OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016

image of OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016

The fully revamped and re-titled OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook is a biennial publication that aims to inform policy makers and analysts on recent and future changes in global science, technology and innovation (STI) patterns and their potential implications on and for national and international STI policies. Based on the most recent data available, the report provides comparative analysis of new policies and instruments being used in OECD countries and a number of major emerging economies (including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa) to boost the contribution of science and innovation to growth and to global and social challenges. In this edition, detailed country and policy profiles are available on line.

English Also available in: French, Spanish


Spain's economy continues its recovery: in 2015, the GDP of Spain grew by 3.2%, significantly above the euro area average. Labour productivity has been catching-up but potential for further improvement remains constrained. Growth prospects remain repressed due to lasting effects of the crisis and other structural factors of the Spanish economy (e.g. weak business dynamics). In terms of social inclusion, serious challenges remain. The unemployment rate of 22% of the labour force in 2015 is far larger than the OECD average. Unemployment among youth is among the highest in OECD countries: 48% in 2015. In terms of science, technology and innovation, Spain's significant progress in increasing R&D as a share of GDP in the 1990s and 2000s was curtailed and even reversed following the economic crisis. In particular, public R&D investment decreased steadily over the period 2009-14 at an annual growth rate of 3.4%. The trend has been reversed in 2015 with an increase of 2,1%. GERD intensity (relative to GDP) remains low: about half the OECD average. Major STI policy priorities are: reinforcing the public research system, addressing societal challenges, improving policy governance, business innovation, and human resources and skills. The current strategy and policy frameworks for STI seek to address these concerns. The main actions are defined in the Spanish Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation (SSSTI) (2013-20) and the Spanish National Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation (2013-16), both approved by the government in February 2013.


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