Innovation in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Comparing National Innovation Systems at the Sectoral Level

This publication examines the innovation system in pharmaceutical biotechnology in eight OECD countries - Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain. The report summarises the results of in-depth studies, providing a comparative analysis of participating countries' performance in science and innovation in biopharmaceuticals. It highlights specific characteristics of the national biopharmaceutical innovation systems in terms of their international openness and the specific role of demand-side factors in the innovation process. Major systemic failures affecting the functioning of the biopharmaceutical innovation systems are identified. Based on rich evidence, the report draws policy recommendations to foster innovation in biopharmaceuticals advocating an integrated policy approach.

English