OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008

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The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation in OECD countries and a number of major non-member economies including Brazil, Chile, China, Israel, Russia and South Africa. Using the latest available data and indicators, the book examines topics high on the agenda of science and innovation policy makers, including science and innovation performance; trends in national science, technology and innovation policies; and practices to assess the socio-economic impacts of public research. This volume also provides an individual profile of the science and innovation performance of each country in relation to its national context and current policy challenges.

English Also available in: French


Despite strong economic growth over the past decade, labour productivity growth has been modest. GDP per hour worked expanded by 0.9% a year between 2001 and 2006, compared to the OECD average of 1.8%. The government’s National Reform Programme aims to boost productivity and sustainable growth through reforms in product and labour markets, higher education and human capital, investment in infrastructure and research and innovation.

Spain spent 1.2% of GDP on R&D in 2006, significantly below the EU27 (1.76%) and OECD (2.26%) averages. However, this is a substantial increase from the levels of the mid-1990s. The business sector finances 47% of gross domestic expenditure on R&D; the government finances 42.5%, 5.9% is financed from abroad and 4.5% from other national sources. Boosting R&D and innovation in the business sector is a challenge as most industries are relatively low-technology and most firms are small or medium-sized.

English Also available in: French


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