several bilateral and trilateral “SEP for SDGs” partnerships. In addition, NEDA, under the Ministry of Finance, provides concessional loans mostly to transport and storage projects. Just over half of Thailand’s development assistance is channelled through multilateral co-operation as core contributions, with the rest provided through bilateral channels and triangular co-operation arrangements.

While waiting for data to be updated for 2018, this profile is based on 2017 data, which were provided by the government of Thailand.

Thailand provided USD 133 million5 in ODA in 2017, a decrease of 20.7% in real terms from 2016, which was due to cuts in the bilateral aid programme. Thailand’s ODA represented 0.03% of its gross national income (GNI) in 2017.

In 2017, Thailand provided 54.6% of its ODA through multilateral channels and 45.4% was provided through bilateral co-operation. Within Thailand’s gross ODA portfolio in 2017, 60% was provided in the form of grants and 40% in the form of non-grants.6 See the methodological notes for details on definitions and statistical methodologies applied.

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In 2017, Thailand decreased its total support (core and earmarked contributions) to multilateral organisations. It provided USD 75.62 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, a fall of 37.5% in real terms from 2016.

See the section on “Geographic and thematic focus of ODA” for the geographical and thematic breakdown of bilateral allocations earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2017, 45.4% of ODA was provided bilaterally.

In 2017, bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Asia, with USD 44.2 million allocated to East Asia, and USD 11.1 million to South and Central Asia. Most of Thailand’s bilateral ODA is focused on its neighbouring countries: Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam (CLMV). However, when training schemes and triangular co-operation are included, almost 110 countries in the world benefited from Thailand’s international co-operation. In Africa, Thailand has projects in Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan.

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Note: LDC: least developed country; LIC: low-income country; LMIC: lower middle-income country; UMIC: upper middle-income country; MADCTs: more advanced developing countries and territories.

In 2017, 89.4 % of Thailand’s bilateral ODA (USD 54 million) was allocated to least developed countries, down from 92.8% in 2016. This is much higher than the 2017 average of providers beyond the DAC of 12.3%. Just over one per cent of bilateral ODA was unallocated by income group.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for Thailand’s bilateral and multilateral development co-operation policies. Its Department of International Organisations (DIO) also makes contributions to international organisations, such as the United Nations and the Asian Development Bank.

The main implementing bodies of development co-operation are TICA under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and NEDA under the Ministry of Finance. TICA is in charge of technical co-operation with countries all over the world, whereas NEDA covers financial and technical co-operation aspects at a regional level.

Furthermore, 17 line ministries (including education, health and transport) provide grants for bilateral projects and make contributions to some multilateral organisations. The Export-Import Bank (EXIM), under the Minister of Finance, offers concessional loans to developing countries, which are linked to provision of goods and services from Thai companies.

Thailand International Development Cooperation Agency (TICA): www.tica.thaigov.net. See also: http://www.tica.thaigov.net/main/en/other/4296/109956-Total-Value-of-Thai-International-Cooperation-Prog.html

Reporting to the OECD since 1988 for the period 1988-98 and since 2006 to date.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

← 1. All 2019 statistics in this paragraph are expressed in current prices and, therefore, they may differ from values in the ODA volume chart, which uses constant prices.

← 2. All 2019 statistics in this paragraph are expressed in current prices and, therefore, they may differ from values in the ODA volume chart, which uses constant prices.

← 3. All 2019 statistics in this paragraph are expressed in current prices and, therefore, they may differ from values in the ODA volume chart, which uses constant prices.

← 4. All 2019 statistics in this paragraph are expressed in current prices and, therefore, they may differ from values in the ODA volume chart, which uses constant prices. Non-grants include sovereign loans, multilateral loans, equity investment and loans to the private sector.

← 5. DAC members adopted the grant-equivalent methodology starting from their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. See the methodological notes for further details.

← 6. Non-grants include sovereign loans, multilateral loans, equity investment and loans to the private sector.

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