Frascati Manual 2015

Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development

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The internationally recognised methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics, the OECD's Frascati Manual is an essential tool for statisticians  and science and innovation policy makers worldwide. It includes definitions of basic concepts, data collection guidelines, and classifications for compiling R&D statistics.  This updated edition contains improved guidelines reflecting recent changes in the way R&D takes place and is funded and the wider use of R&D statistics and definitions. It provides new chapters dedicated to the pratical aspects of collecting R&D data in different sectors, as well as new guidance on capturing different aspects of public support for R&D such as tax incentives.

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Measuring R&D: Methodologies and procedures

This chapter discusses how to measure research and experimental development (R&D) activity, noting that is highly concentrated, specially in the Business enterprise sector, but it is also widely spread across the economy. These characteristics give rise to measurement challenges as do the disparate uses of R&D statistics. These include the use of aggregate statistics for policy analysis, policy evaluation and target setting, the use of R&D expenditures as input to a capital stock of R&D in the System of National Accounts (SNA), and unit level analysis of R&D activity. Measurement, whether through surveys, the use of administrative data, or combinations of the two, requires a statistical infrastructure including registers of institutions, methodological support, means of linking data sets to enhance analytical capacity, and quality assurance standards. All of these are discussed, but, recognising that countries have quite different infrastructures and measurement challenges no specific formal recommendations are made. Sources are provided to support the development of statistical measurement.

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