OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011

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This tenth edition of the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard builds on the OECD’s 50 years of indicator development to present major world trends in knowledge and innovation. It analyses a wide set of indicators of science, technology, globalisation and industrial performance in OECD and major non-OECD countries (notably Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa) and includes some experimental indicators that provide insight into new areas of policy interest.

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R&D expenditure

Expenditure on research and development (R&D) is one of the most widely used measures of innovation inputs. R&D intensity (R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP) is used as an indicator of an economy’s relative degree of investment in generating new knowledge. Several countries have adopted “targets” for this indicator to help focus policy decisions and public funding. Israel has the highest R&D intensity, with gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) in excess of 4% of gross domestic product (GDP). The OECD average stands at 2.3%. The United States accounts for 41% of OECD-area GERD, followed by Japan with 15% and Germany with 8%. China’s domestic expenditure on R&D is the equivalent of 12% of total OECD GERD; it is therefore the world’s third largest R&D performer.

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