OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016

image of OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016

The fully revamped and re-titled OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook is a biennial publication that aims to inform policy makers and analysts on recent and future changes in global science, technology and innovation (STI) patterns and their potential implications on and for national and international STI policies. Based on the most recent data available, the report provides comparative analysis of new policies and instruments being used in OECD countries and a number of major emerging economies (including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa) to boost the contribution of science and innovation to growth and to global and social challenges. In this edition, detailed country and policy profiles are available on line.

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Following three decades of an unprecedented high rate of economic growth, the People’s Republic of China has entered into the so‑called “New Normal” phase of growth, which highlights key transitions and shifts in policy focuses from fast growth to sustainable growth, from rural to urban, from public sector to private sector, from investment to consumption and from manufacturing to services. Succeeding in the transition to a new growth trajectory will require an unwavering commitment not only to structural reforms but also to making science, technology and innovation (STI) a key engine for growth. China has steadily increased STI investment for decades, with its GERD reaching 2.05% of GDP in 2014, surpassing the intensity of the EU28 (and EU15) as a whole. Since it launched reform and began opening up to the outside world, China has set up numerous science and technology (S&T) programmes and foundations, which have played a significant role in enhancing the country’s scientific and technological strength, improving its competitiveness, and supporting economic and social development. However, recognising that there is significant duplication, dispersion and inefficiency in these programmes, as well as fragmentation of S&T resource allocation, China initiated a new round of reform of its S&T system under the National Innovation-Driven Development Strategy first proposed in 2012 and then comprehensively revised in May 2016. The 13th Five-Year Plan, launched in March 2016, and the following 13th Five-Year Plan on Scientific and Technological Innovation, released in August 2016, have established a set of targets and policies for S&T development for 2016‑20 (e.g. R&D intensity to reach 2.5% of GDP by 2020). Consequently, public budgets are forecasted to increase in the coming years, but at a lower pace than in previous years.


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