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OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018

Adapting to Technological and Societal Disruption

image of OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018

The OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018 is the twelfth edition in a series that biennially reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in OECD countries and a number of major partner economies. The 14 chapters within this edition look at a range of topics, notably the opportunities and challenges related to enhanced data access, the impacts of artificial intelligence on science and manufacturing, and the influence of digitalisation on research and innovation. The report also discusses the shortcomings of current policy measures, how the Sustainable Development Goals are re-shaping STI policy agendas, and the need for new - more flexible and agile - approaches to technology governance and policy design. While these disruptive changes challenge policy makers in a number of ways, the digital revolution underway also provides solutions for better policy targeting, implementation and monitoring.

This report relies on the latest academic work in the field, research and innovation statistical data, as well as data on wider trends and issues. It makes extensive use of country responses to the 2017 EC OECD STI policy survey (https://stip.oecd.org) and features contributions by renowned experts and academics to broaden the debate and provide more personal, sometimes controversial, angles to it.

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Enhanced access to publicly funded data for STI

Enhanced access to data can be a key enabler for science, technology and innovation (STI). It can support new scientific insights across disciplines, contribute to reproducibility of scientific results, and facilitate innovation. However, many countries have yet to develop comprehensive approaches to enhance access to data. This chapter focuses on policy concerns and potential policy action to enhance access to publicly funded research data for STI. It starts with an overview of public research data. It then outlines the specific policy dilemmas concerning enhanced data sharing. These include: (i) fostering data governance for trust and balancing the benefits and risks of data sharing; (ii) developing and implementing technical standards and practices; (iii) defining responsibility and ownership of data; (iv) changing recognition and reward systems to encourage scientists to share data; (v) implementing business models and long term funding for data provision; and (vi) developing human capital and skills to support data sharing and analysis. Finally, the chapter draws policy implications for the future by outlining two possible scenarios.

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