OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016

image of OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016

The fully revamped and re-titled OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook is a biennial publication that aims to inform policy makers and analysts on recent and future changes in global science, technology and innovation (STI) patterns and their potential implications on and for national and international STI policies. Based on the most recent data available, the report provides comparative analysis of new policies and instruments being used in OECD countries and a number of major emerging economies (including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa) to boost the contribution of science and innovation to growth and to global and social challenges. In this edition, detailed country and policy profiles are available on line.

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Building a science and innovation culture

Innovation requires developing and mobilising a broad range of skills throughout the workplace and society (Hanel, 2005; OECD, 2010; Toner, 2011). Considering the complex nature of the work required for innovation, desirable “skills” of individual and groups might be best understood as “capabilities” -- including the ability to synthesise relevant knowledge (from theoretical to practical expertise and know-how) and to think creatively -- and behavioural and social traits such as self-confidence, risk taking, leadership, teamwork, attitudes towards change. These capabilities and traits must operate within social contexts conducive to the growth and operation of such capabilities. Many countries seek to build “cultures” of science and innovation that will help develop these capacities in order to build public participation and support for science, as well as foster entrepreneurship. There is no single ideal “science and innovation culture” as it is the nature of national science cultures to be diverse (Jasanoff 2009). Yet many countries share this broader objective and aim to engage it through public policy.


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