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OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008

image of OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008

The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation in OECD countries and a number of major non-member economies including Brazil, Chile, China, Israel, Russia and South Africa. Using the latest available data and indicators, the book examines topics high on the agenda of science and innovation policy makers, including science and innovation performance; trends in national science, technology and innovation policies; and practices to assess the socio-economic impacts of public research. This volume also provides an individual profile of the science and innovation performance of each country in relation to its national context and current policy challenges.

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Norway

Norway’s economy continues to expand, led by global demand for energy resources, but its ability to boost longer-term growth and prepare for a future decline in oil reserves will hinge on continued productivity gains supported by innovation. The country’s performance in science and innovation is mixed. Scientific output is high: with 788 scientific articles per million population in 2005, it leads the United Kingdom (756) and Germany (535), but trails Sweden (1 108). The quality of Norwegian science is high by international standards in several areas: marine, freshwater and land-based biology and agriculture; medicine and dentistry; Earth sciences; physics; technology; and mathematics. It also has higher than average shares of human resources in science and technology and R&D personnel. About 30% of all R&D in Norway takes place in the higher education system, mainly universities and specialised university institutions, and funding has increased since the 1990s.

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