Oslo Manual 2018

Guidelines for Collecting, Reporting and Using Data on Innovation, 4th Edition

image of Oslo Manual 2018

What is innovation and how should it be measured? Understanding the scale of innovation activities, the characteristics of innovative firms and the internal and systemic factors that can influence innovation is a prerequisite for the pursuit and analysis of policies aimed at fostering innovation. First published in 1992, the Oslo Manual is the international reference guide for collecting and using data on innovation. In this fourth edition, the manual has been updated to take into account a broader range of innovation-related phenomena as well as the experience gained from recent rounds of innovation surveys in OECD countries and partner economies and organisations. 


English Also available in: French, German, Lithuanian

Business innovation and knowledge flows

Knowledge is one of the most strategically significant resources for firms. How it is accessed and deployed is particularly important for firms engaged in innovation activities. This chapter focuses on the measurement of knowledge flows and exchanges between firms and other actors in the innovation system. It describes the conceptual framework underpinning knowledge exchange, diffusion and open innovation. This framework is used as the basis for recommendations on how to measure inbound and outbound knowledge flows, internal and external sources of knowledge for innovation, innovation collaboration partners, as well as enablers and barriers to knowledge flows. Specific recommendations are provided on capturing knowledge-based linkages between firms and higher education and public research institutions.

English Also available in: French, German

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