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OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018

Adapting to Technological and Societal Disruption

image of OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018

The OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018 is the twelfth edition in a series that biennially reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in OECD countries and a number of major partner economies. The 14 chapters within this edition look at a range of topics, notably the opportunities and challenges related to enhanced data access, the impacts of artificial intelligence on science and manufacturing, and the influence of digitalisation on research and innovation. The report also discusses the shortcomings of current policy measures, how the Sustainable Development Goals are re-shaping STI policy agendas, and the need for new - more flexible and agile - approaches to technology governance and policy design. While these disruptive changes challenge policy makers in a number of ways, the digital revolution underway also provides solutions for better policy targeting, implementation and monitoring.

This report relies on the latest academic work in the field, research and innovation statistical data, as well as data on wider trends and issues. It makes extensive use of country responses to the 2017 EC OECD STI policy survey (https://stip.oecd.org) and features contributions by renowned experts and academics to broaden the debate and provide more personal, sometimes controversial, angles to it.

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STI policies for delivering on the Sustainable Development Goals

Science, technology and innovation (STI) policies play an important role in helping countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, STI policies and frameworks must embed the SDGs to address themeffectively. This chapter identifies and successively discusses in five sections the priority areas for action to embed the SDGs more fully within STI policy frameworks. This includes (1) support for “mission-oriented” R&D partnerships between public research, business and other stakeholders relating to specific challenges; (2) stronger support for interdisciplinary research that is inclusive of gender and citizens; (3) international STI co-operation on “global public goods”, such as climate, biodiversity and global public health; (4) closer alignment of national-level STI governance structures with the emerging “global governance framework” for the SDGs; and (5) seizing the opportunities of digital technologies to address the SDGs. Finally, the chapter stresses the need to embrace digital technologies, including the necessary data infrastructures and policies, to help address the SDGs.

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