OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016

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The fully revamped and re-titled OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook is a biennial publication that aims to inform policy makers and analysts on recent and future changes in global science, technology and innovation (STI) patterns and their potential implications on and for national and international STI policies. Based on the most recent data available, the report provides comparative analysis of new policies and instruments being used in OECD countries and a number of major emerging economies (including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa) to boost the contribution of science and innovation to growth and to global and social challenges. In this edition, detailed country and policy profiles are available on line.

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Following the severe 2008 recession, Hungary’s economy has expanded strongly, based on export recovery and macroeconomic stimulus. However, Hungary’s income per capita remains among the lowest in the OECD area. This partly reflects a low level of productivity (productivity growth has decelerated since the crisis) and weak business investment in capital and human resources. While growing in recent years, R&D intensity in Hungary, at 1.37% of GDP in 2014, is still significantly below the OECD average, due to a lack of both private and public investment. Hungary has a strong industrial sector. However, business innovation capacities are mostly concentrated in foreign-owned companies and some large domestic companies. Public investment in research displays 33% of GERD (comparable to other European countries), and the national priorities are strongly influenced by EU programmes, especially structural funds. The Government is committed to strengthen the research and higher education system by building a strategic framework and implementing reforms. In June 2013, the government adopted the National Research and Development and Innovation Strategy (2013-20). This Strategy aims to stimulate STI demand, establish an efficient support and funding system, and develop an ecosystem for start-ups. Given the importance of EU programmes in Hungary, the National Smart Specialisation Strategy and all documents related to structural and social funds also have a key structuring effect on STI activities. The 2014 Higher Education Strategy also sets ambitious targets in terms of improving teaching and learning, developing word-class research, and enhancing higher education’s contribution to innovation and economic development.


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