Innovation in Energy Technology

Comparing National Innovation Systems at the Sectoral Level

image of Innovation in Energy Technology

This report reviews efforts under way in a number of OECD countries to advance innovation in energy technology, with a particular focus on hydrogen fuel cells. It compares energy innovation systems in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Norway, the United Kingdom and United States to identify the roles of government, industry, universities and other public research organisations in the innovation process. It also examines the policies governments are implementing to finance needed research and development and to stimulate market demand for innovative energy technologies.



United States: Automotive Fuel Cells

The U.S. transportation sector remains heavily dependent on petroleum for more than 96% of its fuel, consuming 13.4 million barrels per day (MBPD) in 2003. Highway vehicles account for three-quarters of all transportation energy use, with automobiles and light trucks alone using nearly 60% of all transportation energy (Figure 11.1). By the year 2025, petroleum consumption in the sector (including on-and off-highway, air, rail, and marine) is projected to increase by 49% to 20 MBPD. Currently, over half (55%) of the petroleum used in the United States is imported, and the imported share is expected to grow to 68% by 2025.


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