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OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008

image of OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008

The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation in OECD countries and a number of major non-member economies including Brazil, Chile, China, Israel, Russia and South Africa. Using the latest available data and indicators, the book examines topics high on the agenda of science and innovation policy makers, including science and innovation performance; trends in national science, technology and innovation policies; and practices to assess the socio-economic impacts of public research. This volume also provides an individual profile of the science and innovation performance of each country in relation to its national context and current policy challenges.

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China

China’s R&D intensity reached 1.42% of GDP in 2006, thanks to a rapid, decade-long increase in R&D expenditure. The government intends to have R&D intensity reach 2% by 2010. Owing to the market-oriented reforms of the R&D system since 1985, industry’s share of GERD rose to 69% in 2006, a similar level to that in Finland, Germany and Sweden. China has the world’s second largest stock of human resources for science and technology (HRST), just after the United States and ahead of Japan. Its share of university graduates with degrees in science and engineering is 39.2%, almost twice that of the OECD average. On the other hand, the overall level of tertiary attainment is still quite low, even by developing country standards, and the number of researchers per 1 000 total employment is very low, at about one-tenth of the level of Finland, the world leader.

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