Frascati Manual 2015

Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development

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The internationally recognised methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics, the OECD's Frascati Manual is an essential tool for statisticians  and science and innovation policy makers worldwide. It includes definitions of basic concepts, data collection guidelines, and classifications for compiling R&D statistics.  This updated edition contains improved guidelines reflecting recent changes in the way R&D takes place and is funded and the wider use of R&D statistics and definitions. It provides new chapters dedicated to the pratical aspects of collecting R&D data in different sectors, as well as new guidance on capturing different aspects of public support for R&D such as tax incentives.

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Measurement of R&D personnel: Persons employed and external contributors

This chapter provides guidance on defining, identifying and measuring research and experimental development (R&D) personnel, the people who perform R&D, the highly trained scientists and engineers (researchers), technicians with high levels of technical experience and training, and supporting staff who contribute directly to carrying out R&D projects and activities in R&D-performing statistical units. A distinction is made between internal R&D personnel, those employed by the statistical unit, and external R&D personnel. The activities that characterise R&D personnel are listed. Definitions are provided for R&D personnel, external R&D personnel, researchers, technicians and equivalent staff, other supporting staff, full-time equivalent (FTE) of R&D personnel, and the headcount (HC) of R&D personnel. The role of doctorate and master’s students as R&D personnel is discussed. Examples are provided to assist in making decisions about who are to be included as R&D personnel and who not. The resulting statistics on the number, availability and demographic characteristics of human resources that contribute to R&D activities are used by researchers and by policy makers concerned with the sustainability of the R&D enterprise.

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