Annex C. Glossary

Bride price: Generally paid by the groom or the groom’s family to the bride’s family. Differs from the dowry, which is generally paid by the bride’s family to the bride or to the wedded couple.

Child marriage: Marriage before the age of 18 (UNICEF, n.d.).

Customary, religious or traditional practices or laws: The customs, religions and traditional laws or practices observed among a specific community.

Discrimination against women: Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women (CEDAW).

Domestic violence: Violence that occurs within the private sphere, between intimate partners (CEDAW).

Hegemonic masculinity: Cultural norm that continuously connects men to power and economic achievements. This pattern of masculinity, which shapes the hegemonic position, is not only adverse to equality and inclusion, but also brings disadvantages and costs for men (EIGE, n.d).

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C): All procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons (World Health Organization, 2008).

Gender gap: Disparity between women and men, and girls and boys (CEDAW).

Gender norms: Ideas about how men and women should be and act. Most such “rules” are learned and internalised early in life, which creates an inter-generational cycle of gender socialisation and stereotyping (UNICEF, UNFPA, UNDP, UN Women).

Gender-responsiveness: To create an environment that reflects an understanding of the realities of men’s and women’s lives and addresses them (UN Women).

Masculinities: Socially constructed definitions for being a man, which can change over time and from place to place. The term relates to perceived notions and ideals about how men should or are expected to behave in a given setting (UNICEF, 2005).

Missing women: This concept was first introduced by Amartya Sen in 1990. He hypothesised that over 100 million women were missing due to the excess mortality of women from inequality and neglect. The “missing women” phenomenon is captured by the shortfall in the number of girls aged 0-4 relative to their expected survival rate in the absence of sex-selective abortions, female infanticide and with similar levels of health and nutrition to boys, correcting for natural biological and physiological differences.

Reproductive health: State of complete physical, mental and social well-being (and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity) in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes (UN).

Sexual harassment: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature (UNESCO).

Unmet need for family planning: The gap between women’s reproductive intentions and their contraceptive behaviour, defined as the proportion of currently married or in-union women of reproductive age (15-49) who want to cease or delay childbearing but are not using any method of contraception (UNDP, 2018).

Violence against women: Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life (Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, 1995).

Youth not in education, employment, or training: Young people aged 15-24 who do not take part in educational or training programmes and are unemployed or outside the labour force (ILO, 2017).

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